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Artikel

Van de gesloten smart city naar een open slimme stad

Lessen uit Quayside, Toronto

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Toronto, Quayside, Sidewalk Labs, open data, open smart city
Auteurs Saskia Naafs MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The recently cancelled Quayside smart city project in Toronto by Sidewalk Labs is an example of a top-down, tech-driven, intransparant model of a smart city, where government and citizens got sidetracked in the planning process. This article analyses what went wrong and proposes an alternative approach. Experts in the field – from data scientists to philosophers, sociologists and activists – propose a different kind of smart city. The open smart city is based on principles of open data, public digital infrastructure, and civic participation. It uses technology to strengthen public values, civic participation and human rights, instead of undermining them.


Saskia Naafs MSc
S. Naafs MSc is stadssocioloog en strategisch adviseur bij het Atelier Rijksbouwmeester in Den Haag.
Artikel

Stabilisatie van het schuldenprobleem is niet genoeg

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden debt counseling
Auteurs Dr. Ad Baan en Drs. Bram Berkhout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Dutch debt counseling system, a close collaboration between two trajectories, being voluntary debt settlements and debt settlements imposed by a judge, is vital for the overall success of the system. This article shows that this crucial collaboration is in fact poor, and negatively impacts the success of the debt counseling system. One of the underlying factors is the poor performance of the system as a whole. Although there is a common interest in reducing debts, the involved parties also have their own conflicting interests. The current system fails however to accomplish a tighter collaboration, and even sometimes seems to do the opposite. The authors conclude that a redesign of the Dutch system is necessary to organize a better and more coherent playing field.


Dr. Ad Baan
Dr. A. Baan is werkzaam als senior adviseur bij Berenschot op het terrein van schuldhulpverlening, werk- en inkomensvraagstukken en organisatievragen in het sociaal domein.

Drs. Bram Berkhout
Drs. A. Berkhout is als senior managing consultant verbonden aan Berenschot. Hij is expert in het opzetten en uitvoeren van evaluatie- en monitoronderzoek om de doelmatigheid en/of doeltreffendheid van beleid in kaart te brengen.
Artikel

Politie en krijgsmacht samen in speciale eenheden voor de politietaak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden police, military, SWAT, violent crime, terrorism
Auteurs Dr. Jaap Timmer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2006 the police and the army in the Netherlands cooperate within the System of Special Units. These units are called upon in life-threatening situations with imminent or actual severe violence related for example to organized crime or terrorism. The author examines this cooperation and its added value. The work of the special units system in the police organization should be viewed and treated as police work. Considering today’s concerns about terrorism, it seems wise to invest in an adequate anti-terrorism capacity. Yet the reality is that there are far fewer terrorist attacks and victims in the Netherlands now than in the 1970s. At the same time the number of arrests under life-threatening circumstances that are dealt with by the Arrest Team (SWAT) within the police organization is much higher nowadays. The SWAT lacks capacity to deal with this situation adequately.


Dr. Jaap Timmer
Dr. J.S. Timmer is politiesocioloog. Hij is verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Liquidaties in Nederland in historisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2017
Trefwoorden contract killings, history, the Netherlands, drugs, population groups
Auteurs Drs. E. Slot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the subsequent waves of contract killings in the Netherlands since the twentieth century. Contract killings appear to happen especially within ethnic groups which are newcomers to Dutch society. The Chinese community in Amsterdam fought two internal ‘wars’. The first one was from 1918 till 1935 and circled around the trade in opium and arms. The second one took place between 1969 and the mid-seventies and was fueled by conflicts about the heroin trade. Then Turkish criminals took over the heroin trade, which resulted in a wave of Turkish victims of contract killings throughout the second half of the seventies and into the eighties. The cocaine trade came up in the eighties and was run first by Chileans and later by Colombians, which resulted in several murders within the criminal circles of these communities. While contract killings of (by birth) Dutch criminals had always been very rare, this changed from the mid-eighties. These killings not only took place in Amsterdam, but also in the southern provinces of Limburg and Brabant, as well as in Rotterdam. Most Dutch criminals specialized in cannabis growing and trading. In the nineties the number of contract killings reached a peak. By then Yugoslavs had entered the criminal scene in the Netherlands. They cooperated with Dutch criminals and offered their services as hitmen. From 2000 onwards the number of contract killings has been dropping constantly and has now reached a more or less constant level of around twenty yearly. In the last couple of years many young Moroccan Dutch criminals have been killing and killed in conflicts on drugs trade. The author signalizes a lack of ‘professionalism’ in contract killers today and draws a parallel with the period when Chinese criminals were fighting their wars in Amsterdam. The hitmen are young, have little experience, are not intelligent and use far too many bullets to do the job.


