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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2016 x
Artikel

Private bijdragen aan publieke veiligheid: effecten van Buurt-WhatsApp

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden Community WhatsApp, public security, Tilburg, crime prevention, citizens’ involvement
Auteurs Dr. B. Vollaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Community WhatsApp consists of a group of local residents sharing information among each other on suspicious situations in the neighborhood through a smartphone app. In the southern Dutch city of Tilburg the author examined whether Community WhatsApp stimulates people to report suspicious situations through the emergency number 112. The stimulus is possibly the appreciation of other participants for being attentive and taking the initiative to call the emergency number. The author found that Community WhatsApp contributes to the diminishing of crime due to the mechanisms of disruption of criminal activities and deterrence.


Dr. B. Vollaard
Dr. Ben Vollaard is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan Tilburg University.
Artikel

Predictive policing: politiewerk aan de hand van voorspellingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden predictive policing, prescriptive policing, Big Data, risks, legal safeguards
Auteurs Ir. A. de Vries en Dr. S. Smit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Law enforcement around the world, including the Netherlands, is currently experimenting with predictive policing: policing based on crime predictions. Big Data on past crimes and the help of sophisticated machine learning enable police to use reliable predictions about when and where the next offense will take place. If the effectiveness of policing actions is stored in the system, it can also predict which intervention is most effective. This is called prescriptive policing. The authors explain how these methods work, how reliable and effective they are and which associated risks can be identified. The authors emphasize that legal, ethical and organizational safeguards are necessary for a responsible implementation.


Ir. A. de Vries
Ir. Arnout de Vries is senior onderzoeker en adviseur op het gebied van social media en veiligheid bij TNO en auteur van het boek Social media: het nieuwe DNA.

Dr. S. Smit
Dr. Selmar Smit is aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam gepromoveerd op het onderwerp machine learning en sindsdien werkzaam als data scientist bij TNO.
Artikel

Technologie voor opsporing en handhaving

Kansen, ervaringen en knelpunten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden technology in policing, effectiveness, promising technologies, legal obstacles, success stories
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers en B. Vergouw MSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police forces and law enforcement agencies in many countries are continuously trying to optimize the use of technologies in policing and law enforcement. Efforts are being made to remove existing technological, legal and organizational obstacles to create more opportunities of promising technologies, both existing and new. This contribution describes the results of a survey among 46 police forces and other law enforcement agencies in eleven countries. Their experiences with policing technologies and their needs and preferences in this regard are described. The prevalence and satisfaction of existing technologies, including wiretapping, fingerprints, DNA research, database coupling, data mining and profiling, camera surveillance and network analyses were investigated. Legal, technological and organizational obstacles for the use of technology in policing were mapped and the extent to which policing technologies are evaluated and yield success stories was investigated. The main obstacles, according to the respondents, are insufficient financial resources and insufficient availability of technology. One in four organizations is lacking any clear, appealing success stories and half of the respondents indicated they were not performing any evaluations on the effectiveness of using particular technologies in policing. As a result, the information available on whether technologies in policing are actually working is very limited.


Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is universitair hoofddocent en hoofd onderzoek bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder was hij hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

B. Vergouw MSc.
Bas Vergouw MSc. is werkzaam als digitaal onderzoeker bij de Autoriteit Consument en Markt (ACM) en houdt zich voornamelijk bezig met open source intelligence.
Artikel

Datagestuurde stedelijke planning en ‘smart cities’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Big Data, data analytics, governance, smart cities, urban science
Auteurs Prof. R. Kitchin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article provides a critical overview of data-driven urbanism and smart cities focusing in particular on the relationship between data and the city, and critically examines a number of urban data issues, including: the politics of urban data; data ownership and control, data protection and privacy, dataveillance, and data uses such as social sorting and anticipatory governance; and technical data issues such as data quality and veracity of data models and data analytics. Whilst data-driven urbanism provides a set of solutions for urban problems, it does so within limitations and in the service of particular interests.


Prof. R. Kitchin
Prof. Rob Kitchin is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het National Institute of Regional and Spatial Analysis van Maynooth University in Ierland.
Artikel

Radicale verliezers en de noodzaak tot ontschotten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden terrorism, the radical loser, post-politics, lone actors, performative violence
Auteurs Drs. J. van Buuren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research into radicalization and terrorism assumes that violent individuals have political or religious intentions and motivations. However, what ‘political or religious motivations’ exactly are changes through time. A rigorous conceptual demarcation of ‘radicalization’ and ‘terrorism’ runs the risk of overlooking societal and political changes leading to a variety of violent outbursts that may have more in common than assumed at forehand. Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s concept of ‘the radical loser’ is used as an example of a broader conceptualization that can function as a category enabling interconnected and interdisciplinary research into different manifestations of violence, both in their differences and their similarities. Whether or not terrorists, school shooters and violent lone actors are fundamentally different categories should be a topic of academic enquiry instead of being taken for granted.


Drs. J. van Buuren
Drs. Jelle van Buuren is als promovendus verbonden aan het Institute for Security and Global Affairs (Campus Den Haag) van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

CRIME Lab: pleidooi voor een nieuwe en vernieuwende criminologie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden virtual reality, decision making, crime, technology, 360° video
Auteurs Mr. dr. J.L. van Gelder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    New technologies such as social media, smartphones, GPS, the internet, sensors, and virtual environments are quickly becoming an increasingly influential part of our daily lives. While very relevant, and often highly accessible and user-friendly, criminologists have been slow to capitalize on the research potential of these technologies. CRIME Lab is a research initiative that promotes the use of new technologies and innovative methods to do cutting-edge crime research. In this article, the author discusses three different CRIME Lab research projects that all make use of virtual reality (VR), which, it is argued, can become a highly useful research method for criminologists in the coming years. The author demonstrates how the use of VR in these projects allows for answering research questions that are hard to address using conventional methods.


Mr. dr. J.L. van Gelder
Mr. dr. Jean-Louis van Gelder is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR. Hij is initiator en coördinator van NSCR’s CRIMElab.
Artikel

Analysemethoden en technieken voor criminologisch onderzoek

Oude trends en nieuwe ontwikkelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Qualitative research, Criminology, Multivariate analytical methods, Size and causes of crime, Mixed methods
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the developments in the use of analytical methods and technics for criminological research in the Netherlands since the beginning of the eighties. The author focuses on quantitative research methods. While classical multivariate technics like (M)AN(C)OVA, canonic correlation analysis and LISREL were dominant until the beginning of the new century, new multivariate analytical methods appeared from 2005 onwards. Especially the analysis of life course trajectories of criminal offenders caught on. The author also discusses various methods to measure the size of crime, like randomized response and capture-recapture, as well as methods identifying the causes of crime. In this latter field the use of fixed-effects methods and the propensity score matching technic has expanded considerably in the last couple of years. When it comes to explaining why people commit crime, quantitative methods do not suffice. The author argues that thorough quantitative methods can reveal the context in which criminal acts occur. The wider use of so-called mixed methods (quantitative as well as qualitative) could contribute to a deeper understanding of crime and stimulate theoretical development. In doing so these methods contribute considerably to understanding why people commit crime.


Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld is directeur van het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
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