Zoekresultaat: 6 artikelen

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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2017 x
Artikel

Begaafdheid en crimineel gedrag

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden IQ-crime relationship, high IQ offenders, white-collar crime, criminological research, self-reporting
Auteurs Dr. J.C. Oleson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminologists generally regard below-average intelligence as a robust correlate of delinquency and crime. In this article the author argues that the negative association between IQ and crime could be explained at least in part by a lack of research access to gifted adults who possess wealth, power and privileges. Asking these adults about other types of offending (e.g. white-collar crimes) than usual in self-report studies might uncover a positive relationship between IQ and prevalence rates, in accordance with the results of the exploratory study underlying this article. As a consequence different conclusions about the linkages between intelligence and crime might have to be drawn.


Dr. J.C. Oleson
Dr. James C. Oleson is als Associate Professor of Criminology verbonden aan de School of Social Sciences van de University of Auckland.
Artikel

Jeugdigen en jongvolwassenen met licht verstandelijke beperkingen en criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden Youth, mild intellectual disability, Criminality, Diagnosis, Prevention
Auteurs Prof. dr. X. Moonen en Dr. H. Kaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminological literature there is an ongoing discussion about the relation between intellectual disability and criminality. Because of differences of definitions and measurement methods prevalence figures may vary. Recent assessment of prevalence in the Netherlands using a valid Dutch screener (the SCIL) reveals a relatively high percentage of people with mild intellectual disability and borderline intelligence in the Dutch criminological system. People with mild intellectual disability and borderline intelligence cannot be considered as belonging to one group. Five typologies with even more subtypes based on mixed characteristics can be distinguished. A need for early detection and personalized interventions is stressed as is treatment based on the specific characteristics of these subtypes.


Prof. dr. X. Moonen
Prof. dr. Xavier Moonen is als bijzonder hoogleraar Kennisontwikkeling over kinderen en jongvolwassenen met licht verstandelijke beperkingen en gedragsproblemen verbonden aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is tevens bijzonder lector Inclusie van mensen met verstandelijke beperkingen aan de Zuyd Hogeschool Heerlen en werkt als beleidsadviseur voor Koraal te Sittard.

Dr. H. Kaal
Dr. Hendrien Kaal is als lector Licht Verstandelijke Beperking en Jeugdcriminaliteit verbonden aan de Hogeschool Leiden en het Expertisecentrum William Schrikker.
Artikel

Over toekomstbestendige policing

De dilemma’s van veiligheidsregimes in grote steden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden policing, security, urban regimes, police strategies, risk management
Auteurs Dr. E. Devroe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we identify the political agency and discretion available to metropolises to define and accomplish their own policing agendas and to question what the role of public police forces can be in executing such agendas. Results of a comparative case study of 24 metropolises illustrate a major focus on risk management strategies like environmental opportunity oriented measures, hot spot hot time predictive policing actions and preventative community oriented policing. Also programs like Top 600 in Amsterdam and other early intervention efforts oriented towards ‘groups at risk’ (youngsters, nomads and criminal careers) find a place in the risk assessment regime. This article classifies all urban programs in 5 different ‘urban regimes’ and sheds light on the role the police should take in order to execute stated policy goals, summarized in urban policy coalition plans and security plans.


Dr. E. Devroe
Dr. Elke Devroe is als Associate professor verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs, Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Terrorisme- en radicaliseringsstudies

Een explosief onderzoeksveld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden terrorism studies, radicalization studies, definition, analysis levels, pitfalls
Auteurs Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Studying terrorism and radicalization is quite problematic because of a lack of reliable sources. Finding out what motivates terrorists often boils down to educated guessing. The author describes the search for an academic definition of terrorism and summarizes the development of this discipline since the 1970s, thereby distinguishing research on three levels: macro, micro and meso. While before 9/11 few academics were involved in this research field, it ‘exploded’ thereafter. Important factor contributing to this expansion is the greater availability of government funds and relevant data for this type of research. However, the growth of this discipline isn’t just good news, researchers should be aware of a number of pitfalls identified as the proximity to government power, too much self-confidence (hybris) of researchers pretending to have designed a ‘unified theory’, the abundance of funds for this type of research, resulting in a lot of low-quality research, and finally the politicization of the subject, which could limit the academic freedom.


Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf is als hoogleraar History of International Relations & Global Governance verbonden aan de faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Criminele families in Noord-Brabant

Over generatie-effecten in de zware criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden criminal family networks, organized crime, North Brabant, intergenerational transmission, opportunity structures
Auteurs Drs. H. Moors en Prof. dr. T. Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article on intergenerational transmission of crime in families is based on a study of seven families of which at least one member held a key position in an organized crime group. The authors retrieved information on at least three generations (preceding and succeeding this key member’s generation) to investigate whether transmissions occurred, and if so, how these might be explained. Throughout the generations the majority of family members indeed have criminal records. However, it seems to be less easy to transfer criminal leadership in organized crime from one generation to the next. Leading a criminal group seems to demand qualities that are not transferred easily. Successful successors appear to be able to establish their own networks within the deviant subcultures from which they stem. This also explains the persistence of criminal behavior: both men and women select their friends and partners from these closed communities and seem to prefer for their social and love relationships those who have already developed substantial criminal track records. Organized crime families in North Brabant took advantage of criminal opportunities that were presented to them over the years. Particularly XTC production, starting in the 1990s, allowed them to step up their criminal activities from the local to the global level. In addition, they may have capitalized on a moral economy with sentiments of subordination present in the province of North Brabant, dating back to the seventeenth century, which resulted in a more reserved attitude towards authorities than in other parts of the Netherlands. Finally, law enforcement agencies have been generally slow to respond to developments in criminal opportunities that benefited these seven families.


Drs. H. Moors
Drs. Hans Moors is partner van advies- en onderzoeksbureau EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag.

Prof. dr. T. Spapens
Prof. dr. Toine Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan Tilburg University.
Artikel

Alcoholgebruik bij jongeren in Nederland

Van zuipschuit van Europa tot het braafste kind van de klas

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Adolescents, Alcohol, the Netherlands, sociocultural norms, peer context
Auteurs Dr. M. De Looze en Dr. I. Koning
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Alcohol use and adolescents: they are inevitably connected. At least, this was the case up until the early 2000s in the Netherlands. After a peak in the prevalence of alcohol use in 2003, the percentage of adolescents in the Netherlands who drank alcohol decreased enormously. This decline co-occurs with a dramatic shift in sociocultural norms on adolescent alcohol use among parents. Since the peak in 2003, a variety of national and local prevention and intervention programs have been implemented, aiming to stimulate parents to adopt stricter parenting practices related to the alcohol use of their child. In other Western countries, however, similar decreases in adolescent alcohol use have been observed. On the basis of recent societal developments, the authors describe potential explanations for the observed declines. Moreover, they discuss how youngsters actively create peer contexts in which behaviors like alcohol use take place.


Dr. M. De Looze
Dr. Margreet de Looze is universitair docent bij de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. I. Koning
Dr. Ina Koning is universitair docent bij de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
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