Drs. E. Slot
Drs. Eric Slot is freelance journalist en doet sinds 1992 onderzoek naar moord en doodslag in Nederland. Hij publiceerde onder meer Moordatlas van Amsterdam (2014), Met groot verlof. Liquidaties in crimineel Nederland (2009) en Wrede straten. Wandelingen door moorddadig Amsterdam (1998).
Artikel

De uitdagingen voor gebiedsgebonden politiezorg

Ambigue ontwikkelingen, platgetreden paden en nieuwe wegen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2017
Auteurs T. Meurs MSc en B.J. Kreulen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the challenges facing Community Oriented Policing (COP) in an increasingly complex society. The authors describe how the Dutch police adresses this context through a new police organisation on a national basis, specified job protocols, intelligence led policing and higher educated specialists. Seeking for alternatives the authors argue that COP should be based on a problem centered approach which profits from the insights of local policemen and operational specialists. Adressing ambiguous problems will fail when only applying system logic. Instead, moral involvement and sensemaking are indispensable.


T. Meurs MSc
Teun Meurs MSc werkt aan een promotieonderzoek over kennisintensivering en de ontwikkeling van onderzoekende politieprofessionaliteit. Het onderzoek is onderdeel van de Strategische Onderzoeksagenda 2015-2019 en wordt gefaciliteerd door de Hogeschool Arnhem Nijmegen, Universiteit Utrecht, de Politieacademie en de Nationale Politie.

B.J. Kreulen MSc
Bert Jan Kreulen MSc is werkzaam binnen de dienst Politieprofessie in de Eenheid Amsterdam en houdt zich bezig met de ontwikkeling van Gebiedsgebonden Politiezorg, met een focus op de rol van de wijkagent. De auteurs bedanken Wouter Landman voor zijn constructieve commentaar op een eerdere versie van dit artikel.
Artikel

Politie en beeldtechnologie: gebruik, opbrengsten en uitdagingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden CCTV, bodycams, ANPR, smart cameras, police
Auteurs Drs. S. Flight
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch National Police deploys video technology, for instance body-worn video camera (bodycams), drones, helicopters with cameras, and mobile units for surveillance. Four types of video technology are discussed: CCTV, bodycams, smart cameras and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR). These four types will be the most prominent applications of visual technology in the coming years, according to ‘Vision on sensing’, published in 2015 by the National Police. The potential benefits of video images for prosecution and in the courtroom are discussed in a separate paragraph, followed by a survey of recent changes in the laws regulating this technology.


Drs. S. Flight
Drs. Sander Flight is zelfstandig adviseur en onderzoeker op het terrein van veiligheid en criminaliteit.
Artikel

Kwetsbaarheid voor voedselfraude in de vleessector

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden food fraud, meat sector, melamine scandal, adulterants, food analysing techniques
Auteurs S. van Ruth en W. Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud is as old as mankind but has advanced in the last decades. Fraud regarding the gross composition of food has progressed in the direction of the addition of unconventional adulterants. Furthermore, consumers are more and more interested in how and where their foods are produced and pay price premiums for organic foods, fair trade, animal welfare considering, and sustainable food products. Since these products are very similar to their conventional counterparts in terms of composition, they provide an additional challenge. The knowledge regarding occurrence, type of meat fraud, causes and damage caused to the sector is limited. There is a need for extensive identification of the vulnerabilities and criminogenic factors. These insights offer leads for detection and prevention. The article deals with a first step into the inventory of these vulnerabilities and factors affecting meat fraud, by assessing fraud risks related to products, companies and the meat supply chain.


