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Artikel

‘Dirty money, pretty art’

Witwassen en ondermijning in tijden van financialisering van kunst

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden art market, financialization, money laundering, financial crime, jaw enforcement
Auteurs Christoph Rausch, Léonie Bouwknegt, Jeroen Duijsens e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What is the current nature and extent of money laundering on the art market in times of an increasing financialization of art? This article introduces the problem of money laundering through art and reflects on the associated risks of financial crime. Drawing on two recently published research reports the article describes art market and art financialization practices that may facilitate money laundering. It presents an overview of relevant rules and regulations and points to the challenges of preventing art-based financial crimes.


Christoph Rausch
Dr. C. Rausch is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het Maastricht Centre for Arts and Culture, Conservation and Heritage (MACCH) van de Universiteit Maastricht.

Léonie Bouwknegt
Mr. L. Bouwknegt is operationeel specialist bij de Politie Limburg en adviseur Ondermijning & Internationale Samenwerking, taakaccent Kunstgerelateerde Criminaliteit.

Jeroen Duijsens
Drs. J.M.H. Duijsens is als programmamanager verbonden aan het Platform Veilig Ondernemen Limburg.

Frank Assendelft
Dhr. F. Assendelft is werkzaam bij de afdeling Tactische Opsporing Financieel-Economisch van de Politie Limburg, taakaccent Kunst en Antiek.
Artikel

Invordering schulden: van eigenbelang naar gezamenlijk belang

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden debt recovery, seizing wage, seizing bank account, multiple creditors, legislation
Auteurs Mr. André Moerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution treats debt recovery as an important cause for the emergence and worsening of the debt problem. It is explained that when a bailiff seizes wage, the debtor often has too little left to live on. In addition to seizure of wage, the bailiff can also seize the bank account or seize household goods in order to sell these. The author describes how this can lead to new debts and what legislation is being prepared to modernize this situation. In case of problematic debts, multiple creditors are collecting from the same debtor, which requires coordination. The recovery by creditors facilitated by the current rules focuses on the claims of individual creditors. However, as soon as problematic debts are involved, an integrated approach is necessary, in which the common interest, the interest of all creditors and that of the debtor, takes precedence over self-interest.


Mr. André Moerman
Mr. A.J. Moerman is manager bij Bindkracht10, voorzitter van de signaleringscommissie van de Landelijke Organisatie Sociaal Raadslieden en eigenaar van www.schuldinfo.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Hoe de onvrede over het schuldhulpstelsel ontstond

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden overindebtedness, legislation, debt recovery, policy change, coronacrisis
Auteurs Dr. Nadja Jungmann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands a large number of households is overindebted. Despite the economic prosperity, 20% of the households has to deal with large debts. Dissatisfaction with the position of debtors has grown in recent years. Numerous initiatives are being launched to improve their position. New legislation is provided for and municipalities are starting up all kinds of pilots. There is momentum for improvement. It is important that all initiatives are coordinated. In addition, it is also important to investigate what the legislation and initiatives yield.


Dr. Nadja Jungmann
Dr. N. Jungmann is lector Schulden & Incasso aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. Zij is tevens eigenaar van trainings- en adviesbureau Social Force.
Artikel

Criminele geldstromen en ICT: over innovatieve werkwijzen, oude zekerheden en nieuwe flessenhalzen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, organized crime, money laundering, bitcoin, financial crime
Auteurs Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen, Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt, Prof.dr. Edward Kleemans e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we analyze how organized crime offenders use IT to handle their money flows. How and to what extent do offenders use IT-facilitated possibilities, such as bitcoin, to launder their money? The empirical data consist of thirty large-scale police investigations. These thirty cases are part of the Organized Crime Monitor, an ongoing research project into the nature of organized crime in the Netherlands. One of the most striking findings is the fact that cash is still king – even for online drug dealers who get paid in digital currencies.


Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen
Dr. E.W. Kruisbergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid.

Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt
Dr. R. Leukfeldt is senior-onderzoeker cybercrime bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving en lector Cybersecurity in het mkb bij de Haagse Hogeschool.

