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Artikel

De Nederlandse gedragscode wetenschappelijke integriteit 2018

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden good research practice, transparency, independence, duties of care, responsibility
Auteurs Prof. dr. Antoine Hol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The new Dutch Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (2018) offers an important document for strengthening good research practices. It can be used in training researchers, informing the general public on standards guaranteeing trustworthiness of scientific research and handling allegations of misconduct in this research. The code departs from a set of principles worked out in standards describing the do’s and don’ts of good research practice. The Dutch code distinguishes itself for amongst others having a special section on duties of care of the organization where researchers are appointed. The organization has special responsibilities to give support to its researchers to develop good research practice and to foster a research culture in which dilemmas of integrity can be discussed in an open atmosphere. In this article special attention is paid to the principle of dependency. It is with regard to this principle that the researcher is most vulnerable, especially when it comes to commissioned research projects. How can the researcher be supported when dependency and honesty are under pressure?


Prof. dr. Antoine Hol
Prof. dr. A.M. Hol is hoogleraar Encyclopedie van het recht/Rechtsfilosofie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en medeauteur van de Nederlandse gedragscode wetenschappelijke integriteit. Hij is tevens voorzitter van de Commissies Wetenschappelijke Integriteit van Universiteit Utrecht en Tilburg University.
Artikel

De best mogelijke rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Legal system, Effectiveness, Legal innovations, Dispute resolution, New technologies
Auteurs Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article outlines the need in the Netherlands for socially effective justice that better resolves citizens’ problems. The author argues that new forms of dispute resolution should be integrated in the justice system. The author first describes various types of innovations. Then he outlines the obstacles to innovations. A major obstacle is that many stakeholders in the existing legal system are simultaneously the gatekeepers for the admission of innovations. It is necessary to create an infrastructure that welcomes, reinforces, tests, finances and imports new treatments for legal problems.


Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht
Prof. dr. M. Barendrecht is als research director verbonden aan The Hague Institute for Innovation of Law (HiiL).
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Auteurs Roland Eshuis en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Roland Eshuis
Gastredacteur dr. R.J.J. Eshuis is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

De vrederechter in historisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden legal history, justice of the peace, Conciliation, small claim courts, access to justice
Auteurs Mr. dr. Emese von Bóné
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is about the history of the justice of the peace, a low profile judge where people easily have access to. The history of the justice of the peace goes back to the seventeenth century. The justice of the peace was reintroduced in the Netherlands in the French period, when the country was annexed by the French Empire under the reign of Napoleon. The justice of the peace was also introduced in Belgium and is still in use. The most important task of the justice of the peace is ‘conciliation’. In the conciliation procedure the justice of the peace has a very active role. The judge tries to mediate between the parties in order to come to an agreement.


Mr. dr. Emese von Bóné
Mr. dr. E.K.E. von Bóné is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de Capgroep Privaatrecht van de Erasmus School of Law (ESL) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij doceert rechtsgeschiedenis en doet rechtshistorisch en rechtsvergelijkend onderzoek naar laagdrempelige rechtspraak.
Artikel

Experimenten in de civiele rechtspraak: een oplossing voor welk probleem?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden court pilots, civil procedure, efficiency, policy analysis, legal protection
Auteurs Mr. dr. Kim van der Kraats
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Dutch courts several pilots are being carried out in order to enhance the quality of civil procedure. The main focus of the pilots is to speed up the procedure and make it more cost-effective, while ensuring the procedure is easily accessible and is overseen by a mediating judge in a nearby court. This focus largely corresponds with aspects of the civil procedure that the courts and the minister of Justice have identified as in need of attention. The courts and the minister have focused on different specific problems and propose different solutions, however, and neither aims to address the quality of civil procedure as a whole. It is doubtful whether the proposals for improvement, put forward by the courts and the minister, can address the concerns they have intended to resolve and whether the overall quality of the civil procedure (for all civil cases instead of the simple ones) will be improved. Solutions to the problems of the civil procedure cannot be devised without first developing a clear picture of the problems people experience with civil procedures and the courts.


Mr. dr. Kim van der Kraats
Mr. dr. K.G.F. van der Kraats is rechter en teamvoorzitter handel en kanton in de Rechtbank Overijssel. In september 2017 is zij gepromoveerd bij prof. mr. Ivo Giesen (UU) en dr. R.J.J. Eshuis (WODC) op een proefschrift onder de titel De eigen(aardig)heid van de kantonrechter.

    Socially effective justice requires innovative legislation that allows the judge to experiment with simple procedures that bring parties together in order to prevent escalation of disputes. For that reason, the Dutch government has enabled experiments with low-threshold local civil courts. This article focuses on the experiences with such a court in Rotterdam. The court provides a simple, fast and cheap procedure with the aim of reaching a solution to the dispute in joint consultation. The article provides insight into the nature and the number of disputes that have been dealt with up to now.