S. van Ruth
Prof. dr. ir. Saskia van Ruth is als hoogleraar Voedselauthenticiteit verbonden aan de Food Quality and Design Group en het Rikilt – Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid van de Universiteit Wageningen.

W. Huisman
Prof. dr. mr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

    Electric and electronic waste (e-waste) is the fastest growing waste stream worldwide: 50 million tons of electronic waste each year. Part of it is exported, often illegally, from industrialised countries to e-waste hubs like Ghana, Nigeria, India, and China. E-waste often contains both valuable metals as well as toxic substances. The high value of metal is the main reason for imports by countries like Ghana, Nigeria, and China. However, the recycling methods in these countries are not tailored to responsible recycling of the toxic elements of e-waste, thereby causing major negative environmental and health effects. Also, the recycling methods in those countries are less efficient, which leads to the loss of valuable metals and to an increase in the mining of virgin metals. In this way the e-waste problem is directly related to the social and environmental problems at the beginning of the electronics chain. This article explores the e-waste problem from a value chain perspective and proposes policy measures that could diminish Europe's contribution to the problem.


M. van Huijstee
Dr. Mariëtte van Huijstee is onderzoeker bij SOMO - Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen.

T. Steinweg
Tim Steinweg MSc is onderzoeker bij SOMO - Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen.

    Using the script approach, this article analyses the different stages that characterise the infiltration of organised crime groups in the public construction industry. Three different Italian local contexts with a high presence of organised crime groups (Sicily, Calabria and Campania) are considered. The Sicilian case is analysed by detail using the script approach and following the dynamic of organised crime action: preparation, enabling conditions, target selection, the acts (of violence and corruption) or ‘the doing’, and the post-conditions or aftermath. The script approach helps in a micro-analysis of organised crime that draws on general knowledge on the topic deriving from the macro-analysis currently undertaken in the literature. Because to date this analysis has mainly produced crime control remedies, the author hopes that the microapproach may help in developing more concrete situational crime prevention measures.


E.U. Savona
Prof. dr. Ernesto Savona is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milaan. De auteur dankt Marco Zanella, PhD-kandidaat in het International PhD Programme in Criminology van dezelfde universiteit, voor zijn bijdrage aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

J.P. van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De Brabantse smokkelaars

Een grensgeschiedenis vol heroïek en eigenbelang

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs P. Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Considerable differences in tax and excise levels since the Belgium independence in 1830 gave rise to large scale smuggling between the Dutch border province Noord-Brabant en Belgium. The smuggling history can be divided in six periods. Salt was the most important contraband in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. During the First World War a lot of food was smuggled from the Netherlands to Belgium. During the crisis years in the 1930s unemployed people used to supplement their scarce income through smuggling. Belgian tobacco was the most important contraband during the Second World War. After the war ten thousands of Dutch occasional smugglers illegally fetched consumer and luxury goods in Belgium. In the 1950s and 1960s millions of kilo's of Dutch butter were smuggled to Belgium. The smuggling business gradually came into the hands of professional criminal gangs. In the second half of the 1960s the smugglers switched to the illegal distilling of alcohol. Many years later these would evolve into labs for the production of chemical drugs.


P. Spapens
Paul Spapens (Hilvarenbeek, 1949) is professioneel dagbladjournalist. Hij publiceerde enkele tientallen boeken over de geschiedenis, de volkscultuur en de identiteit van Noord-Brabant en de Noord-Brabanders. Hij is onder meer gespecialiseerd in thema's die voortvloeien uit de aanwezigheid van de rijksgrens. Dit artikel is voor een groot deel gebaseerd op de boeken Smokkelen in Brabant (1988) en Tappen uit een geheim vaatje (1990) over respectievelijk de geschiedenis van het smokkelen tussen Noord-Brabant en België en de geschiedenis van het illegaal alcohol stoken in Nederland. De beide boeken zijn geschreven op basis van onderzoek van officiële bronnen, zoals politie- en douaneverslagen en daarnaast krantenverslagen. Een belangrijke bron zijn ook de vele tientallen interviews met de direct betrokkenen, dus smokkelaars, alcoholstokers en hun opponenten.

