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Artikel

Publieke waarden of publiek conflict: democratische grondslagen voor de slimme stad

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden public values, smart city, citizen participation, anti-technological protest, democratic legitimacy
Auteurs Prof. dr. Liesbet van Zoonen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public values and citizen participation are key terms in smart city discourse that are propagated by all its actors, from governments to corporations and civil society. Nevertheless, the design and development of smart cities are hardly ‘public’ as some publics and some forms of participation are never included. This is particularly visible in current protests against a key enabling technology for smart cities, 5G. These contestations tend to be considered ill-informed and irrational, while their methods are seen as conflictual rather than helpful. In this article the author argues that the public value approach to smart cities is rooted in a deliberative perspective of democracy, while the tensions that are produced by 5G and other forms of anti-technological protest are better understood as part of agonistic democracy. Such conflicts about the new smart technologies that are currently hidden from public sight need to be articulated and constructed as contentious issues for electoral politics, in order for the smart city to acquire its democratic legitimacy.


Prof. dr. Liesbet van Zoonen
Prof. dr. E.A. van Zoonen is academisch directeur van het LDE Centrum voor Bold Cities van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, www.bold-cities.nl.
Artikel

Over het recht op de smart city

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden smart city, right to the city, technological solutionism, participation, disorder
Auteurs Dr. Maša Galič
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While smart city initiatives claim to be ‘citizen-focused’ or ‘citizen-centric’, there are several troubling aspects of how citizenship and social relations are produced within them. First, they prioritize technological solutions to social and urban problems from the perspective of businesses and states, rather than serving local communities. With a focus on digital technology, they also exclude a wide range of marginalized publics from the possibility to participate in the smart city and only rarely address issues of social differences in cities. The smart city thus creates new or exacerbates existing challenges to the possibility of all city dwellers to fully enjoy urban life with all of its services and advantages, as well as taking direct part in the management of cities – in other words, it creates challenges for ‘the right to the city’. In this article, the author thus explores the notion of the right to the city in order to inform and recast the smart city in emancipatory and empowering ways, one that would work for the benefit of all citizens and not just selected populations.


Dr. Maša Galič
Dr. M. Galič is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society (TILT) van de Universiteit Tilburg.
Artikel

Van de gesloten smart city naar een open slimme stad

Lessen uit Quayside, Toronto

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Toronto, Quayside, Sidewalk Labs, open data, open smart city
Auteurs Saskia Naafs MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The recently cancelled Quayside smart city project in Toronto by Sidewalk Labs is an example of a top-down, tech-driven, intransparant model of a smart city, where government and citizens got sidetracked in the planning process. This article analyses what went wrong and proposes an alternative approach. Experts in the field – from data scientists to philosophers, sociologists and activists – propose a different kind of smart city. The open smart city is based on principles of open data, public digital infrastructure, and civic participation. It uses technology to strengthen public values, civic participation and human rights, instead of undermining them.


Saskia Naafs MSc
S. Naafs MSc is stadssocioloog en strategisch adviseur bij het Atelier Rijksbouwmeester in Den Haag.
Artikel

Over Cyber Forecasting-toernooien

Naar een effectiever gebruik van gekwantificeerde voorspelllingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Auteurs Regina Joseph MSc, Dr. Marieke Klaver, Dr. Judith van de Kuijt e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Threats, vulnerabilities, and new forms of attack within the cyber domain develop rapidly. To keep up with and respond to these trends, cyber security professionals must demonstrate reaction velocity, accuracy and a high tolerance for complexity. Publicly available information (PAI) can serve as an important aid to personnel engaged in cyber security analysis. However, evaluation of cyber analytical capacity – a pre-requisite for any measurement of quality or improvement – is still inchoate. This article covers the concept and design of an initial phase of research begun in October 2018 in The Netherlands to measure and improve cyber analysis techniques. The research program features a forecasting tournament to record participants’ probabilistic estimates on future cyber outcomes based exclusively on PAI knowledge acquisition. This phase of research seeks to address whether analysts’ predictions are more accurate in certain subjects within the cyber domain than in others and to assess how predictive accuracy in the cyber domain compares to accuracy in other domains in which forecasting tournaments have been organized.


Regina Joseph MSc
R. Joseph M.Sci. is oprichter van de denktank Sibylink, gevestigd in Den Haag.

Dr. Marieke Klaver
Dr. M. Klaver is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO.

Dr. Judith van de Kuijt
Dr. J. van de Kuijt is als onderzoeker verbonden aan TNO.

Dr. Diederik van Luijk
Dr. D. van Luijk is werkzaam bij het Nationaal Cyber Security Centrum van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.
Artikel

En wat als het misgaat?