Prof.dr. Edward Kleemans
Prof. dr. E.R. Kleemans is hoogleraar zware criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R. Roks is universitair docent aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

De werkwijze van jihadistische netwerken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden jihadist networks, terrorism, radicalization, modus operandi, police files
Auteurs Dr. J.L. de Bie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Jihadist networks have become a serious threat to Europe’s internal security and are therefore a policy priority. But what do we know about these networks and how should we counter them? This study focuses on the modus operandi of jihadist networks between 2000 and 2013 and gives an empirical insight in the organizational structures, activities, and involvement mechanisms of jihadist networks in the Netherlands. The data are derived from 28 police investigations, 51 interviews with police investigators, public prosecutors, lawyers, imams, and staff members from Asylum and Detention Centers. The findings show how jihadist networks have changed over the years and how this development has affected the way jihadists operate.


Dr. J.L. de Bie
Dr. Jasper de Bie is verbonden aan de Afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Na de vrijlating

Observaties en dilemma’s in de omgang met (voormalige) terrorismegedetineerden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden terrorism convicts, reintegration, desistance, prison regime, guidance and supervision after release
Auteurs Prof. dr. B.A. de Graaf en D. Weggemans MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the last decades the number of people who have been detained on the suspicion of terrorism has significantly grown. This has resulted in an increased scholarly interest in the topic of prisons and terrorism. However, the main focus of academic research has been the period of incarceration. Especially the question whether terrorists should be isolated from other prisoners has received considerable scientific attention. What happens after their release still remains opaque. In this article some preliminary insights will be shared on particular aspects of the societal reintegration of former suspected terrorist detainees. It presents some of the obstacles, dilemmas and opportunities. These insights where obtained through semi-structured interviews with both professionals and former detainees with a jihadist background.


Prof. dr. B.A. de Graaf
Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf is als hoogleraar History of International Relations & Global Governance verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

D. Weggemans MSc
Daan Weggemans, MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Institute for Security and Global Affairs (Campus Den Haag) van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Grote diversiteit en enige rechtsgelijkheid

Juridische samenlevingsvormen voor paren van gelijk geslacht in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden family life, same-sex partners, registered partnership, cohabitation, non-discrimination
Auteurs Prof. mr. K. Waaldijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives a compact overview of developments in national and European law regarding same-sex partners. Over the last decades, new legal family formats (such as registered partnership and de facto union) have been made available in a growing number of countries. The number of countries that have opened up marriage to same-sex couples is also growing. Authors of comparative family law have proposed various classifications of the new legal family formats. Meanwhile, an increasing number of EU laws now acknowledge non-marital partners. The European Courts have been asked several times to rule on controversial differentiations between different legal family formats or between same-sex and different-sex partners. In the case law of the European Court of Human Rights one can find examples of affirmative eloquence which suggest that more steps towards full legal recognition of same-sex families could be expected.


Prof. mr. K. Waaldijk
Prof. mr. Kees Waaldijk is als hoogleraar comparative sexual orientation law verbonden aan het Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies van Universiteit Leiden, www.law.leidenuniv.nl/waaldijk. Eerdere versies van dit artikel verschenen in het Engels (Waaldijk 2015; Waaldijk 2014). Momenteel leidt hij een onderzoek naar de rechtsgevolgen van huwelijk, partnerschap en samenwonen in een groot aantal Europese landen. Vandaar de volgende acknowledgement: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 320116 for the research project FamiliesAnd Societies (www.familiesandsocieties.eu). De auteur dankt José Maria Lorenzo Villaverde, onderzoeker in dit project, voor zijn nuttige opmerkingen en Jingshu Zhu voor haar hulp bij het vinden van de EU-regelingen.
Artikel

De illegale economie en nationaal inkomen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden illegal activities, national accounts, European Community, illegal drugs, prostitution
Auteurs B. Kazemier en M. Rensman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2014, almost all countries of the European Community have revised their National Accounts. Besides the introduction of some important methodological and theoretical improvements, now income from illegal activities are included in the estimates of the national income. For the Netherlands the inclusion of illegal activities has increased gross national income by some 0.4%. This is less than the overall average for the European Community.


