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Artikel

Doe het zelf? Strategieën om je veiliger te voelen tijdens een avond uit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, coping strategies, avoidance behavior, urban nightlife, individual agency
Auteurs Dr. Jelle Brands en Dr. Janne van Doorn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study investigates the strategies people themselves use to deal with situations in which they fear crime. The authors see people as social agents who hold agency and (also) manage their own safety, instead of viewing people as powerless victims. Previous studies have emphasized people’s agency, often through a focus on avoiding dangerous spaces. Building on insights from the fear of crime literature that approaches fear of crime as situational, the authors illustrate how spaces in which people worry about crime can also be transformed (through action) into safe(r) spaces. The article focuses on the context of urban nightlife areas. Thirty students living in Utrecht, the Netherlands were interviewed. Results show that students perform a range of strategies to cope with their fear, including situational avoidance, arranging companionship, increasing alertness, and reasoning. In the discussion the authors reflect on how the application of such strategies is related to (erosion of) ‘mobility’ and individual freedom of movement.


Dr. Jelle Brands
Dr. J. Brands is universitair docent aan het Instituut Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Janne van Doorn
Dr. J. van Doorn is universitair docent aan het Instituut Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Waarom het onderzoek naar veiligheidsbeleving een nieuwe impuls nodig heeft

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, critique, fear reduction, security policy, fear drop
Auteurs Marnix Eysink Smeets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The security landscape has changed rapidly. New or revived threats have emerged, such as terrorism and cybercrime, bringing new or revived fears and anxieties as well. Actors in security policy feel a need to address these fears, but do not know how. Can the criminological subdiscipline of fear of crime studies provide the knowledge and understanding that is needed? A quick scan of the state of the art in this research domain, gives two reasons why it cannot: (1) fear of crime studies have yielded much knowledge on operationalization, measurement and determinants of fear of crime, but far less in mechanisms, trends, effects and influenceability, whereas insight in the latter issues is what is mostly needed in security policy; and (2) fear of crime studies are still mainly focused on the ‘traditional’ fear of crime, while fear of new crimes and threats remains under-researched. A shift of focus in fear of crime studies is urgently needed.


Marnix Eysink Smeets
M.W.B. Eysink Smeets is lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en hoofd van de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Inholland. Hij is tevens directeur van de Landelijke Expertisegroep Veiligheidspercepties (LEV), een platform voor onderzoek naar veiligheid, veiligheidsbeleid en veiligheidsbeleving. De auteur legt momenteel de laatste hand aan zijn dissertatie Public reactions to crime and insecurity, onder supervisie van prof. Martin Innes en prof. Trevor Jones, beiden verbonden aan Cardiff University.
Artikel

Criminele geldstromen en ICT: over innovatieve werkwijzen, oude zekerheden en nieuwe flessenhalzen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, organized crime, money laundering, bitcoin, financial crime
Auteurs Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen, Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt, Prof.dr. Edward Kleemans e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we analyze how organized crime offenders use IT to handle their money flows. How and to what extent do offenders use IT-facilitated possibilities, such as bitcoin, to launder their money? The empirical data consist of thirty large-scale police investigations. These thirty cases are part of the Organized Crime Monitor, an ongoing research project into the nature of organized crime in the Netherlands. One of the most striking findings is the fact that cash is still king – even for online drug dealers who get paid in digital currencies.


Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen
Dr. E.W. Kruisbergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.

Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt
Dr. R. Leukfeldt is senior-onderzoeker cybercrime bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving en lector Cybersecurity in het mkb bij de Haagse Hogeschool.

Prof.dr. Edward Kleemans
Prof. dr. E.R. Kleemans is hoogleraar zware criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R. Roks is universitair docent aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Jongerenrechtbanken: oplossingsgerichte lekenrechtspraak voor en door leerlingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden youth courts, restorative justice, active citizenship, schools, community
Auteurs Drs. Gert Jan Slump en Prof. dr. Jessica Asscher
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the backgrounds, the development and first findings on youth courts in the Netherlands. A Dutch version of the USA youth courts was developed and piloted in 4 Amsterdam schools. Cases referred are small (partly illegal) incidents committed in the school environment. The Dutch youth court practice is described against the background of transformational change in society and the development of restorative justice and (peer oriented) development of citizenship. Although the model is still in development and schools are somewhat reluctant to deliver and refer cases, practice is growing.


