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Artikel

Over het recht op de smart city

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden smart city, right to the city, technological solutionism, participation, disorder
Auteurs Dr. Maša Galič
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While smart city initiatives claim to be ‘citizen-focused’ or ‘citizen-centric’, there are several troubling aspects of how citizenship and social relations are produced within them. First, they prioritize technological solutions to social and urban problems from the perspective of businesses and states, rather than serving local communities. With a focus on digital technology, they also exclude a wide range of marginalized publics from the possibility to participate in the smart city and only rarely address issues of social differences in cities. The smart city thus creates new or exacerbates existing challenges to the possibility of all city dwellers to fully enjoy urban life with all of its services and advantages, as well as taking direct part in the management of cities – in other words, it creates challenges for ‘the right to the city’. In this article, the author thus explores the notion of the right to the city in order to inform and recast the smart city in emancipatory and empowering ways, one that would work for the benefit of all citizens and not just selected populations.


Dr. Maša Galič
Dr. M. Galič is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society (TILT) van de Universiteit Tilburg.
Artikel

De Rijdende Rechter als rolmodel

Hoe reality televisie het beeld van de rechtspraak beïnvloedt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden The Iterant Judge, Dutch television, American tv judges, Low threshold courts, Binding dispute solution
Auteurs Mr. Annerie Smolders
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The tremendously popular television programme De Rijdende Rechter (The Itinerant Judge) has an uncomfortable relationship with official legal practice. Many people indeed think that the itinerant judge who arrives in their street to personally check neighbourly grievances has come as a representative of the Law with a capital L. It is not clear where reality TV stops and current legal practice begins. Things have become more complicated because the itinerant judge has become a symbol of the ‘close-to-the-people’ judge that is embraced by legal practice today. In this article the murky boundary between TV judges and official judiciary is investigated, taking into account the cult status of the itinerant judge, the effect of imagination on reality, similar phenomena in the United States and the current situation in the Netherlands.


Mr. Annerie Smolders
Mr. A. Smolders is publicist en voormalig rechter. Zij richt zich, onder meer als gastonderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), op de verhouding tussen rechter en algemeen publiek, met als doel het publieke debat hierover te verbreden en van meer context te voorzien.
Artikel

Data Protection by Design als argument in het FBI vs. Apple-debat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden FBI vs. Apple, Data Protection by Design, Data Protection by Default, GDPR, privacy
Auteurs Dr. C. Cuijpers en S. van Schendel LLB
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Adhering to a strict interpretation, Data Protection by Design (DPbD) can conflict with the needs of law enforcement in their fight against terrorism and criminality. An illustration of this tension can be found in the case of FBI vs. Apple, where the FBI wants Apple to help bypass security on an iPhone in order to gain access to data. The FBI needs the help of Apple – or third parties – to get such access, for which they might need to create new legal mandates. However, private parties like Apple, may want to design their products in such a way that evading and breaking the security of the system is not possible, as consumers demand secure and privacy friendly devices. This article adds to this debate by posing DPbD as an argument in favor of private parties not to cooperate in making their products less secure and less privacy friendly. This argument is especially relevant when a similar case unfolds in the EU under the new regime of the General Data Protection Regulation in which DPbD is explicitly embedded.


Dr. C. Cuijpers
Dr. Colette Cuijpers is als Associate Professor verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).

S. van Schendel LLB
Sascha van Schendel, LLB is als student-assistent verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).
Artikel

Big Data in wetenschappelijk onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Big Data, datafication, data mining, research data, Internet of Things
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Big Data offers a plethora of promising opportunities in different areas of society. This introductory article focuses on the opportunities of Big Data in scientific research. The central question addressed in this article is: ‘What can Big Data offer in the context of scientific research?’ In order to answer this question, the following topics are discussed: what is Big Data, what is new about Big Data, which applications are there for Big Data in scientific research, and what are the pros and cons of the use of Big Data in scientific research? The conclusion is that Big Data offers some opportunities for scientific research that were previously impossible and, therefore, can be useful for researchers. However, the use of Big Data also has its limitations and the added value may depend on the research questions that are addressed.


Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Daarnaast is hij als onderzoeksmanager werkzaam voor eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Illegale pesticiden en voedselcriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden illegal pesticides, organized crime, counterfeit, parallel trading arrangements, food crime
Auteurs Ch.I. Sambrook
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Counterfeiting is a major worldwide crime problem and one with demonstrable links to organized criminality. The production and distribution of fake plant protection products is no exception, the proliferation of such products within the European Union owing much to the abuse of parallel trading arrangements and the high profit, low risk opportunity it presents to organized crime groups. It is also a particularly insidious crime; these chemicals are untested and unapproved for use and they pose a serious economic, environmental and human health threat. Of particular concern is the potential for residues from illegal pesticides to persist in harvested crops to then be found in foodstuffs. It is argued that this should be regarded as a food crime.


Ch.I. Sambrook
Christopher Ian Sambrook, MSc is ruraal criminoloog. Hij is als onderzoeker verbonden aan de Harper Adams University in Shropshire in het Verenigd Koninkrijk. Hij is tevens technisch adviseur van het Thames Valley Police Operation Silo Initiative, gericht op het vergaren van inlichtingen over deze specifieke vorm van fraude en met name de mogelijke banden met de georganiseerde misdaad. E-mail: csambrook@harper-adams.ac.uk.
Artikel

Het is transparantie wat de klok slaat

Publeaks als geduchte concurrent voor het Huis voor klokkenluiders?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden Publeaks, whistleblowing, transparency, journalism ethics, confidentiality
Auteurs J. Beckers, H.G. van de Bunt en K. van Wingerde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As a result of the democratization of technology we now seem to live in an era of ‘Wiki-regulation’. Increasingly transparency is considered to be the universal solution to all sorts of problems. In line with this dominant viewpoint there has been a proliferation of whistleblower initiatives in recent years. A newly established Dutch initiative is Publeaks. Launched by a large number of Dutch media outlets and aimed at protecting whistleblowers, shedding light on wrongdoings and encouraging investigative journalism, Publeaks is a website ‘for people to leak documents to the media securely and anonymously’. In this opinionated article the authors propose three arguments against this particular form of whistleblowing: the protection against unfunded accusations, the negative side effects of ‘scandal overkill’, and the value of non-transparency.


J. Beckers
Drs. Joep Beckers is als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

H.G. van de Bunt
Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

K. van Wingerde
Dr. Karin van Wingerde is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

    Electric and electronic waste (e-waste) is the fastest growing waste stream worldwide: 50 million tons of electronic waste each year. Part of it is exported, often illegally, from industrialised countries to e-waste hubs like Ghana, Nigeria, India, and China. E-waste often contains both valuable metals as well as toxic substances. The high value of metal is the main reason for imports by countries like Ghana, Nigeria, and China. However, the recycling methods in these countries are not tailored to responsible recycling of the toxic elements of e-waste, thereby causing major negative environmental and health effects. Also, the recycling methods in those countries are less efficient, which leads to the loss of valuable metals and to an increase in the mining of virgin metals. In this way the e-waste problem is directly related to the social and environmental problems at the beginning of the electronics chain. This article explores the e-waste problem from a value chain perspective and proposes policy measures that could diminish Europe's contribution to the problem.


M. van Huijstee
Dr. Mariëtte van Huijstee is onderzoeker bij SOMO - Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen.

T. Steinweg
Tim Steinweg MSc is onderzoeker bij SOMO - Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen.

    Charles Kindleberger unravelled the anatomy of a typical financial crisis in his famous book Manias, panics and crashes (1978). He stresses that during a boom the tendency to swindle and be swindled runs parallel to the tendency to speculate. In this article five famous and non-famous swindles over the past ninety years are analyzed. Each financial boom, and each financial crisis during this period of modern capitalism experienced at least one famous financial swindle, which is to be seen as typical for the boom and the subsequent deception. The five swindlers described are Charles (Carlo) Ponzi in the 1920s, Ivar Krueger around 1930, Bernie Cornfeld in the 1960s/1970s, Michael Milken in the 1980s and - very recently - Bernard Madoff. His 65 billion dollar fraud is to be seen as the first worldwide Ponzi scheme - a fraud that lasted longer, reached wider and cut deeper than any similar scheme in history. An analysis of these five cases yields several striking similarities. It is concluded that financial swindles are no random events, but the result of both structural changes and circular waves of economic and financial boom and bust.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is beleidsmedewerker bij de Directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

