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Artikel

De onbenutte kracht van schuldpreventie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden problematic debt, debt prevention, early detection, financial skills, legislation
Auteurs Dr. Tamara Madern
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Problematic debt has a large impact on people’s lives and tends to escalate quickly, making early detection and debt prevention crucial. Debt prevention is a mix of measures, activities and provisions aimed at ensuring that people acquire financial skills and that they are capable and actually behave financially sound, so that their finances are and remain in order. So people have to be financially literate and have financial skills, but they also have to be able to act at the right time in the right way. There is currently not enough attention for these three elements in legislation and regulations.


Dr. Tamara Madern
Dr. T.E. Madern is lector Schuldpreventie en Vroegsignalering bij het lectoraat Schulden en Incasso van het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.
Artikel

Tussen wal en schip

Etnografische inzichten in lokale havenbeveiliging

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden ethnography, ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg, security personnel, customs, global commerce
Auteurs Dr. Yarin Eski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This ethnography of everyday policing realities in the European ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg presents an understanding of policing spaces where protecting and supporting global commerce dominate. In undertaking this research, the author participated in the daily activities of 85 participants in Rotterdam (N=52) and Hamburg (N=33), consisting of 30 operational port police officers, 31 security officers, 10 customs officers and 14 others involved in port security-related matters (e.g. shipping agents, port authorities, boatmen and maritime engineers). These participants were collectively responsible for protecting the vulnerability of the just-in-time logistics by becoming the intervention, through which they become the very local threat to global commerce itself. A struggle that reveals itself in their (narrated) policing struggles with management, colleagues and multi-agency partners, as well as with the maritime business community and dangerous others.


Dr. Yarin Eski
Dr. Y. Eski is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Van sleutelen aan het stelsel naar bouwen aan inhoudelijke vernieuwing

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2019
Trefwoorden Decentralization Dutch youth care, System change, Pedagogical civil society, Prevention, Social issues
Auteurs Dr. Saskia Wijsbroek, Dr. Marije Kesselring en Dr. Dorien Graas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyzes the decentralization and transformation of Dutch youth care since 2015. The authors point out that many problems still exist and in some cases have become worse. To fundamentally reform youth care much more is needed than just money or a system change. It is necessary, also according to international research, to create a strong pedagogical basis or ‘pedagogical civil society’. Also prevention on various levels (universal, selective, indicated) should receive a lot of attention, while the same applies to improving primary care support, such as youth health care, GP practice support, youth work and school social work. It would also be wise to invest in intensive youth care with long-lasting effects. Generally there should be a strong focus on tackling local and (supra)regional social issues.


Dr. Saskia Wijsbroek
Dr. S.A.M. Wijsbroek werkt als lector Jeugd bij het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie aan de Hogeschool Utrecht en als universitair docent bij de onderzoeksgroep Jeugd en Gezin aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Marije Kesselring
Dr. M. Kesselring is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het lectoraat Jeugd bij het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.

Dr. Dorien Graas
Dr. T.A.M. Graas werkt als lector Jeugd bij het Kenniscentrum Gezondheid en Welzijn aan de Hogeschool Windesheim.

    Trendwatching is a tool to get a better grip on what happens next and as such it is used by the Dutch Financial and Fiscal Investigation Service (FIOD) to explore possible futures of financial crime with a time lap of two years. The author describes how trendwatching works. In this case a platform Trends4fi (www.trends4fi.org) was created with a website, a mobile app and trend groups to generate foresights in cooperation with connected networks from public and private organisations. This is called network trendwatching, in fact a social intelligence tool designed to generate as much new information and new insights on developments which might have an impact on financial crime and the fight against it.


Drs. Andrea Wiegman
Drs. A.K. Wiegman is projectleider van Trends4fi bij de FIOD en auteur van De Tijdgeest ontrafeld. Van Snapshots naar Trends (Boom/Nelissen 2014).
Artikel

Access_open Toekomstige risico’s voor de nationale veiligheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden national security, risk analysis, scenarios, horizon scanning, foresight
Auteurs Dr. Minke Meijnders, Ir. Leendert Gooijer en Dr. Hanneke Duijnhoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What are the most important threats for national security in the following years? What do we foresee for the longer term? How are threats interrelated? In this article, we discuss the work of the Dutch Network of Safety and Security Analysts (ANV), which deals with this type of questions since 2011. The main task of this multidisciplinary network is to provide input for the National Security Strategy. It does so by providing an Integrated Risk analysis and a Horizon scan National Security. The authors discuss the foresight-methods used by the network (scenario studies and horizon scanning techniques), as well as the most important conclusions from both studies.


Dr. Minke Meijnders
Dr. M. Meijnders was tot voor kort Research Fellow bij Instituut Clingendael en in die functie betrokken bij het ANV.