De omzetting en herroeping van toezicht op justitiabelen in de samenleving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden breach decision-making, revocation, recall, conditional release, community service order
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The decision to revoke or recall a conditional sanction is barely researched in criminal justice research, despite the interests involved for the offender as well as society. This article reflects on some results from a comparative research project on breach decision-making (COST Action on Offender Supervision in Europe). Using Hawkins’ concept of serial decision-making, the interdependence of early stage and final stage decision makers is highlighted. The significant power exercised by early stage actors raises the issue of the need to ensure credibility of community sanctions and appropriate due process protections, without reducing their discretion so much that they cannot perform their role of supporting the offender to complete the supervisory order successfully.


Prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. mr. dr. M.M. Boone is als hoogleraar criminologie en vergelijkende penologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Intelligence leadership

Leidinggeven in het schemerdonker tussen geheim en openbaar

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence leadership, Intelligence and security services, Transparency, Political accountability, Reform
Auteurs Prof. dr. Paul Abels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article highlights the special position of European heads of intelligence and security services. In the search for important characteristics of intelligence leadership through time, a comparison is made between five services from five different countries (Germany, France, the Netherlands, Greece and Spain). Using Anglo-American reference information and a leadership typology developed by intelligence expert Robarge, the consecutive heads of service in these European countries are profiled and categorized. This leads to a picture that has always been dominated by males, a strong military presence and many end-of-career heads. Their influence on the internal and external service development was often substantial, with alternate appointments of inside and outside reformers. The scale of openness usually constituted a struggle with both the inside and outside world. Nowadays, the heads are being confronted with new challenges and demands, which leads to the conclusion that a new form of ‘distributed’ or ‘interdependent’ leadership is required, in which old reflexes to appoint people with an operational, military or police background as heads of these services are no longer self-evident.


Prof. dr. Paul Abels
Prof. dr. P.A.H.M. Abels is bijzonder hoogleraar Governance of Intelligence and Security Services bij het Institute for Security and Global Affairs (ISGA) van de Universiteit Leiden. Hij is ook raadadviseur bij de Nationaal Coördinator Terrorismebestrijding en Veiligheid (NCTV). Dit artikel kwam tot stand met medewerking van Julia van Heesewijk, Roderik Stol, Stefanos K. Skafidas, Robin van der Burgh, Giandrick Dabian en Marijn Adams.
Artikel

Toezicht in de Wiv 2017

Kansen en uitdagingen voor een effectief en sterk toezichtstelsel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017, Oversight, Effectiveness, Safeguards, Mass Surveillance
Auteurs Mr. dr. Mireille Hagens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The new Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 has generated a lot of criticism in The Netherlands. Although the act was adopted in parliament in July 2017, the implementation will take place in May 2018. Beforehand an advisory referendum will give the public the opportunity to express their opinion on the new act: the modernisation of the investigatory powers of the services and the strengthening of the necessary safeguards and oversight mechanisms. Both have met with their share of criticism. In this paper the focus is on the enhanced oversight mechanism. It is argued that although different choices could have been made regarding the organisation of oversight, the new system fulfills the requirements set by the European Court of Human Rights. The real question is whether the new act provides for effective and strong oversight in practice to ensure a proper balance between national security and privacy protection in this digital era. The opportunities and challenges are explored.


Mr. dr. Mireille Hagens
Mr. dr. M. Hagens is senior-onderzoeker bij de Commissie van Toezicht op de Inlichtingen- en Veiligheidsdiensten (CTIVD) en gastonderzoeker bij de faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie van de Universiteit Utrecht. Deze bijdrage is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

Terrorisme- en radicaliseringsstudies

Een explosief onderzoeksveld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden terrorism studies, radicalization studies, definition, analysis levels, pitfalls
Auteurs Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Studying terrorism and radicalization is quite problematic because of a lack of reliable sources. Finding out what motivates terrorists often boils down to educated guessing. The author describes the search for an academic definition of terrorism and summarizes the development of this discipline since the 1970s, thereby distinguishing research on three levels: macro, micro and meso. While before 9/11 few academics were involved in this research field, it ‘exploded’ thereafter. Important factor contributing to this expansion is the greater availability of government funds and relevant data for this type of research. However, the growth of this discipline isn’t just good news, researchers should be aware of a number of pitfalls identified as the proximity to government power, too much self-confidence (hybris) of researchers pretending to have designed a ‘unified theory’, the abundance of funds for this type of research, resulting in a lot of low-quality research, and finally the politicization of the subject, which could limit the academic freedom.


Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf is als hoogleraar History of International Relations & Global Governance verbonden aan de faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Politie en beeldtechnologie: gebruik, opbrengsten en uitdagingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden CCTV, bodycams, ANPR, smart cameras, police
Auteurs Drs. S. Flight
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch National Police deploys video technology, for instance body-worn video camera (bodycams), drones, helicopters with cameras, and mobile units for surveillance. Four types of video technology are discussed: CCTV, bodycams, smart cameras and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR). These four types will be the most prominent applications of visual technology in the coming years, according to ‘Vision on sensing’, published in 2015 by the National Police. The potential benefits of video images for prosecution and in the courtroom are discussed in a separate paragraph, followed by a survey of recent changes in the laws regulating this technology.


Drs. S. Flight
Drs. Sander Flight is zelfstandig adviseur en onderzoeker op het terrein van veiligheid en criminaliteit.
Artikel

Dublin: blind interstatelijk vertrouwen is een fictie

Over inwilligingspercentages en overdrachten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden asylum seekers, Dublin Regulation, mistrust, distribution key, solidarity
Auteurs Mr. R. Bruin, Mr. S.G. Kok en Prof. mr. dr. A. Terlouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In light of the high numbers of persons entering the EU via the southern borders and the current uneven distribution of asylum seekers (five Member States of the EU currently received in 2014 more than 70% of the total amount of refugees), there is a clear and urgent need for the EU ministers to ensure a fairer distribution of asylum seekers within the EU. The Dublin Regulation’s system of allocating the responsibility for an asylum request does not offer a solution for this challenge, also because Member States cannot have a blind faith in the standards of a number of states for processing asylum requests. There are significant differences in the application of the law and the procedures.


Mr. R. Bruin
Mr. René Bruin is Head of Office UNHCR te Den Haag.

Mr. S.G. Kok
Mr. Stefan Kok is docent aan het Instituut voor Immigratierecht van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. mr. dr. A. Terlouw
Prof. mr. dr. Ashley Terlouw is hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Participatie, veiligheid en beeldvorming van Romaminderheden

Een kritische reflectie op het Nederlandse beleid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Roma, Europeanization, European minority policies, securitization, the Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. H. van Baar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article critically evaluates the recent developments in Dutch policy formation regarding Roma minorities from the perspective of the increased attention paid to their position at European level. First, the author discusses the so-called ‘Europeanization of Roma representation’, that is the post-1989 representation of the Roma as a European minority and the simultaneous large-scale, Europe-wide devising of development, inclusion, and empowerment programs meant for them. Thereafter, the author argues that some of the risks of the Roma’s Europeanization – such as the isolation and culturalization of policy formation and the diminishing of democratic accountability – have also and ambiguously affected Dutch policies meant for Roma, Sinti and caravan dwellers. By means of a brief analysis of recent policy developments, the author demonstrates that the Dutch shift towards a policy that, at least in name, encourages social participation, has actually tended to result into a one-sided focus on the Roma as a ‘problem group’ and ‘security threat’.


Dr. H. van Baar
Dr. Huub van Baar is verbonden aan het Institut für Politikwissenschaft, Justus-Liebig Universität Gieβen, en aan het Amsterdam Centre for Globalisation Studies, Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Een nationaal mensenrechteninstituut: door de bomen het bos weer zien?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Netherlands Human Rights Institute, protection of human rights, Equal Treatment Commission, civil society organisations, legislation
Auteurs P.B.C.D.F. van Sasse van Ysselt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    At October the 2nd, the Netherlands Human Rights Institute (NHRI) opened its doors in Utrecht. The NHRI has been established by law, which entered into force October the 1st. The object of the Institute is to protect human rights in the Netherlands and promote the observance of such rights. In order to achieve this goal, the Institute has many tasks and competences, such as advising on legislation and regulations, draft legislation and policy, conducting inquiries and investigations, reporting and making recommendations. It will also encourage the ratification, implementation and observance of treaties, guidelines and recommendations. In addition, the NHRI will collaborate with national, European and international institutions and civil society organisations engaged in the protection of one or more human rights and increase awareness and knowledge of human rights through information, teaching and publicity. Finally, the Institute will take over the present duties of the Equal Treatment Commission, namely investigating whether discrimination as referred to in the equal treatment legislation has taken or is taking place and publishing its findings on this. This will be the responsibility of a separate division of the Institute. This article describes the background of the establishment of the NHRI, elaborates the different tasks and considers what is necessary for the NHRI’s effectiveness.