    In recent years there is an increasing trend towards semi-public space. This article seeks to explain this trend. As the heterogeneity of society grows, it becomes more difficult to deal with different groups within one's living environment. Residents prefer a sheltering living environment that attracts similar groups and excludes those they would rather avoid. Social engineering through architecture has a long history: municipalities used to combine the design of neighbourhoods and public spaces with a social agenda of community building. Later, as society evolved, the prevention of friction between people and the creation of public meeting places became leading principles, but never exclusion. However, public housing associations and developers are increasingly accommodating preferences for sheltered living environments by the creation of collective space, appropriating public space and the temporary use of undeveloped space. Three cases illustrate this.


L. Bijlsma
Drs. Like Bijlsma is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

M. Galle
Drs. Maaike Galle is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

J. Tennekes
Drs. Joost Tennekes is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.
Titel

Angst voor de grote boze wolf: Maatschappelijke reacties op seksueel misbruik

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 01 2005
Trefwoorden Seksueel misbruik, Kind, Slachtoffer, Dier, Identiteit, Media, Aansprakelijkheid, Auteur, Gemeente, Getuige
Auteurs Bogaerts, S. en Vanheule, S.

Bogaerts, S.

Vanheule, S.
Titel

Onbegrensd toezicht?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2008
Trefwoorden Toezicht, Toezichthouder, Handhaving, Aansprakelijkheid, Burgerlijk recht, Risico, Schade, Model, Slachtoffer, Coöperatie
Auteurs Faure, M.G.

Faure, M.G.
Titel

Lessen voor toezicht in de 21e eeuw: Actuele inzichten van Braithwaite en Sparrow

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2008
Trefwoorden Toezichthouder, Toezicht, Autoriteit financiële markten, Nederlandse mededingingsautoriteit, Houder, Compliance, Handhaving, Marktwerking, Mededinging, Bank
Auteurs Erp, J.G. van

Erp, J.G. van
Titel

Convergerende technologieën, verschuivende verantwoordelijkheden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 01 2008
Trefwoorden Aansprakelijkheid, Handhaving, Idee, Strafrecht, Privacy, Legitimiteit, Menselijke gedraging, Noodzakelijkheid, Observatie, Technische ontwikkeling
Auteurs Vedder, A.

Vedder, A.
Titel

The Sopranos: Narrativiteit als ontregeling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 04 2005
Trefwoorden Idee, Georganiseerde misdaad, Legaliteit, Film, Illegaal, Geweld, Bestuurder, Hasjiesj, Kind, Verhaal
Auteurs Hoogenboom, B.

Hoogenboom, B.
Artikel

Onder de mensen

De aanpak van transportcriminaliteit door politie, verzekeraars en schade-experts

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs M.B. Schuilenburg, A. Coenraads en P. Van Calster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses what is left aside in the perspective of nodal governance: namely the adaptability and dynamics of social reality itself. The challenge is to research ‘what actually happens’ without reducing it to collective structures or specific frameworks in advance. Previous to specific structures (‘teams’) and frameworks (‘meetings’, ‘contracts’) there is constant change, movement and difference. By using the work of the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904) the authors research how the nodes police, insurers and loss adjusters cooperate in the fight against transport criminality and how interactions between these nodes take content and shape. Consequently, their cooperation is not interpreted as a static theme, but rather as a dynamic process that requires constant interpretation in terms of relationships, unexpected events, adaptations and coincidences. On the basis of fifteen in-depth interviews the authors show in which way a ‘new language’ with ‘new mechanisms’ originates within the cooperation. As a consequence, ‘informal contacts’, ‘goals and interests’, ‘mutual confidence’ and ‘information-exchange’, which play an important role between the nodes, are constantly re-defined.


M.B. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

A. Coenraads
Annerieke Coenraads MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Ze heeft op persoonlijke titel meegeschreven aan deze bijdrage.

P. Van Calster
Dr. Patrick Van Calster is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het departement Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
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