Ir. Leendert Gooijer
Ir. Leendert Gooijer is programmacoördinator nationale veiligheid bij het RIVM en tevens Algemeen Secretaris van het ANV.

Dr. Hanneke Duijnhoven
Dr. Hanneke Duijnhoven is Senior scientist nationale veiligheid bij TNO en in die functie betrokken bij het ANV.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Auteurs prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone en Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone
Gastredacteur prof. mr. dr. M.M. Boone is als hoogleraar criminologie en vergelijkende penologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Zij is tevens lid van de redactieraad van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr.drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

En wat als het misgaat?

De omzetting en herroeping van toezicht op justitiabelen in de samenleving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden breach decision-making, revocation, recall, conditional release, community service order
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The decision to revoke or recall a conditional sanction is barely researched in criminal justice research, despite the interests involved for the offender as well as society. This article reflects on some results from a comparative research project on breach decision-making (COST Action on Offender Supervision in Europe). Using Hawkins’ concept of serial decision-making, the interdependence of early stage and final stage decision makers is highlighted. The significant power exercised by early stage actors raises the issue of the need to ensure credibility of community sanctions and appropriate due process protections, without reducing their discretion so much that they cannot perform their role of supporting the offender to complete the supervisory order successfully.


Prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. mr. dr. M.M. Boone is als hoogleraar criminologie en vergelijkende penologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Controle of begeleiding? Ervaringen met reclasseringstoezicht tijdens de voorwaardelijke invrijheidstelling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden parole, desistance, supervision, Re-entry, risk management
Auteurs Jennifer Doekhie MSc, Dr. Esther van Ginneken, Dr. Anja Dirkzwager e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Little is known about how ex-prisoners’ parole supervision experiences relate to desistance. The aim of this article therefore is to gain insight into the nature of release conditions and parole supervision of ex-prisoners and parolees’ perceptions of their supervision related to the desistance process. A total of 23 Dutch parolees were interviewed in depth at three waves starting in prison up to one year after their release, and the 69 interviews were combined with their parole files containing information about conditions, violations and sanctions. Parole files revealed the practice of highly engaged parole officers, who worked with parolees to strengthen factors known to foster desistance. However, the interviews showed that most parolees found their parole experience predominantly surveillance-oriented and not very helpful for desistance. Parole was experienced as most beneficial when parole officers used their discretionary power to adjust conditions creating ‘space’ for trial-and-error.


Jennifer Doekhie MSc
J.V.O.R. Doekhie MSc is als docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Esther van Ginneken
Dr. E.F.J.C. van Ginneken is als docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.

Prof. dr. Paul Nieuwbeerta
Prof. dr. P. Nieuwbeerta is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De Nederlandse gedragscode wetenschappelijke integriteit 2018

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden good research practice, transparency, independence, duties of care, responsibility
Auteurs Prof. dr. Antoine Hol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The new Dutch Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (2018) offers an important document for strengthening good research practices. It can be used in training researchers, informing the general public on standards guaranteeing trustworthiness of scientific research and handling allegations of misconduct in this research. The code departs from a set of principles worked out in standards describing the do’s and don’ts of good research practice. The Dutch code distinguishes itself for amongst others having a special section on duties of care of the organization where researchers are appointed. The organization has special responsibilities to give support to its researchers to develop good research practice and to foster a research culture in which dilemmas of integrity can be discussed in an open atmosphere. In this article special attention is paid to the principle of dependency. It is with regard to this principle that the researcher is most vulnerable, especially when it comes to commissioned research projects. How can the researcher be supported when dependency and honesty are under pressure?


Prof. dr. Antoine Hol
Prof. dr. A.M. Hol is hoogleraar Encyclopedie van het recht/Rechtsfilosofie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en medeauteur van de Nederlandse gedragscode wetenschappelijke integriteit. Hij is tevens voorzitter van de Commissies Wetenschappelijke Integriteit van Universiteit Utrecht en Tilburg University.
Artikel

De best mogelijke rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Legal system, Effectiveness, Legal innovations, Dispute resolution, New technologies
Auteurs Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article outlines the need in the Netherlands for socially effective justice that better resolves citizens’ problems. The author argues that new forms of dispute resolution should be integrated in the justice system. The author first describes various types of innovations. Then he outlines the obstacles to innovations. A major obstacle is that many stakeholders in the existing legal system are simultaneously the gatekeepers for the admission of innovations. It is necessary to create an infrastructure that welcomes, reinforces, tests, finances and imports new treatments for legal problems.


Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht
Prof. dr. M. Barendrecht is als research director verbonden aan The Hague Institute for Innovation of Law (HiiL).
Artikel

Access_open De geografische inrichting van de rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden courts, civil justice, access to justice, judicial map, travel distances
Auteurs Roland Eshuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article relates the geographical allocation of Courts to access to justice. Travel distances within the Dutch system are higher than in surrounding countries, but still not extremely high. The scale of the Dutch Court organizations however, is extreme. On average, a Court location that handles small claims has jurisdiction over a territory with over half a million inhabitants. This large number of inhabitants automatically translates to large numbers of cases, and large bureaucracies, employing 500 to 1,000 people (judges, court staff, support) each. Do travel distances to the Courts actually have an impact on the use of the Court system? Two recent studies find no support for a popular belief that defendants will be less determined to defend themselves when the travel distance to the court is longer. They do show however that the number of cases brought to Court by local plaintiffs drops when ‘their’ local court closes down.


Roland Eshuis
Dr. R.J.J. Eshuis is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Doe het zelf? Strategieën om je veiliger te voelen tijdens een avond uit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2018
Trefwoorden fear of crime, coping strategies, avoidance behavior, urban nightlife, individual agency
Auteurs Dr. Jelle Brands en Dr. Janne van Doorn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study investigates the strategies people themselves use to deal with situations in which they fear crime. The authors see people as social agents who hold agency and (also) manage their own safety, instead of viewing people as powerless victims. Previous studies have emphasized people’s agency, often through a focus on avoiding dangerous spaces. Building on insights from the fear of crime literature that approaches fear of crime as situational, the authors illustrate how spaces in which people worry about crime can also be transformed (through action) into safe(r) spaces. The article focuses on the context of urban nightlife areas. Thirty students living in Utrecht, the Netherlands were interviewed. Results show that students perform a range of strategies to cope with their fear, including situational avoidance, arranging companionship, increasing alertness, and reasoning. In the discussion the authors reflect on how the application of such strategies is related to (erosion of) ‘mobility’ and individual freedom of movement.


Dr. Jelle Brands
Dr. J. Brands is universitair docent aan het Instituut Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Janne van Doorn
Dr. J. van Doorn is universitair docent aan het Instituut Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Facebookvrienden worden met de verdachte

Over undercoverbevoegdheden op internet

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden undercover operations, investigative powers, infiltration, Internet, jurisdiction
Auteurs Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates which online undercover investigative methods are applied in practice and how they fit in the Dutch legal framework. In particular, the three special investigative powers of a pseudo purchase, systematic information gathering and infiltration are examined. Investigative powers cannot be applied unilaterally (across state borders). When law enforcement officials cannot reasonably determine the location of the suspect, the online unilateral application of undercover investigative powers is allowed. However, there is still a risk that diplomatic tensions arise with the involved state. States should agree in treaties under which circumstances cross-border online undercover operations are allowed.


Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
Mr. dr. J.J. Oerlemans is als onderzoeker verbonden aan eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open De aard en aanpak van georganiseerde cybercrime

Bevindingen uit een internationale empirische studie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, traditional organized crime, organization structure of cybercrime groups, policing cybercrime
Auteurs Dr. Geralda Odinot, Dr. Christianne de Poot en Dr. Maite Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Worldwide, the digitalization of society is proceeding rapidly and this brings new forms of crime. The threats arising from different types of cybercrime are real and constantly evolving, as the internet with its anonymity and borderless reach, provides new opportunities for criminal activities. This article describes some results from an international empirical study aimed to gather more insight on the link between cybercrime and organized crime as well as on the question whether cybercrime is organized. It shows how cybercriminals cooperate with each other and what this organization structure looks like.


Dr. Geralda Odinot
Dr. G. Odinot is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker en trainer forensisch interviewen How2Ask. Ten tijde van de uitvoering van het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, was zij werkzaam als onderzoeker bij het WODC.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is als senioronderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC. Zij is tevens hoogleraar Criminalistiek aan de Vrije Universiteit en lector Forensisch onderzoek aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie.

Dr. Maite Verhoeven
Dr. M.A. Verhoeven is als beleidsmedewerker Rechtshandhaving & Ketensamenwerking Cariben verbonden aan het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid. Ten tijde van de uitvoering van het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, was zij werkzaam als onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Artikel

Hybridisering van de zwaardmachten: realiteit of fictie?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden militarization of the police, constabularisation of the military, peace support operations, blurring of police and military functions, high-end policing
Auteurs Dr. Peter Neuteboom en Hans Hovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National and international security are becoming increasingly interdependent. The question is whether this leads to a certain level of militarization of the police and constibularisation of the military. In some of their operations and units, the Dutch police apply tactics, technologies and organizational principles that resemble those of the military. The police also contribute to international peace support operations and stability missions to train or monitor police in post-conflict areas. The Dutch army has been involved in some sort of interim policing during several stability missions and increasingly support the Dutch police in law enforcement operations by providing search and analytical support. Finally, as a police force with a military status, the Royal Marechaussee has acquired a structural and strong position in the Dutch police system. Although there is some sort of convergence, the authors conclude that the level of militarization of the police and constabularisation of the military remains limited.


