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Artikel

De aanpak van kunstcriminaliteit in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Art crime, European Union, United Kingdom, policing, prosecution
Auteurs Saskia Hufnagel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a short overview of art crime policing and gives some insights as to why art crime policing is an especially arduous task while specifically providing examples from the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK). The article focuses first on the detection of art crime, exploring why many crimes do not enter the criminal justice system. Here, the fact that art crimes are often not detected at all or, if they are, not reported to the police is discussed in some depth in particular with a view to art theft and forgeries. The article then addresses the investigation and prosecution of art crime cases in the EU and how they are facilitated and inhibited in various member states. Finally, the challenges and possible improvements at the European level are discussed and future directions of the fight against art crime are debated.


Saskia Hufnagel
Dr. S. Hufnagel is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht van de School of Law van Queen Mary University of London.

    In this article, the authors draw on a netnographic study conducted between May and July 2019 on phishing on Telegram Messenger. The results indicate that Telegram, just like cryptomarkets and online forums, seems to function as a criminal marketplace. In the groups analyzed the authors see users who both offer and are looking for specific goods and services related to the crime script of phishing. Furthermore, the information on Telegram contains specific modi operandi that are offering comprehensive and step-by-step guides to successfully complete specific financial cybercrimes. Therefore, based on this explorative study the authors argue that Telegram can be seen as a digital offender convergence setting.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Nahom Monshouwer MSc
R.N. Monshouwer MSc is CCD Analist bij Rabobank.
Artikel

Access_open Coronacrisis en fraude: vier mogelijke relaties

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Corona crisis, crime opportunities, fraud, scenarios, future development
Auteurs Dr. Clarissa Meerts en Dr. Wim Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution contains several concrete examples of ‘Corona crime’ thereby showing how the current crisis is creating new opportunities for committing crimes. The authors revert to an analysis framework that was previously used to interpret new forms of crime during the banking crisis. It consists of four scenarios that are briefly described. The future will have to show what effects the corona pandemic has had on fraud and other financial and economic crime.


Dr. Clarissa Meerts
Dr. C. Meerts is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Wim Huisman
Dr. W. Huisman is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Social engineering: digitale fraude en misleiding

Een meta-analyse van studies naar de effectiviteit van interventies

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden awareness, cybercrime, intervention, meta-analysis, social engineering
Auteurs Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée en Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The prevalence of online crime increases. Social engineering, such as email phishing, is often an important element in an attack. Several interventions have been developed to reduce the success of these types of attacks. The current study investigates whether interventions can help reduce vulnerability to social engineering attacks. The authors investigate which types of interventions and specific elements are most successful. They selected studies with an experimental design that tested at least one intervention. A total of 19 studies with 37 effect sizes, based on a total sample of N=23,146 subjects, were found. The available training courses, intervention materials and effect sizes were analysed. Overall, positive effects of interventions were found. However, there are substantial differences in effect for the different types of interventions. Effective interventions are relatively intensive and have a specific focus. The authors conclude with the design of the best possible intervention given the results of their research.


Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée
Dr. J.-W. Bullée is werkzaam bij Awareways, Computer & Network Security. Hij promoveerde in 2017 op het proefschrift Experimental social engineering aan de Universiteit Twente.

Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
Prof. dr. M. Junger is hoogleraar Cyber Security en Business Continuity aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Ons cybergedrag is veel onveiliger dan we zelf denken

Implicaties voor effectief beïnvloedingsbeleid door de overheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden cyber hygiene, security behavior, human vulnerability, COM-B, policy implications
Auteurs Dr. Rick van der Kleij, Dr. Susanne van ’t Hoff-de Goede, Dr. Steve van de Weijer e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this research was to examine how Dutch citizens behave online and to explain their online behavior. The results of an experimental survey (N=2,426) show that unsafe behavior is highly prevalent. For example, nearly 40% of the respondents use a weak password. However, it appears that there are major differences between self-reported behavior and objective behavior. The objective measurements in the survey show that people behave more unsafely than they self-report. The research further shows that there is no silver bullet for promoting more safe online behavior. Different online behaviors seem to stem from different sources. Nevertheless, the authors do see a lot of value in interventions that focus on adaptations to the technology that people use for online activities, such that the possibility of unsafe behavior is reduced and the possibility of safe behavior is increased – also known as security by design. There is a role here for policy measures encouraging technology manufacturers to make these adjustments.