P.B.C.D.F. van Sasse van Ysselt
Mr. Paul van Sasse van Ysselt, BA is werkzaam bij de directie Constitutionele Zaken en Wetgeving van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en is gastdocent/-onderzoeker grondrechten aan de VU Amsterdam.
Artikel

Pionieren en formaliseren

De internationale vervlechting van het politiewerk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden European police cooperation, formalisation, institutionalisation, security entrepeneurs, international policework
Auteurs J. van Buuren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    International police cooperation is characterised by sometimes conflicting dynamics between informal security entrepreneurship and formal institutionalisation and centralisation. In spite of claims in governance literature that states are losing their commanding heights due to internationalisation, experience shows that states are in fact able and willing to control and steer international police networks. Whether matching processes of politicisation and bureaucratisation conflict with operational effectiveness remains to be seen. Both in politics and science the institutional approach is dominant in describing, explaining and evaluating international police cooperation. This runs the risk of losing sight of the ‘logic of practicality’ that in reality is very important for innovations and developments regarding cross-border cooperation. In the logical of practicality, dimensions like intuition, creativity, trust and perseverance are more important than rules, policy preferences or organisational charts.


J. van Buuren
Drs. Jelle van Buuren is als promovendus en universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculteit Campus Den Haag van de Universiteit Leiden.

    The central question of this article is how situational crime prevention (SCP) might be of help in preventing terrorism. Newman and Clarke's Policing Terrorism is confronted with investigations by the Dutch National Crime Squad, leading to the conclusion that Newman and Clarke have too narrow a scope on policing and preventing terrorism, in particular where it comes to the role of criminal investigation, which they narrow down to the phases immediately before and after a terrorist attack. Case files show that offender-oriented criminal investigation has a central role in the prevention of terrorism in several respects. First, criminal investigators intervene in earlier phases of terrorist preparation. Second, counter-terrorism targets a wide range of terrorist offences (e.g. terrorist financing and jihad travel) which often have no direct link to a terrorist assault plan. ‘Proactive repression’ seems an adequate term to characterise the preventive work of criminal investigators in this field. In turn, this work offers insights that might be of help in developing an SCP-approach to terrorism. Such an approach should start with recognizing that there is a diversity of terrorist offences and that each offence demands a crime specific script.


A.W. Weenink
Dr. Anton Weenink is als senior onderzoeker werkzaam bij het Korps landelijke politiediensten (KLPD). Hij schreef deze bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.

    The main difference between various forms of prevention of organised crime is between primary and secondary prevention on the one hand and tertiary prevention on the other. The latter is directed at diminishing an already existing problem. This article deals with social conditions which promote the arising of organised crime and with relevant specifically vulnerable factors and sectors (primary and secondary prevention). The authors argue that in a way every society gets the organised crime it deserves. Organising and regulating society often has the side effect of creating opportunities for individuals and groups which gain profit by exploiting the illegal markets that arise as a consequence of regulations. Whether the desire for regulation or the prevention of (organised) crime should prevail is a topic for political and social debate.


A.C. Berghuis
Drs. Bert Berghuis is als raadadviseur verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving & Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie te Den Haag.

J. de Waard
Mr. drs. Jaap de Waard is als senior beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving & Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie te Den Haag.
Artikel

Terrorismebestrijding en securitisering

Een rechtssociologische verkenning van de neveneffecten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2011
Auteurs B.A. de Graaf en Q. Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article offers an analysis of the side effects caused by the increased counterterrorism measures adapted in Dutch law and public policy after 9/11. Taking clues from Foucault's thinking on securitisation and Beck's risk society, it is argued that focus, referent subject and object of security measures and deployment of counterterrorism laws have shifted from the concrete individual to society and risk prevention as a whole (1), that this shift induces function creep (2) and a much quicker deployment of measures, resulting in an increasing suspect population (3). Rather than arguing against the legality and legitimacy of these measures, the authors analyse the epistemological shift in reasoning and unpack the various probabilistic arguments (as opposed to evidence-based arguments) behind the wave of securitisation after 9/11 - resulting in a lack of knowledge about, transparency and accountability of the generated side effects.


B.A. de Graaf
Dr. Beatrice de Graaf (universitair hoofddocent) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).

Q. Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman (senioronderzoeker) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).
Titel

De perverse effecten van het Haags Adoptieverdrag

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 07 2008
Trefwoorden kind, Adoptie, Interlandelijke adoptie, Verdrag, Europese commissie, Regering, Kindertehuis, Ouders, Kinderhandel, Ratificatie
Auteurs Post, R.

Post, R.
Titel

De Nederlandse aanpak van ilegale vuurwapenhandel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 04 2008
Trefwoorden Illegaal, Vuurwapen, Wapen, Politie, Beslaglegging, Handel, Bezit, Handelaar, Munitie, Registratie
Auteurs Vries, M.S. de

Vries, M.S. de
Titel

Nederland in de internationale wapenhandel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 04 2008
Trefwoorden Handel, Extern communautair douanevervoer, Wapen, Verkoop, Levering, Illegaal, Legaliteit, Ministerie van economische zaken, Schip, Vergunningsplicht
Auteurs Slijper, F.

Slijper, F.
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