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Artikel

Terrorisme- en radicaliseringsstudies

Een explosief onderzoeksveld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden terrorism studies, radicalization studies, definition, analysis levels, pitfalls
Auteurs Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Studying terrorism and radicalization is quite problematic because of a lack of reliable sources. Finding out what motivates terrorists often boils down to educated guessing. The author describes the search for an academic definition of terrorism and summarizes the development of this discipline since the 1970s, thereby distinguishing research on three levels: macro, micro and meso. While before 9/11 few academics were involved in this research field, it ‘exploded’ thereafter. Important factor contributing to this expansion is the greater availability of government funds and relevant data for this type of research. However, the growth of this discipline isn’t just good news, researchers should be aware of a number of pitfalls identified as the proximity to government power, too much self-confidence (hybris) of researchers pretending to have designed a ‘unified theory’, the abundance of funds for this type of research, resulting in a lot of low-quality research, and finally the politicization of the subject, which could limit the academic freedom.


Prof.dr. B.A. de Graaf
Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf is als hoogleraar History of International Relations & Global Governance verbonden aan de faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Buurtsurveillance in de Haagse Schilderswijk – door de ogen van jongeren uit de buurt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden neighborhood watch, ethnic community, Dutch-Moroccan juveniles, deviant behavior, role of the family
Auteurs M. Boutasmit Msc en Dr. E. Snel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines how Dutch-Moroccan juveniles from the Schilderswijk in The Hague, a neighborhood known as relatively unsafe, experience neighborhood watch and how they cope with it. Does neighborhood watch make juveniles to reduce or to continue their deviant behavior? The authors found that particularly neighborhood watchers from their own ethnic community (‘residential fathers’) have a positive influence on juveniles. Juveniles tend to obey them more because they feel treated with understanding and respect. Also they feel uncomfortable when realizing that supervisors from their own community might know their parents and families and might tell them about their deviant behavior. The role of the family in reducing deviant behavior of migrant juveniles was not yet mentioned in the literature.


M. Boutasmit Msc
Mohamed Boutasmit MSc volgde het masterprogramma Grootstedelijke Vraagstukken en Beleid van de (toenmalige) Afdeling Sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij is nu werkzaam als adviseur bij BMC Implementatie, een bedrijf dat tijdelijke professionals voor opdrachtgevers uit de publieke sector rekruteert en beide partijen adviseert.

Dr. E. Snel
Dr. Erik Snel is universitair docent bij het Department of Public Administration & Sociology (DPAS) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij doet vooral onderzoek naar internationale migratie.
Artikel

Tussen Heumensoord en Winschoten

Over de tegenstrijdige betekenis van burgerparticipatie in de veiligheidszorg

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden community crime prevention, public security, instrumental perspective, social polarization, social diversity
Auteurs Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the concluding article of this special issue on civilian participation in public security it is argued that this term covers many different phenomena, from neighborhood watchers cooperating with the police to extremist militia. Much of the literature on civilian participation implicitly and wrongfully has an instrumental perspective. The participation of civilians in public security however, is much more than just an instrument of public administration or the police. Not all activities of citizens in the field of public security are decent or according to the perspective of the administration and the police. Moreover, there is no consensus on what public security exactly means, while the motives of people to get involved in public security activities differ greatly. Mobilizing citizens on the basis of fighting crime bears the risk of producing differences and conflicts in society instead of creating open, tolerant and inclusive communities.


Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Reflecties op het verantwoord gebruik van kunstmatige intelligentie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Artificial Intelligence, Ethical dilemma’s, Designing process, Restrictions and controls, Human rights
Auteurs Dr. M.V. Dignum en Prof.dr. J. van den Hoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The potential perils of robots and other forms of artificial intelligence (AI) have been a subject for discussion since the 1950s. Nevertheless it seems that society is still not prepared for the great impact of the rapid advancement of AI in the last decennium and the many ethical dilemmas involved. How can moral, social and legal values be integrated in the designing process of AI technologies? Is it imaginable that these AI systems would ever be considered as ethical entities? How to control these systems? The authors argue that we should not only analyze these problems, but also reflect on ethics itself. AI has the potential to change the way we live and work. But it is important to introduce restrictions and controls to guarantee our freedom, autonomy and fundamental human rights.