B. Kazemier
Dr. Brugt Kazemier werkt als onderzoeker bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.

M. Rensman
Dr. Marieke Rensman werkt als onderzoeker bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.
Artikel

Toegang tot recht in beweging

Over burgers en hun oplossingsstrategieën

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden access to justice, civil justice, administrative law, dispute resolution, legal assistance
Auteurs M. ter Voert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both in public policy and in scientific research, the concept of access to justice has been subject to change. In the seventies access to justice was mainly understood as access to a lawyer and a judge. In the nineties the perspective widens to alternative forms of dispute resolution, self-help and juridification of problems. The present article focuses on access to justice for citizens who experienced civil and administrative problems. Firstly, it illustrates the change in public policy with respect to dispute resolution. Secondly, it describes the shifting views on access to justice in empirical research. Furthermore it presents the results of socio-legal research into the dispute resolution of citizens and discusses what these results tell us about access to justice.


M. ter Voert
Dr. Marijke ter Voert is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

De technologie van toegang tot het recht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden dispute resolution technology, acces to justice, ODR, justice innovation, e-Justice
Auteurs J.H. Verdonschot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Current trends in the delivery of legal services create the opportunity to develop a new generation of access to justice platforms. On the basis of two examples, the author illustrates how this can work. M-Sheria is a technology-based access to justice service that serves the poor in Kenya. It combines state of the art information technology (USSD, SMS, internet) and human technology (community paralegals and pro bono advocates) to help slum dwellers solve their legal problems. Rechtwijzer 2.0 is an internet-based platform that provides online human and technology-facilitated support to people with a legal problem in the Netherlands. These examples show how processes and professionals can be innovated to facilitate dispute resolution in delivering information and interventions just in time.


J.H. Verdonschot
Mr. dr. Jin Ho Verdonschot is werkzaam als dispute resolution technology advisor bij HiiL Innovating Justice.
Artikel

De maatschappelijke positie van Midden- en Oost-Europese arbeidsmigranten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden CEE migrants, social position, labour migration, housing conditions, posted workers
Auteurs E. Snel, M. Faber en G. Engbersen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the social position of Central and Eastern European (CEE) migrants in the Netherlands, in particular their labour and housing position, using the results of recent Dutch research by three different groups of scholars. We cannot speak of a homogeneous group of migrants. The prevailing image of the hard-working labour migrant, doing low-qualified and often low-paid work (even though many of them are highly skilled) and faced with poor working and living conditions is largely confirmed by the available research. However, there are also knowledge workers (‘kennismigranten’) among the migrants from CEE-countries working in the Netherlands. In addition, the authors also found partners and children of previous migrants from CEE-countries, and students. This diversity of the new group of migrants from CEE-countries forms a challenge for local governments to find appropriate instruments to lead integration on the right track.


E. Snel
Dr. Erik Snel is verbonden aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

M. Faber
Marije Faber, MSc is werkzaam bij de afdeling Sociologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

G. Engbersen
Prof. dr. Godfried Engbersen is verbonden aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Frontlijnwerken in de grote stad

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden frontline social work, Rotterdam, crisis situations, tailor-made approach, protection of the less-privileged
Auteurs B. Rombout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the activities and working methods of the Rotterdam social aid agency Bureau Frontlijn. It is based on the personal views and experiences of the author, Bureau Frontlijn director Barend Rombout, a former policeman who switched to social work in the disadvantaged districts more than ten years ago. The teaching of skills, coaching and training are key concepts in the work of Bureau Frontlijn. Many people suffering from a crisis because of unemployment, divorce, homelessness or early pregnancy are not adequately helped by state institutions, but instead get entangled in all kinds of bureaucratic procedures. What is needed in social aid is a more comprehensive and tailor-made approach. Even though individual responsibility is important, society has a moral obligation to protect the less privileged, because many of them have been in a disadvantaged situation since their birth or even earlier.


B. Rombout
Barend Rombout is hoofd van Bureau Frontlijn in Rotterdam.
Artikel

Aantallen civiele rechtszaken in Nederland en elders

Een vergelijking in de tijd en in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2009
Auteurs E. Niemeijer en C.M. Klein Haarhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Academic perceptions of litigation rates are dispersed: they vary from observations of a ‘litigation explosion’ to empirical accounts of ‘vanishing trials’. In this article the authors study whether civil trials are increasing or vanishing in the Netherlands. To find out, the authors studied trends in the number of civil cases in the Dutch courts. First, they observed developments in the filings as well as the dispositions of civil cases over the past 25 years, taking into account the trial-likeness of the procedures. Second, they put the Dutch figures - including other indicators of legal activity - in a European perspective. The findings show that the number of court cases in the Netherlands is on the rise. This does not automatically imply, however, that the Netherlands are a highly litigious society. ‘Light’ versions of trials are predominant, as is efficiency in the management of cases. Moreover, the number of lawyers and judges is rather small compared to other European countries.