Dr. Rick van der Kleij
Dr. R. van der Kleij werkt als senior onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool en als senior onderzoeker bij TNO.

Dr. Susanne van ’t Hoff-de Goede
Dr. S. van ’t Hoff-de Goede is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het lectoraat Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool.

Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S. van de Weijer is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR.

Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt
Dr. E.R. Leukfeldt werkt als lector Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool en als senior onderzoeker bij het NSCR.
Artikel

Wie krijgt zijn geld terug?

Acties van slachtoffers tot schadevergoeding bij bankfraude

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden banking fraud, victimization, crime reporting, reimbursement, capability to act
Auteurs Dr. Johan van Wilsem, Dr. Take Sipma en Dr. Esther Meijer-van Leijsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Internet era, banking fraud has become a common way of stealing money. According to victim surveys, this offense has already led to significant numbers of victims. In this article, the authors focus on illegal bank account withdrawals, which are an indication of identity fraud. For this they use data on 636 victims who were surveyed in the LISS panel. Using the concept of ‘capability to act’, as used in the WRR report Why knowing what to do is not enough (2017), the authors model which type of victim takes action to get the stolen amount reimbursed and which type of victim succeeds in doing so. They expect that the less educated and people with low self-control more often refrain from contact with authorities (bank, police) and therefore more often receive no compensation and remain with higher residual damage. The results show that approximately four in five victims of unauthorized bank debits are fully compensated. For the group of victims for whom this is not the case – remaining with residual damage – most of the hypotheses are confirmed.


Dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. van Wilsem is strateeg-onderzoeker bij de Algemene Rekenkamer.

Dr. Take Sipma
Dr. T. Sipma is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

Dr. Esther Meijer-van Leijsen
Dr. E. Meijer-van Leijsen is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij de Algemene Rekenkamer.
Artikel

Vissen met een nieuwe hengel: een onderzoek naar betaalverzoekfraude

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden payment request fraud, online advertisement platforms, modus operandi, cybercrime, spearphishing
Auteurs Joke Rooyakkers MSc. en Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Online fraudsters seem to adapt to new digital opportunities. While the academic literature about phishing mainly focuses on phishing through emails, fraudsters also appear to use new means of communication and platforms to find and deceive their victims. Based on analysis of 728 police reports from the period from June 20th to August 20th 2019, this article provides a descriptive study on the new phenomenon of payment request fraud on the Dutch advertisement platform Marktplaats.nl (similar to eBay). The article will provide a thorough description of the crime script and its success factors. As fraudsters now use new means of communication, it will also be assessed to what extent they use new persuasion techniques, and to what extent victims may have different characteristics. The research, therefore, focuses on the modus operandi, persuasion techniques used by the fraudsters, and victim characteristics.


Joke Rooyakkers MSc.
I.J.M. Rooyakkers MSc. is analist cybercrime bij de Nationale Politie, eenheid Limburg.

Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
Dr. M. Weulen Kranenbarg is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Persoonlijke pagina: https://research.vu.nl/en/persons/marleen-weulen-kranenbarg.
Artikel

Het verlies van geld, geluk en gezicht

Romance scams, datingfraude en ‘sweetheart swindles’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden cybercrime, victimization, romance scam, dating fraud, cybervictimology
Auteurs Raoul Notté MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Romance scams have seen a worldwide increase and are one of the most financially damaging forms of cybercrime. In addition, victims suffer strong emotional impact and are confronted with victim blaming. Research shows how the combination of various emotional and financial impact can induce a ‘double-hit’ on victims. Knowledge and possibilities for law enforcement are insufficient, which leads to a lack of financial compensation and support for victims.


