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Artikel

Voorspellen met big-datamodellen

Over de valkuilen voor beleidsmakers

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Big data, predictive analytics, challenges, data quality, interpretation
Auteurs Dr. Susan van den Braak en Dr. Sunil Choenni
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the field of policymaking, there is a growing need to take advantage of the opportunities that big data predictions offer. A strong point of big data is that the large amounts of data that are collected nowadays can be re-used to find new insights. However, for effective use in policymaking it is also important to take into account the relating limitations and challenges. For example, the quality of the data used can be a problem. Outdated data and data of which the semantics have changed, may result in predictions that are no longer correct. In addition, it is difficult to apply predictions to individual cases or people. In this article authors provide various practical recommendations for dealing with these problems. As long as people are aware of the limitations and handle the results with care, big data models can be a useful addition to traditional methods in the field of policymaking.


Dr. Susan van den Braak
Dr. S.W. van den Braak is als senioronderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Statistische Informatievoorziening en Beleidsanalyse (SIBa) van het WODC.

Dr. Sunil Choenni
Dr. S. Choenni is als hoofd van de afdeling Statistische Informatievoorziening en Beleidsanalyse (SIBa) werkzaam bij het WODC. Hij is tevens lector Future Information & Communication Technology aan de Hogeschool Rotterdam.
Artikel

Etnische diversiteit en onveiligheidsgevoelens in de buurt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, ethnic diversity, neighborhoods, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, geo-linguistic classification
Auteurs Iris Glas MSc en Dr. Roel Jennissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Living in a multicultural environment may be accompanied with an increased fear of crime. Residents may become alienated in a very diverse environment and withdraw themselves in their own social world. This ‘hunkering down’ may ensue feelings of unsafety. However, social scientists have done hardly any research on whether citizens who live in a multicultural environment in Western Europe actually feel more unsafe. This study seeks to contribute to fill in this knowledge gap. The authors’ research reveals that residents are more likely to feel unsafe in neighborhoods with a high degree of ethnic diversity. The aforementioned correlation is the most noticeable in neighborhoods consisting of people on medium incomes.


Iris Glas MSc
I. Glas MSc is PhD-kandidaat aan de Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Roel Jennissen
Dr. R. Jennissen is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid.
Artikel

De ‘non-human (f)actor’ in cybercrime

Cybercriminele netwerken beschouwd vanuit het ‘cyborg crime’-perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cyborg crime, cybercrime, cybercriminal networks, botnet, actor-network theory
Auteurs Dr. Wytske van der Wagen en Frank Bernaards LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Botnets, banking malware and other high-tech crimes are increasingly analyzed by criminological scholars. Their distributed and automated nature poses however various theoretical challenges. This article presents an alternative approach, denoted as the ‘cyborg crime’ perspective, which adopts a more hybrid view of networks and also assigns an active role to technology. The value of this approach is demonstrated by reflecting on findings from earlier empirical work that analyzes conversations between cybercriminals involved in botnets and related activities. The research shows that technological nodes can take an important position in the organizational structure of cybercriminal networks and do not merely have a functional role. Viewing technology as an actor within a criminal network might offer new criminological insights in both the composition of these networks and how to disrupt them.


Dr. Wytske van der Wagen
Dr. W. van der Wagen is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Erasmus School of Law (sectie Criminologie). In juni 2018 promoveerde zij aan de Rijkuniversiteit Groningen op het proefschrift From cybercrime to cyborg crime: An exploration of high-tech cybercrime, offenders and victims through the lens of actor-network theory.

Frank Bernaards LLM
F. Bernaards LLM is werkzaam als operationeel specialist bij Team High Tech Crime van de Dienst Landelijke Recherche.
Artikel

Inlichtingenwerk vanuit een methodologisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence research, Methodology, Security threats, Unknown threats, a values and b values
Auteurs Dr. Gilliam de Valk en Mr.Drs. Willemijn Aerdts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article compares criminal investigations and judicial research to intelligence research. Criminal investigations and judicial research focus on evidence and prosecution, while intelligence researchers don’t want to overlook any threats. Methodologically speaking: criminal investigations and judicial research focus on keeping a low α value, intelligence focusses on keeping a low ß value. This ß oriented research should lead to drastically different research design. ß-oriented research is a quest for the unknowns. Possible threats need to be neutralized, most of the times without a judicial review (by a judge). This absence of review, in combination with the additional special powers laid down in the revised Intelligence and Security Services Acts, should be reason for adjustment of the oversight.


Dr. Gilliam de Valk
Dr. G.G. de Valk is universitair docent bij de onderzoeksgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs (Universiteit Leiden). Hij is gespecialiseerd in de methodologie van inlichtingenanalyses, www.universiteitleiden.nl/medewerkers/giliam-de-valk#tab-1.

Mr.Drs. Willemijn Aerdts
Mr. Drs. W.J.M. Aerdts is als docent-onderzoeker verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs (Universiteit Leiden) en doet onderzoek op het terrein van inlichtingen naar methodologie, analysetechnieken en restdreiging, www.universiteitleiden.nl/medewerkers/willemijn-aerdts#tab-1.
Artikel

Gedragsbeïnvloeding via voeding

Enkele toepassingen besproken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden diet, food insecurity, behaviour modification, prediction of behaviour, glucose metabolism
Auteurs A. Zaalberg Msc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent research shows that behaviour is not only influenced by the psychosocial environment, but can also – partially – be explained by the biology in humans. In this paper dietary phenomena are explored. Data from large prospective cohort studies show that dietary patterns are associated with intelligence, school achievement and behavioural problems in children. Furthermore, detrimental behavioural effects of food insecurity, in severe cases hunger, are suggested by recent research. Sugar gets special attention in this paper. Contrary to common knowledge, sugar doesn’t seem to have a negative impact on behaviour. On the other hand, research suggests that glucose metabolism might explain aspects of impulsive aggressive behaviour. It might be possible to make prediction of future aggressive behaviour, using data from glucose metabolism. Finally experimental studies suggest that dietary modification is causally linked to behavioural improvement in offenders and people suffering from a variety of mental problems.