Dr. M.V. Dignum
Dr. Virginia Dignum is als Associate Professor verbonden aan de Faculteit voor Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Prof.dr. J. van den Hoven
Prof. dr. Jeroen van den Hoven is als hoogleraar Ethiek verbonden aan de Faculteit voor Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

Slachtofferschap van identiteitsfraude

Een studie naar aard, omvang, risicofactoren en nasleep

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs J. van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Identity fraud involves the theft of another person's identity information (e.g. bank account number and password), mostly for purposes of financial gain to the offender. The literature review summarizes main results from international and Dutch research with respect to the nature, size, risk factors and aftermath of identity fraud as well as the consequences for its victims. Though scientific research on these phenomena is taking place more and more, much work yet remains to be done. This review ends with suggestions for future research on identity fraud.


J. van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is als universitair hoofddocent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    It is now well established that both the ‘war on terror’ and its descendents have been heavily constituted through highly urban discourses, materialities and practices. This article - deliberately transdisciplinary, synthetical and polemical in scope - seeks to demonstrate that new ideologies of permanent and boundless war are radically intensifying the militarization of urban life in the contemporary period. By engaging with Michel Foucault's concept of the ‘boomerang effect’, this paper delineates the ways in which contemporary processes of militarisation - which surround what I label the ‘new military urbanism’ - raise fundamental questions for critical urban and political scholarship because of the ways in which they work to normalise the permanent targeting of everyday urban sites, circulations, and populations. Focusing primarily on US military security and military doctrine, culture and technology, this paper explores four of the new military urbanism's inter-related foundations in detail. These are: the deep Foucauldian boomerangs linking experimentation with new architectures and technologies of control in war-zone and domestic cities; the emerging urban political economies of the ‘security’ industries; the ways in which practices and discourses of political violence and securitisation permeate the everyday infrastructures of cities; and the cultural performances of militarised media consumption. The paper concludes by identifying emerging counter-political and countergeographic activism as it seeks to challenge the normalization of the new military urbanism.


S. Graham
Prof. Stephen Graham is verbonden aan de School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape van Newcastle University. Hij is auteur van o.a. Splintering urbanism (2001) en Cities under siege (2010).
Titel

De strijd van de Wereldbank tegen fraude en corruptie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 07 2005
Trefwoorden Bank, Fraude, Aangifte, Contract, Personeel, Betaling, Kwaliteit, Aanbeveling, Bedrijfsmiddel, E-business
Auteurs Jong, M. de

Jong, M. de
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs M.B. Schuilenburg en M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

M.B. Schuilenburg
Gastredacteur en redactieraadlid mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg is als docent verbonden aan de vakgroep criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Onder de mensen

De aanpak van transportcriminaliteit door politie, verzekeraars en schade-experts

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs M.B. Schuilenburg, A. Coenraads en P. Van Calster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses what is left aside in the perspective of nodal governance: namely the adaptability and dynamics of social reality itself. The challenge is to research ‘what actually happens’ without reducing it to collective structures or specific frameworks in advance. Previous to specific structures (‘teams’) and frameworks (‘meetings’, ‘contracts’) there is constant change, movement and difference. By using the work of the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904) the authors research how the nodes police, insurers and loss adjusters cooperate in the fight against transport criminality and how interactions between these nodes take content and shape. Consequently, their cooperation is not interpreted as a static theme, but rather as a dynamic process that requires constant interpretation in terms of relationships, unexpected events, adaptations and coincidences. On the basis of fifteen in-depth interviews the authors show in which way a ‘new language’ with ‘new mechanisms’ originates within the cooperation. As a consequence, ‘informal contacts’, ‘goals and interests’, ‘mutual confidence’ and ‘information-exchange’, which play an important role between the nodes, are constantly re-defined.


M.B. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

A. Coenraads
Annerieke Coenraads MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Ze heeft op persoonlijke titel meegeschreven aan deze bijdrage.

P. Van Calster
Dr. Patrick Van Calster is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het departement Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
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