    This article describes the development of the Dutch bar, which seems to follow the international trends, the Anglo-Saxon trends in particular. These trends are internationalization, commercialization, organizational professionalization, specialization and differentiation. The Dutch bar nowadays consists of approximately 15.000 advocates, working in approximately 3.800 law firms. Approximately 3.500 advocates work in the Top 30 law firms, whereas the firms consisting of one advocate form the majority of the bar. Particularly during the last decade the bar has grown tremendously due to an increase in demand for specialistic legal service and advice. Due to new developments the client has become more prominent when it comes to determining the quality of the legal service, a phenomenon also known as ‘simultaneity’.


R. van Otterlo
Prof. mr. dr. Rob van Otterlo is als bijzonder hoogleraar organisatie van de juridische dienstverlening verbonden aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is tevens werkzaam bij de Nederlandse Orde van Advocaten in Den Haag.
Titel

Onbegrensd toezicht?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2008
Trefwoorden Toezicht, Toezichthouder, Handhaving, Aansprakelijkheid, Burgerlijk recht, Risico, Schade, Model, Slachtoffer, Coöperatie
Auteurs Faure, M.G.

Faure, M.G.
Titel

De ontmanteling van kartelparadijs Nederland: Tien jaar Mededingingswet en NMa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2008
Trefwoorden Nederlandse mededingingsautoriteit, Mededingingsregeling, Europese commissie, Mededingingsrecht, Mededinging, Kartelverbod, Verbod, Toezichthouder, Verdrag, Concentratie
Auteurs Amador Sanchez, P., Dijkman, M.N., Lamboo, E. e.a.

Amador Sanchez, P.

Dijkman, M.N.

Lamboo, E.

Smits, R.
Titel

De logistiek en aanpak van ilegale vuurwapenhandel binnen de EU-landen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 04 2008
Trefwoorden Illegaal, Vuurwapen, Wapen, Lidstaat, Legaliteit, Handel, Pistool, Beslaglegging, Verkoop, Europese unie
Auteurs Spapens, A.C.M.

Spapens, A.C.M.
Titel

Leeromgeving, leerloopbaan en schooluitval: Een nieuwe visie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2006
Trefwoorden Kind, Onderwijs, Ouders, Voortgezet onderwijs, Aansprakelijkheid, Werkgever, Leerling, Arbeidskracht, Arbeidsmarkt, Basisonderwijs
Auteurs Schravesande, M.L.

Schravesande, M.L.
Artikel

De verdrijving van Hulanda

De Sabanen en hun toekomst als BES-eilanders

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2009
Auteurs F. Guadeloupe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the ongoing effort to create a post-imperial Dutch Kingdom, one in which colonial categories have no place, preparations are underway to reorganize this transatlantic political entity. The BES islands, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba, will be granted the status of overseas municipalities of the Netherlands. Such welcoming efforts by mandarins in The Hague must however be based upon a sound understanding of how the cultural sensibilities of many Caribbean Dutch continue to be impacted by the lingering memories of the colonialism. Throughout the Dutch Caribbean isles, these lingering memories have given rise to Hulanda, a collection of fantastic spectres supposedly representing the benevolent and malevolent mindsets of the European Dutch to whom the future allegedly belongs. By specifically focusing on Saban imaginings of Hulanda, as well as offering modes to exorcize these specific spectres, this essay seeks to contribute to the process of mutual recognition within the Dutch Kingdom.


F. Guadeloupe
Dr. Francio Guadeloupe is verbonden aan de afdeling Culturele Antropologie en Ontwikkelingsstudies van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit.
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