E. Niemeijer
Prof. dr. mr. Bert Niemeijer is werkzaam bij de directie Algemene Justitiële Strategie van het ministerie van Justitie en is tevens als hoogleraar empirische rechtssociologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

C.M. Klein Haarhuis
Dr. Carolien Klein Haarhuis is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

    The question of social engineering is an important aspect of debates on security: up to what point can undesired behavior be corrected, prevented or diminished? To what extent is human behavior malleable? This article is a reflection on the development of social engineering, through the lense of the developments in the north of Amsterdam. It is an area that can be seen as a laboratory, a testing ground for the social democratic dream to create a new man, by uplifting and disciplining the urban poor. The central thesis is that the present redevelopment of Amsterdam Noord is predicated upon a shift in governmental strategy: from social engineering to spatial engineering. Location is arguably no longer used to uplift the population, presently the social composition of the population is being changed to uplift the location.


M. Oudenampsen
Drs. Merijn Oudenampsen is freelance onderzoeker. Hij studeerde politicologie en sociologie en was tot 2009 als onderzoeker verbonden aan de Jan van Eijck Academie in Maastricht. Hij werkt op het moment aan een boek over populisme en symboolpolitiek.
Titel

De programmatische aanpak van mensenhandel en mensensmokkel: Een verkenning aan de hand van <i>Sneep</i>

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 07 2007
Trefwoorden Mensenhandel, Mensensmokkel, Opsporingsonderzoek, Slachtoffer, Fiscale inlichtingen- en opsporingsdienst, Gemeente, Openbaar ministerie, Bestuurder, Dwang, Handhaving
Auteurs Kiemel, J. en Kate, W. ten

Kiemel, J.

Kate, W. ten
Titel

De keten en de delta: De verbeelding van de civiele rechtspleging

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2007
Trefwoorden Rechtspraak, Civiele rechtspraak, Gerechtsdeurwaarder, Executie, Betekening dagvaarding, Geschilbeslechting, Levering, Betaling, Ontruiming, Schikking
Auteurs Eshuis, R.

Eshuis, R.
Titel

Warme overdracht of koude kermis? Wat goed en slecht gaat in de nazorg voor ex-gedetineerden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 04 2007
Trefwoorden Gedetineerde, Gemeente, Overdracht, Re-integratie, Recidive, Identiteitsdocument, Inkomen, Betaling, Gemeentelijke basisadministratie, Ministerie van justitie
Auteurs Moors, H. en Balogh, L.

Moors, H.

Balogh, L.
Titel

Een AFM voor de vastgoedmarkt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 02 2006
Trefwoorden Toezicht, Onroerend goed, Autoriteit financiële markten, Verkoop, Institutionele belegger, Professioneel belegger, Bestemmingswijziging, Kadaster, Witwassen, Aankoop
Auteurs Eichholtz, P.

Eichholtz, P.

    Trust between people and institutions is essential for the functioning of society. In this paper the author distinguishes trust and confidence. Confidence is the optimism or pessimism of consumers and investors about the future, about the Dutch economy and about the financial situation of their own household. Consumer confidence declined sharply after 2007, with negative consequences for the sales of houses and cars. A low level of trust is threatening for the functioning of institutions and society. Determinants of trust are: competence, stability, integrity, benevolence, transparency, value congruency and reputation. The first four determinants are ‘dissatisfiers’, while the last three are ‘satisfiers’. Financial institutions have to meet the criteria on the first four determinants without a compensation by the last three determinants. The last three determinants offer options for additional profiling, positioning and differentiation. The recovery of confidence will happen sooner than the recovery of trust. Confidence is related to general economic developments. The recovery of trust is a slower process, because of the integrity of persons and institutions. People want to see ‘proofs’ of a changed behaviour before they trust persons and institutions again. This means that a prolonged trust crisis is to be expected, even when confidence is already optimistic.


W.F. van Raaij
Prof. dr. Fred van Raaij is als hoogleraar economische psychologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
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