A. Zaalberg Msc
Ap Zaalberg MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC. Hij doet promotieonderzoek naar enerzijds de relatie tussen voeding en gedrag bij justitiabelen, en anderzijds de relatie tussen neurotoxische stoffen en crimineel gedrag.
Artikel

Actieve verantwoordelijkheid in het strafrecht

Naar een brede opvatting van ‘recht doen’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden retrospective responsibility, prospective responsibility, virtues, therapeutic jurisprudence, rehabilitation
Auteurs B.A.M. van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminal justice is oriented at retrospective responsibility: examining whether the defendant is guilty and imposing a punishment that fits the crime. In this article it is argued that prospective responsibility needs more attention: taking responsibility. We have to remind the offender of his obligations: pay his debt, repair the harm done, work to change his behaviour and enhancing his situation. We should also take account of the interests and needs of the persons concerned. It is also argued that stimulating active responsibility should take place within the logics of ‘doing justice’. Criminal justice cannot respond to the imperatives of care, well-being and problem-solving.


B.A.M. van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Familierelaties en het stoppen met misdaad

Aangrijpingspunten voor het reclasseringswerk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2011
Auteurs B. Vogelvang
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various criminologists describe family and partner relationships as forms of social capital. Also research shows that many delinquents say they have generally good relations with their family. Instead of focusing only on the delinquent's individual responsibility and risk factors, probation work should pay more attention to the protective aspects of the former convict's social environment. The author presents a framework, based on the work of the family therapist Nagy, that provides probations workers with the tools to involve the delinquent's family members in the process towards desistance.


B. Vogelvang
Dr. Bas Vogelvang is als lector Reclassering en Veiligheidsbeleid verbonden aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool te Den Bosch. Hij is tevens als expertadviseur werkzaam bij Adviesbureau Van Montfoort. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op het hoofdstuk ‘Justice for all: Family matters in offender supervision’ (Vogelvang en Van Alphen, 2011).
Artikel

What Works en What goes Wrong?

Over evidence-based beleid in de dagelijkse praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2011
Auteurs M. van Ooyen-Houben, C.N. Nas en J. Mulder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands a system of evidence-based interventions was set up, in which only behavioural interventions which meet the scientifically proven ‘What Works’ criteria can be applied to well-defined categories of offenders. An accreditation commission was installed by the ministry of Security and Justice to test behavioural interventions. One of the crucial elements of this evidence-based policy is that the interventions are carried out according to protocol and are applied to the target group by well-trained personnel. This, however, is a problem in practice. Reasons for the low intervention integrity lie among others in lack of support and lead in the organisation and low inflow of participants. The integrity problems pose a risk to the effectiveness of behavioural interventions. Literature suggests that a 100% compliance to protocols might be necessary nor desirable. Causes that lie in the organisation could be improved and the implementation process could be given some more time. Evidence-based policy is not that easy to carry out in daily practice. The future will show whether the goal of a reduction of criminal recidivism will be realized.


M. van Ooyen-Houben
Dr. Marianne van Ooyen-Houben is werkzaam bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Zij is tevens verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam/Criminologie en Maastricht University/Top Institute for Evidence Based Education Research.

C.N. Nas
Dr. Coralijn Nas is werkzaam bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

J. Mulder
Dr. Juul Mulder is werkzaam bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Titel

Hoe schadelijk zijn softdrugs?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 01 2006
Trefwoorden Cannabis, Gebruiker, Stoornis, Softdrug, Risico, Drug, Schade, Auteur, Concentratie, Beschadiging
Auteurs Brink, W. van den

Brink, W. van den
Titel

Ontwikkelingspsychologen op zoek naar oorzaken van jeugddelinquentie: Nieuwe trajecten naar kennis

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 05 2005
Trefwoorden Delinquent, Kind, Tussenkomst, Ouders, Causaliteit, Investering, Merk, Model, Winkeldiefstal, Aansprakelijkheid
Auteurs Koops, W. en Orobio de Castro, B.

Koops, W.

Orobio de Castro, B.
Titel

Drugshandel en politiek geweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 02 2005
Trefwoorden Drugshandel, Geweld, Drug, Ondernemer, Betaling, Cannabis, Regering, Bewijslast, Causaliteit, Consument
Auteurs Veen, H.T. van der

Veen, H.T. van der

    The notion that animal abuse and domestic violence are related has been existing for centuries. Recent studies in the United States, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the Netherlands report evidence for this relation. In the western world, more than 50% of families have pets. They are often valued as members of the family. It is obvious that pets can be victims of family violence as well. The relation between animal abuse and domestic violence has many manifestations. Abused women reported violence against their pets, reported that their children abused the pets. Abused children, especially severely abused and/or sexually abused children, are more often than other children animal abusers. Animal abuse is often related to other violent behaviour or severe criminal acts later in life. Besides, animal abuse is an early diagnostic marker for psychopathology. Animal abuse is always a signal of a problematic situation. A greater awareness of the possible link between animal abuse and domestic violence could contribute to saving men, women, children and animals from violent situations.


M.J. Enders-Slegers
Dr. Marie-José Enders-Slegers is verbonden aan het departement Klinische en Gezondheidspsychologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
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