Dr. Peter Neuteboom
Dr. P.C.J. Neuteboom is directeur Duurzaamheid en Opsporing bij de Inspectie Leefomgeving & Transport en research fellow bij de Nederlandse Defensie Academie.

Hans Hovens
J.L. Hovens is kolonel b.d. van de Koninklijke Marechaussee.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Auteurs Dr. Eric Bervoets en Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Eric Bervoets
Dr. E.J.A. Bervoets is bestuurskundige en criminoloog en zelfstandig gevestigd onderzoeker.

Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Krijger als opsporingsambtenaar?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden armed forces, law enforcement, criminal investigation, military operation, Rules of Engagement
Auteurs dr. Joop Voetelink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands armed forces are increasingly involved in activities within the Netherlands as well as abroad, that can be characterized as law enforcement. Military personnel, however, are not trained as law enforcement officials and perform these non-military tasks based on their military skills and drills. Nevertheless, their efforts eventually must lead to a criminal persecution of a suspect. Therefore, it is important that military personnel are well aware of the particular requirements set out by criminal procedures while planning and executing a military action and, whenever possible, operate in close collaboration with authorized law enforcement officials.


dr. Joop Voetelink
Kolonel dr. J.E.D. Voetelink is universitair hoofddocent militair recht aan de Nederlandse Defensie Academie (NLDA).
Artikel

Opgeruimd staat netjes

Over de sociologie van gebiedsverboden en de praktijk van het Collectief Winkelverbod

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden collective shopping ban, shoplifting, public space, purification, Mary Douglas
Auteurs Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author reports on an ethnographic research conducted on the Collective Shopping Ban, a measure taken in the Netherlands in an effort to make shopkeepers co-responsible for maintaining safety and security. By describing the practice of the Collective Shopping Ban in The Hague, he investigates how the involved shopkeepers are dealing with offenses like theft, nuisance, intimidation, and vandalism. The author describes the sociological background of banning orders and what the banning of people means in terms of purification of public space.


Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Staatloosheid als moderne vorm van uitsluiting

Naar een duurzame oplossing voor staatlozen in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden statelessness, determination procedure, legislative proposal, limbo, exclusion
Auteurs Marlotte van Dael MSc, Mr. Jelle Klaas en Loïs Vaars LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article maps the current Dutch practice on statelessness, and tries to expose the current issues in particular. The published legislative proposal for a statelessness determination procedure in September 2016 is an attempt by the Dutch government to solve part of these problems after wide criticism from, among others, the Advisory Committee on Migration Affairs (ACVZ) in 2013. The introduction of a statelessness determination procedure is a long awaited development and a step in the right direction with a view of improving current practice and law for stateless persons residing in the Netherlands. However, significant deficiencies in the legislative proposal risk to greatly undermine the operation and value of the new procedure, especially for those currently left in limbo and excluded from society. This article focuses on the shortcomings in the procedure and provides recommendations how to revise these to ensure that stateless persons are enabled to demonstrate their statelessness adequately and obtain the rights associated with it as intended in the Statelessness Conventions signed by the Netherlands.


Marlotte van Dael MSc
M. van Dael MSc is als projectcoördinator en onderzoeker staatloosheid verbonden aan het ASKV/Steunpunt Vluchtelingen.

Mr. Jelle Klaas
Mr. J. Klaas is mensenrechtenadvocaat en Litigation Director NJCM.

Loïs Vaars LLM
L. Vaars LLM is dossierhouder staatloosheid bij het Public Interest Litigation Project (PILP).
Artikel

De Wiv 2002 en Wiv 2017 op enkele hoofdlijnen vergeleken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden New Intelligence and Security Services Act, Advisory referendum, Powers of intelligence and security services, Safeguards, Supervision
Auteurs Drs. Rob Dielemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Last year, Dutch parliament approved the proposal for a new Intelligence and Security Services Act (Wiv 2017). This law will replace the current Intelligence and Security Services Act 2002 (Wiv 2002). The Wiv 2017 should be considered feasible with effect from 1 May 2018. Before that time however, an advisory referendum on the new law will be held on 21 March. This article first discusses the nature of the law and the need for innovation. Subsequently, a comparison of both laws takes place in general terms, with regard to the powers of the intelligence and security services, the safeguards, the supervision, the complaint handling and the international cooperation between intelligence and security services. It is argued that the extension of the powers of the services in the Wiv 2017 is only limited in scope, while the safeguards have been considerably strengthened. The introduction of a binding judgment in complaint handling also contributes to a better and more effective legal protection for citizens.


Drs. Rob Dielemans
Drs. R.J.I. Dielemans is werkzaam bij de Directie Constitutionele Zaken en Wetgeving van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties. Dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
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