Drs. Gert Jan Slump
Drs. G.J. Slump is criminoloog en landelijk projectleider voor de Stichting Jongerenrechtbanken Nederland. Hij heeft een eigen adviespraktijk voor projecten op strafrechtelijk gebied en geeft trainingen op het terrein van herstelrecht en herstelgericht werken.

Prof. dr. Jessica Asscher
Prof. dr. J. Asscher is hoogleraar Forensische Orthopedagogiek aan de Universiteit Utrecht en hoofddocent aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij is lid van de Raad van Advies van de stichting Jongerenrechtbanken.
Artikel

Krijger als opsporingsambtenaar?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden armed forces, law enforcement, criminal investigation, military operation, Rules of Engagement
Auteurs dr. Joop Voetelink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands armed forces are increasingly involved in activities within the Netherlands as well as abroad, that can be characterized as law enforcement. Military personnel, however, are not trained as law enforcement officials and perform these non-military tasks based on their military skills and drills. Nevertheless, their efforts eventually must lead to a criminal persecution of a suspect. Therefore, it is important that military personnel are well aware of the particular requirements set out by criminal procedures while planning and executing a military action and, whenever possible, operate in close collaboration with authorized law enforcement officials.


dr. Joop Voetelink
Kolonel dr. J.E.D. Voetelink is universitair hoofddocent militair recht aan de Nederlandse Defensie Academie (NLDA).
Artikel

Strategische sturing van de KMar bij dreigingen en crisissituaties

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden crisis management, threat management, Royal Marechaussee, hybrid organization, ‘Good Governance’
Auteurs Drs. Etienne van Veenendaal en Dr. Jörg Noll
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Royal Military Police (Royal Marechaussee) is an organization of hybrid character, i.e. it is a police force and military force. Due to recent (inter)national developments the Royal Marechaussee has faced some challenges, especially in the event of a threat or near crisis. Those can be analyzed with the model of good governance and its four dimensions: legislation and regulations, implementation, a shared problem orientation and democracy. The Royal Marechaussee seems to focus primarily on the first two dimensions, while neglecting the need for a shared definition of the problem and awareness of the democratic context in crisis situations. This article uses two cases concerning Schiphol Airport to show how the model contributes on the one hand to the analysis of recent threat and crisis management and on the other hand to its improvement.


Drs. Etienne van Veenendaal
Drs. E. van Veenendaal is luitenant-kolonel bij de Koninklijke Marechaussee en werkzaam als universitair docent politieoptreden bij de vakgroep Militair Operationele Wetenschappen aan de Faculteit Militaire Wetenschappen.

Dr. Jörg Noll
Dr. J.E. Noll is als universitair hoofddocent Internationale Conflictstudies verbonden aan de Faculteit Militaire Wetenschappen.
Artikel

Verbanning en uitzetting in Noordwest-Europa sinds de vroegmoderne periode

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden banishment, expulsion, history, early modern period, Northwest Europe
Auteurs Dr. Margo De Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To supplement recent debates concerning the expulsion of criminal foreigners and the repelling of poor refugees with longer-term insights, this contribution examines banishment practices in early modern and modern Northwest Europe. It argues that banishment, a sanction involving a person’s geographical and social exclusion, served both to punish deviants and to monitor mobile newcomers. Expulsion practices were shaped mainly by concerns about the regulation of access to the labor market and poor relief. The profile of the expellee displays remarkable continuity across time: the poor unwanted stranger, lacking social bonds and, in the case of female migrants, perceived as being prone to prostitution. Albeit banishment often proved only temporary and thus not effective, authorities continued to rely on it because of its symbolic function, displaying their diligence in purifying and protecting local society. This was much to the detriment of the expellees, who were driven into marginality and illegality.