Raoul Notté MSc
R.J. Notté MSc is als researcher/lecturer verbonden aan The Hague University of Applied Sciences (Faculteit IT & Design/Centre of Expertise Cyber Security). Hij is tevens promovendus bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van Tilburg University.

    Trendwatching is a tool to get a better grip on what happens next and as such it is used by the Dutch Financial and Fiscal Investigation Service (FIOD) to explore possible futures of financial crime with a time lap of two years. The author describes how trendwatching works. In this case a platform Trends4fi (www.trends4fi.org) was created with a website, a mobile app and trend groups to generate foresights in cooperation with connected networks from public and private organisations. This is called network trendwatching, in fact a social intelligence tool designed to generate as much new information and new insights on developments which might have an impact on financial crime and the fight against it.


Drs. Andrea Wiegman
Drs. A.K. Wiegman is projectleider van Trends4fi bij de FIOD en auteur van De Tijdgeest ontrafeld. Van Snapshots naar Trends (Boom/Nelissen 2014).
Artikel

De ontwikkeling van het aantal door bestuursorganen behandelde overtredingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden administrative sanctions, trend, minor offences, restorative sanctions, punitive sanctions
Auteurs Dr. Debora Moolenaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper looks at the number of administrative sanctions for minor offences since 2005. Administrative sanction can be divided into two categories: restorative sanctions and punitive sanctions. Information is limited and dispersed. The number of offences handled by welfare agencies has decreased with 21% in the period 2005-2016. In the same period the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by the police/public prosecutor have decreased with 14% (mainly originating from automated traffic cameras). Also administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory financial agencies have decreased with 58%. For some organisations the observation period is a shorter. In the period 2011-2016 the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by municipalities has increased with 41% and the number of administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory non-financial agencies have decreased with 47%. There is no information available on administrative sanctions for tax fraud.


Dr. Debora Moolenaar
Dr. D.E.G. Moolenaar is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

‘Slimme Don’: de intelligente maffiabaas van Rusland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden intelligent criminals, Russian Mafia, Semjon Mogilevitsj, organized crime, financial crimes
Auteurs Prof. dr. D. Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drawing on material from her extensive study of Russian organized crime, the author sketches a portrait of Semjon Mogilevitsj. This Russian ‘godfather’ enjoys the reputation of being the smartest and highest educated mafia boss worldwide. Indeed Mogilevitsj obtained a master’s degree in Economics with good results, but this alone doesn’t explain his phenomenal successes in criminal as well as in legal business. Describing the steady expansion of his criminal activities from Russia into Israel, the United States, Eastern Europa, Italy and Canada, the author suggests that the social and economic circumstances in Russia just before and during the collapse of the Soviet Union might have served as an ideal playing ground for Mogilevitsj to develop the specific social intelligence and skills needed to successfully run a criminal organization.


Prof. dr. D. Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Analysemethoden en technieken voor criminologisch onderzoek

Oude trends en nieuwe ontwikkelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Qualitative research, Criminology, Multivariate analytical methods, Size and causes of crime, Mixed methods
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the developments in the use of analytical methods and technics for criminological research in the Netherlands since the beginning of the eighties. The author focuses on quantitative research methods. While classical multivariate technics like (M)AN(C)OVA, canonic correlation analysis and LISREL were dominant until the beginning of the new century, new multivariate analytical methods appeared from 2005 onwards. Especially the analysis of life course trajectories of criminal offenders caught on. The author also discusses various methods to measure the size of crime, like randomized response and capture-recapture, as well as methods identifying the causes of crime. In this latter field the use of fixed-effects methods and the propensity score matching technic has expanded considerably in the last couple of years. When it comes to explaining why people commit crime, quantitative methods do not suffice. The author argues that thorough quantitative methods can reveal the context in which criminal acts occur. The wider use of so-called mixed methods (quantitative as well as qualitative) could contribute to a deeper understanding of crime and stimulate theoretical development. In doing so these methods contribute considerably to understanding why people commit crime.


Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld is directeur van het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Wat doen daders met hun geld?

Uitkomsten van de Monitor Georganiseerde Criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Money laundering, Organised crime, Financial crime, Criminal infiltration approach, Social opportunity structure
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen, E.R. Kleemans en R.F. Kouwenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors use empirical data from the Dutch Organised Crime Monitor to give empirical insight into the investments of organised crime offenders in legal economy. Using a dataset of 1,196 individual investments, they look into what kind of assets offenders purchase and where these assets are located. The authors use the empirical results to assess the tenability of different theoretical perspectives and assumptions that are present in the literature on money laundering and organised crime: the standard economic approach, the criminal infiltration approach and the social opportunity structure. The results of this study show that offenders predominantly invest in their home country and that their investments consist of tangible, familiar assets such as residences and other real estate and companies from well-known sectors. Investments such as bonds as well as stocks in companies in which offenders are not personally involved, were only found in a small number of cases. To put it differently: offenders usually stay close to home with their investments. Based on these results, the concept of social opportunity structure seems to be best suited to understand offenders’ investment choices.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

E.R. Kleemans
Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans is hoogleraar Zware Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

R.F. Kouwenberg
Drs. Ruud Kouwenberg werkt bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Het bestrijden van uitkeringsfraude: mogelijkheden en moeilijkheden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden social security fraud, social assistance benefits, detecting fraud, municipalities, local policies
Auteurs M. Fenger en W. Voorberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the role of local municipalities in detecting and sanctioning benefit fraud, specifically fraud with social assistance benefits. Since the early 2000's, the government's attention for benefit fraud has been increased, resulting in the strengthening of the tasks and responsibilities of local municipalities in combatting and detecting fraud. There are indications that this has been successful: there is an increase in detection and the number of people that claims to offend the rules is decreasing. However, there is a significant amount of variety between municipalities in their performance with this regard. The authors argue that these differences are related to the design and implementation of local policies concerning the detection of benefit fraud. They offer several recommendations for more effective policies at the local level. These recommendations include a better use of available data and knowledge about the background of offenders and social assistance recipients.


M. Fenger
Dr. Menno Fenger is universitair hoofddocent aan de opleiding Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

W. Voorberg
William Voorberg MSc is promovendus aan de opleiding Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Auteurs Bert Berghuis en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Bert Berghuis
Gastredacteur Bert Berghuis is als raadadviseur verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving en Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid & Justitie. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

Marit Scheepmaker
Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Als je merkt dat niemand het merkt

Over fraude in de wetenschap

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden categories of science fraud, history of science fraud, causes of science fraud, publication pressure, supervision
Auteurs C.J.M. Schuyt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author deals with some issues concerning fraud in science. First, he wonders if this is a new phenomenon. After exploring the definition of scientific fraud he sets the inquiry to the prevalence of this phenomenon. Various recent science fraud cases are discussed, as well as possible explanations for science fraud. Finally, the author formulates a criminological-oriented hypothetical explanation, which opposes frequently heard explanations dealing with contemporary problems in the universities, such as the publication pressure.


C.J.M. Schuyt
Prof. dr. mr. Kees Schuyt is lid van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen, voorzitter van het Landelijk Orgaan Wetenschappelijke Integriteit en emeritus hoogleraar Sociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Oorzaken van fraude in de zorgsector

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden health care fraud, reimbursement system, lack of transparency, compliance, cultural change
Auteurs W. Groot en H. Maassen van den Brink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Health care fraud and abuse has long been ignored or downplayed in the Netherlands. Increased media attention has put the issue more on the agenda. Health care fraud can erode the willingness to pay the compulsory contributions for health care among the population. Exact figures on health care fraud are still unavailable, although examples of fraudulent behavior are manifold. The risk of health care fraud is high due to the complexity and lack of transparency of the reimbursement system, the autonomy of the health care professional, the lack of adequate control, governance and attention for compliance in health care. What is needed to combat fraud in health care is a ‘zero tolerance’ policy. For this more attention to compliance and a change in the culture that ignores and condones fraud in health care are necessary.


