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Artikel

Access_open ‘Buiten de rechter om?’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden sanctions, Judiciary, penal law, administrative law, rule of law
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Tulder en Mr. Saskia Sicking
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Judiciary has only a very limited role in the imposition of sanctions with traffic offenses. With other minor offenses its role is rather limited and has decreased. There has been a striking shift from the imposition of penal sanctions to sanctions based on administrative law in this area. With major offenses (crimes) the role of the judiciary is still significant and has not diminished over the last 20 years. This despite policy efforts to boost out of court sanctioning.
    The Judiciary is a fundamental pillar of the rule of law. It offers legal protection, by judging and, if necessary, penalizing violations of norms in a fair trial. In this way not only justice is done with individual cases. Case law has wider implications: confirmation and development of norms and thus general prevention. To fulfil this aim a certain volume of cases and openness of the judgment process is necessary.


Dr. Frank van Tulder
Dr. F. van Tulder is onderzoeker/adviseur bij de afdeling Strategie van de Raad voor de rechtspraak, verantwoordelijk voor het economisch en statistisch onderzoek bij de Rechtspraak.

Mr. Saskia Sicking
Mr. S. Sicking is hoofd van de afdeling Strategie van de Raad voor de rechtspraak en tevens rechter.
Artikel

De criminele levensloop van hawaladars

Een verkennend onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden hawala, underground banking, criminal career, Financial sector, Organised crime
Auteurs M.R. J. Soudijn en E.M. de Groen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This research takes a closer look at the criminal careers of 89 offenders who are involved in offering hawala services. The main finding is that 61% has a criminal record that does not consist of hawala related offenses. This finding is important from both a policy and criminological perspective. Firstly, incorporating hawala in the legal financial sector is a difficult prospect with the current people involved. Somehow the sector needs to be cleaned up. Secondly, the findings tie in with other research about criminal careers in organized crime. About two-thirds came into contact with the authorities later in life. However, an important caveat to the authors’ findings is that the outcomes are based on a known group of offenders. The total size of the hawala population is a dark number.


M.R. J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior-onderzoeker werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie, afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid.

E.M. de Groen
Eline de Groen MSc. studeerde aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en liep in het kader van dit onderzoek stage bij het Flexibel Informatie Expertise Team (FIET) Financieel van de Landelijke Eenheid.
Artikel

Bescherm het slachtoffer, begin bij de verdachte

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden victimhood, Christ, art history, Enlightenment, secularization
Auteurs W.J. Veraart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that the notion of ‘victim’ primarily refers to the position of the person who, in the course of a (sacred, religious, legal, etc.) procedure, is ritually sacrificed to avert the wrath of the gods or to preserve peace in the community. In early modernity the Latin victima (sacrificial animal) was also used as a reference to Jesus Christ. Christ was seen as the Lamb of God, the innocent sacrificial lamb which, after an unfair trial, was crucified and died for the sins of the world. In the eighteenth century, under influence of the Enlightenment, the victim concept has been secularized and come to refer to every casualty of bad luck, crime, or disaster. Art history, however, offers interesting examples of pictures of mythical figures such as Sisyphus and Prometheus, representing early images of secularized victimhood in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the present day, the concept of victimhood is often used to define the position of the injured party in criminal proceedings. In this frame, the injured victim, looking for legal recognition, is juxtaposed against the position of the accused who is characterized as the possible culprit. However, reflection on the history of the victim concept reveals that it primarily refers to the position of the wrongly or falsely accused or condemned in the course of legal (or pseudolegal) proceedings. A state governed by the rule of law (‘rechtsstaat’) can be defined as a legal form of society which does its utmost to avoid the justice system producing its own victims. In this approach, a victim-oriented criminal justice system is fully aware of the need to protect precisely those who are threatened by the power of the state and public opinion because they are in the dock.


W.J. Veraart
Prof. mr. Wouter Veraart is hoogleraar Encyclopedie der Rechtswetenschap en Rechtsfilosofie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

    ‘Informal economy’ is a controversial concept defined in many different ways. This is reflected in the amount of synonyms, such as shadow economy, parallel economy, hidden economy, black economy etcetera. On the international level the concept of the informal sector was first used in 1972 by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in its report on a mission to Kenya. The popular view of informal sector activities was that they are primarily those of petty traders, street hawkers, shoeshine boys and other groups ‘underemployed’ on the streets of the big towns. The evidence presented in the report suggested that the bulk of employment in the informal sector, far from being only marginally productive, is economically efficient and profit-making, though small in scale. The informal sector is formed by the coping behaviour of individuals and families in economic environment where earning opportunities are scarce, or where regulation is too complex. The informal sector can also be a product of rational behaviour of entrepreneurs wishing to escape state regulations. There is a relation between welfare (GDP per capita) and relative size of the informal sector. Richer countries have relatively a smaller informal sector. However, government policies and attitudes are important as well. The relative size of the informal sector depends, among other factors, on the ‘regulatory capacity’ and ‘regulatory intent’ of governments. There is little known about the relation between informal and criminal activities. The informal economy seems to be a permanent feature of both high, middle and low income countries. Due to the actual economic crisis, people are pushed from the formal to informal economy. Rapid urbanisation is a factor as well. While the problem of size measuring is not insignificant, most observers agree that the informal economy is large and growing and will be an enduring feature of the economy of mega-cities.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is als beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij schreef dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.
Titel

Is ondergronds bankieren een reëel gevaar?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 02 2006
Trefwoorden Ondergrondse bank, Ondergronds bankieren, Overschrijving, Geldtransactiekantoor, Bankieren, Bank, Elektronisch geld, De nederlandsche bank n.v., Contant betaalmiddel, Geldovermaking
Auteurs Slot, B.M.J.

Slot, B.M.J.
Titel

De accountant: Onafhankelijkheid in een meervoudig spanningsveld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 03 2005
Trefwoorden Accountant, Toezichthouder, Toezicht, De nederlandsche bank n.v., Onpartijdigheid, Jaarrekening, Bank, Externe accountant, Inkomen, Aansprakelijkheid
Auteurs Schilder, A. en Nuijts, W.H.J.M.

Schilder, A.

Nuijts, W.H.J.M.
Interface Showing Amount
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