Dr. Margo De Koster
Dr. Margo De Koster is als universitair docent Historische Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

De Snowden-onthullingen en ongerichte interceptie onder de Wiv 2017

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Snowden, Untargeted bulk interception, New Dutch Security Services Act, Mass surveillance, XKEYSCORE
Auteurs Mr. Peter Koop
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This year, the new Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act (Wiv 2017) will come into force. It’s most controversial part is the untargeted bulk interception of internet and telephone cables, where previously this was only allowed for wireless communication links. Since June 2013, the Snowden revelations led to a fear for mass surveillance of ordinary citizens by NSA and GCHQ. The original documents however show that their collection programs are actually focused at valid foreign intelligence targets. Where the British and Americans have online and realtime filtering systems, the Dutch will store the communications from untargeted cable interception for up to three years. Also the Dutch will lack the opportunity of XKEYSCORE to find anonymous internet communications, as they will select content just as targeted as is the case with traditional wiretaps. Therefore, the main improvement for Dutch intelligence appears to be a much greater access to metadata


Mr. Peter Koop
Mr. P.J.F. Koop schrijft over signals intelligence, communications security en top level telecommunications op zijn weblog www.electrospaces.blogspot.nl en is sinds kort als gastonderzoeker verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Intelligence leadership

Leidinggeven in het schemerdonker tussen geheim en openbaar

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence leadership, Intelligence and security services, Transparency, Political accountability, Reform
Auteurs Prof. dr. Paul Abels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article highlights the special position of European heads of intelligence and security services. In the search for important characteristics of intelligence leadership through time, a comparison is made between five services from five different countries (Germany, France, the Netherlands, Greece and Spain). Using Anglo-American reference information and a leadership typology developed by intelligence expert Robarge, the consecutive heads of service in these European countries are profiled and categorized. This leads to a picture that has always been dominated by males, a strong military presence and many end-of-career heads. Their influence on the internal and external service development was often substantial, with alternate appointments of inside and outside reformers. The scale of openness usually constituted a struggle with both the inside and outside world. Nowadays, the heads are being confronted with new challenges and demands, which leads to the conclusion that a new form of ‘distributed’ or ‘interdependent’ leadership is required, in which old reflexes to appoint people with an operational, military or police background as heads of these services are no longer self-evident.


Prof. dr. Paul Abels
Prof. dr. P.A.H.M. Abels is bijzonder hoogleraar Governance of Intelligence and Security Services bij het Institute for Security and Global Affairs (ISGA) van de Universiteit Leiden. Hij is ook raadadviseur bij de Nationaal Coördinator Terrorismebestrijding en Veiligheid (NCTV). Dit artikel kwam tot stand met medewerking van Julia van Heesewijk, Roderik Stol, Stefanos K. Skafidas, Robin van der Burgh, Giandrick Dabian en Marijn Adams.
Artikel

Inlichtingenwerk vanuit een methodologisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence research, Methodology, Security threats, Unknown threats, a values and b values
Auteurs Dr. Gilliam de Valk en Mr.Drs. Willemijn Aerdts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article compares criminal investigations and judicial research to intelligence research. Criminal investigations and judicial research focus on evidence and prosecution, while intelligence researchers don’t want to overlook any threats. Methodologically speaking: criminal investigations and judicial research focus on keeping a low α value, intelligence focusses on keeping a low ß value. This ß oriented research should lead to drastically different research design. ß-oriented research is a quest for the unknowns. Possible threats need to be neutralized, most of the times without a judicial review (by a judge). This absence of review, in combination with the additional special powers laid down in the revised Intelligence and Security Services Acts, should be reason for adjustment of the oversight.


Dr. Gilliam de Valk
Dr. G.G. de Valk is universitair docent bij de onderzoeksgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs (Universiteit Leiden). Hij is gespecialiseerd in de methodologie van inlichtingenanalyses, www.universiteitleiden.nl/medewerkers/giliam-de-valk#tab-1.

Mr.Drs. Willemijn Aerdts
Mr. Drs. W.J.M. Aerdts is als docent-onderzoeker verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs (Universiteit Leiden) en doet onderzoek op het terrein van inlichtingen naar methodologie, analysetechnieken en restdreiging, www.universiteitleiden.nl/medewerkers/willemijn-aerdts#tab-1.
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