W. Groot
Prof.dr. Wim Groot is hoogleraar Gezondheidseconomie en hoogleraar Evidence based education aan de Universiteit Maastricht. E-mail: w.groot@maastrichtuniversity.nl.

H. Maassen van den Brink
Prof.dr. Henriette Maassen van den Brink is hoogleraar Economie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en hoogleraar Evidence based education aan de Universiteit Maastricht. E-mail: h.maassenvandenbrink@uva.nl.
Artikel

Drie drijvende krachten achter bedrijfscriminaliteit

Een empirisch onderzoek naar fraude in het midden- en kleinbedrijf

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden business crime, small and medium sized enterprises, control, opportunity, motivation
Auteurs G.W. Brummelkamp, W. Huisman en T. Flikweert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives a report of an empirical study on business crime among small and medium sized enterprises (< 250 employees). The researchers examined 37 cases of business crime by interviewing the entrepreneurs. They were asked how the offence occurred, about their personal stake and their reflections on the interests that were impaired. Although the concept of business crime covers a huge amount of unlawful actions committed with various intentions, in the end there are three main driving forces: control, opportunity and motivation. Control refers to the entrepreneurs’ professionalism and ability to bring business processes – that can be rather complex – in line with regulations. Opportunity refers to the economic interest c.q. the (opportunity) costs of compliance. Motivation refers to the entrepreneurs’ perception of responsibility toward direct stakeholders and social values.


G.W. Brummelkamp
Drs. Guido Brummelkamp is senior onderzoeker bij Panteia.

W. Huisman
Prof. dr. mr. Wim Huisman is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

T. Flikweert
Mr. drs. Tamara Flikweert is als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Faillissementsfraude: een hardnekkig fenomeen

Pleidooi voor een preventieve aanpak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Bankruptcy fraud, Preventive approach, Prosecution, Trade Register, New legislation
Auteurs F. Kemp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands new criminal law measures will be introduced to prevent and combat bankruptcy fraud. In this article the author argues that the emphasis on criminal law measures is not sufficient to effectively tackle the phenomenon of bankruptcy fraud because prosecution and punishment always occur after the damage is done. What is needed is an integrated approach realising preventive measures, such as tools to detect fraud at an early stage. Fraud is, after all, characterised by typical behaviour that throws up digital red flags. After detecting those red flags subsequent action can be taken to stop the fraud. Also modernising the Trade Register would contribute considerably to the protection of creditors.


F. Kemp
Mr. Frits Kemp is als advocaat en curator verbonden aan Fort advocaten te Amsterdam. Hij is lid van de initiatiefgroep 1Overheid en docent Insolventierecht bij verschillende universiteiten en instellingen.
Artikel

Kapitalistische banken als criminele ondernemingen: de casus Wall Street

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden finance crime, financial crisis, financial networks, white collar crime, Goldman Sachs
Auteurs D.O. Friedrichs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central thesis of this article is that the structure of the present financial system, its culture, and its collective practices and policies are fundamentally criminal and criminogenic. The harms emanating from this financial system are exponentially greater than those emanating from the disadvantaged environments that generate a disproportionate percentage of conventional crime. Accordingly, on various levels, there is much at stake in more fully and directly recognizing and identifying many core policies and practices of the financial system for what they are: crimes on a very large scale.


D.O. Friedrichs
Prof. David O. Friedrichs is als distinguished professor verbonden aan het Department of Sociology, Criminal Justice & Criminology van de University of Scranton. Hij is tevens gasthoogleraar aan de School of Law van de University of Western Australia (Perth).
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