Mr. Wim Wetzels
Mr. W.J.J. Wetzels is als kantonrechter/senior rechter A verbonden aan de Rechtbank Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open De geografische inrichting van de rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden courts, civil justice, access to justice, judicial map, travel distances
Auteurs Roland Eshuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article relates the geographical allocation of Courts to access to justice. Travel distances within the Dutch system are higher than in surrounding countries, but still not extremely high. The scale of the Dutch Court organizations however, is extreme. On average, a Court location that handles small claims has jurisdiction over a territory with over half a million inhabitants. This large number of inhabitants automatically translates to large numbers of cases, and large bureaucracies, employing 500 to 1,000 people (judges, court staff, support) each. Do travel distances to the Courts actually have an impact on the use of the Court system? Two recent studies find no support for a popular belief that defendants will be less determined to defend themselves when the travel distance to the court is longer. They do show however that the number of cases brought to Court by local plaintiffs drops when ‘their’ local court closes down.


Roland Eshuis
Dr. R.J.J. Eshuis is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Vrijwillige rechtspraak: rechters op het mediationpad?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden neighbourhood courts, mediation, friendly solutions, voluntary jurisdiction, de-escalation
Auteurs Prof. dr. Dick Allewijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A characteristic difference between administration of justice and mediation so far was the element of voluntariness on the side of the clients. Administration of justice however is, for the citizen who is brought before the courts, not voluntary. Recently pilots have been started in which citizens can turn voluntarily to the Court at low cost, and not far from their neighborhood. Judges will not primarily aim at making a decision in accordance with the law, but at finding friendly solutions. Does this mean that judges are going to mediate? And if so, how should this be appreciated? In this contribution attention is paid to certain aspects of this question. It is argued that differences between jurisdiction and mediation still remain. More than mediators judges must act within the legal framework. The extent to which they can engage in the emotional undercurrent of conflicts is limited. Confidence in the Court is from a different origin than trust in the mediator, and that also makes a difference. And finally, a judge is competent to make a binding judgment, which influences the way he or she is looked at by the parties.


Prof. dr. Dick Allewijn
Prof. dr. D. Allewijn is als bijzonder hoogleraar Mediation verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechten van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens werkzaam als MfN-registermediator en trainer bij het Centrum voor Conflicthantering.
Artikel

De Rijdende Rechter als rolmodel

Hoe reality televisie het beeld van de rechtspraak beïnvloedt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden The Iterant Judge, Dutch television, American tv judges, Low threshold courts, Binding dispute solution
Auteurs Mr. Annerie Smolders
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The tremendously popular television programme De Rijdende Rechter (The Itinerant Judge) has an uncomfortable relationship with official legal practice. Many people indeed think that the itinerant judge who arrives in their street to personally check neighbourly grievances has come as a representative of the Law with a capital L. It is not clear where reality TV stops and current legal practice begins. Things have become more complicated because the itinerant judge has become a symbol of the ‘close-to-the-people’ judge that is embraced by legal practice today. In this article the murky boundary between TV judges and official judiciary is investigated, taking into account the cult status of the itinerant judge, the effect of imagination on reality, similar phenomena in the United States and the current situation in the Netherlands.


Mr. Annerie Smolders
Mr. A. Smolders is publicist en voormalig rechter. Zij richt zich, onder meer als gastonderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), op de verhouding tussen rechter en algemeen publiek, met als doel het publieke debat hierover te verbreden en van meer context te voorzien.
Artikel

De afnemende rol van de rechtspraak: is vervanging van de rechter mogelijk en wenselijk?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden judges, marginalization, administrative bodies, truth finding, legal protection
Auteurs Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The last decades have shown a tendency in which tasks are transferred from the judge to other authorities, such as the police and public prosecutor, administrative bodies, administrative procedures, or private parties. The central question in this article is whether these authorities can really replace the court. A comparison is made between legal proceedings and procedures for other authorities on the following aspects: truth finding, openness and legal protection of the (vulnerable) citizen. The author also discusses a recent legislative proposal for an own budget for the Judiciary, which aims to strengthen the independence of the judge towards the two other state powers. It is argued that the courts should be also accessible in the case of relatively small offenses and for vulnerable citizens.


Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch
Mr. dr. M. Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), raadsheer-plaatsvervanger in het Hof ’s-Hertogenbosch en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Noord-Holland.
Artikel

Het zwaard van Damocles: burgemeesters wil is wet

Over het punitieve karakter van een bestuursrechtelijke herstelsanctie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Mayor’s powers, house eviction, public order, hemp nursery, administrative sanction
Auteurs Mr. Maartje Schaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Under Article 13b (1) of the Dutch Opium Act, the mayor is authorized to impose an order under administrative coercion when drugs are sold, delivered, supplied or present in houses or premises This much-discussed article, also cited as the ‘Damocles Law’, gives the mayor the power to close drug shelters even before the suspect’s guilt has been established in legal proceedings. It is not necessary to show that the interests of public policy are at stake. Moreover, the means of defense against the closure are very limited. The author argues that the current application of Article 13b is exclusively punitive in nature, whereby in case of criminal prosecution, there is also a violation of the ne bis in idem principle.


Mr. Maartje Schaap
Mr. M.R.M. Schaap is werkzaam als strafrechtadvocaat bij De Haan Strafrechtadvocaten te Groningen.
Artikel

Jongerenrechtbanken: oplossingsgerichte lekenrechtspraak voor en door leerlingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden youth courts, restorative justice, active citizenship, schools, community
Auteurs Drs. Gert Jan Slump en Prof. dr. Jessica Asscher
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the backgrounds, the development and first findings on youth courts in the Netherlands. A Dutch version of the USA youth courts was developed and piloted in 4 Amsterdam schools. Cases referred are small (partly illegal) incidents committed in the school environment. The Dutch youth court practice is described against the background of transformational change in society and the development of restorative justice and (peer oriented) development of citizenship. Although the model is still in development and schools are somewhat reluctant to deliver and refer cases, practice is growing.


Drs. Gert Jan Slump
Drs. G.J. Slump is criminoloog en landelijk projectleider voor de Stichting Jongerenrechtbanken Nederland. Hij heeft een eigen adviespraktijk voor projecten op strafrechtelijk gebied en geeft trainingen op het terrein van herstelrecht en herstelgericht werken.

Prof. dr. Jessica Asscher
Prof. dr. J. Asscher is hoogleraar Forensische Orthopedagogiek aan de Universiteit Utrecht en hoofddocent aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij is lid van de Raad van Advies van de stichting Jongerenrechtbanken.
Artikel

De ontwikkeling van het aantal door bestuursorganen behandelde overtredingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden administrative sanctions, trend, minor offences, restorative sanctions, punitive sanctions
Auteurs Dr. Debora Moolenaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper looks at the number of administrative sanctions for minor offences since 2005. Administrative sanction can be divided into two categories: restorative sanctions and punitive sanctions. Information is limited and dispersed. The number of offences handled by welfare agencies has decreased with 21% in the period 2005-2016. In the same period the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by the police/public prosecutor have decreased with 14% (mainly originating from automated traffic cameras). Also administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory financial agencies have decreased with 58%. For some organisations the observation period is a shorter. In the period 2011-2016 the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by municipalities has increased with 41% and the number of administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory non-financial agencies have decreased with 47%. There is no information available on administrative sanctions for tax fraud.


Dr. Debora Moolenaar
Dr. D.E.G. Moolenaar is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Auteurs Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Buiten de rechter om?’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden sanctions, Judiciary, penal law, administrative law, rule of law
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Tulder en Mr. Saskia Sicking
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Judiciary has only a very limited role in the imposition of sanctions with traffic offenses. With other minor offenses its role is rather limited and has decreased. There has been a striking shift from the imposition of penal sanctions to sanctions based on administrative law in this area. With major offenses (crimes) the role of the judiciary is still significant and has not diminished over the last 20 years. This despite policy efforts to boost out of court sanctioning.
    The Judiciary is a fundamental pillar of the rule of law. It offers legal protection, by judging and, if necessary, penalizing violations of norms in a fair trial. In this way not only justice is done with individual cases. Case law has wider implications: confirmation and development of norms and thus general prevention. To fulfil this aim a certain volume of cases and openness of the judgment process is necessary.


Dr. Frank van Tulder
Dr. F. van Tulder is onderzoeker/adviseur bij de afdeling Strategie van de Raad voor de rechtspraak, verantwoordelijk voor het economisch en statistisch onderzoek bij de Rechtspraak.

Mr. Saskia Sicking
Mr. S. Sicking is hoofd van de afdeling Strategie van de Raad voor de rechtspraak en tevens rechter.
Redactioneel

Access_open Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Auteurs dr. Marc Schuilenburg en Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

dr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr.mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens lid van de redactieraad van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Het gebiedsverbod als wapen tegen verspreiding van jihadistisch gedachtegoed

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden freedom of movement, religion and expression, counterterrorist measure, system of restrictions on fundamental rights, constitutional censorship prohibition
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Jan Brouwer en Prof. mr. Jon Schilder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In mid-August 2017, the Minister of Justice and Security prohibited the controversial preacher Jneid from exhibiting in the vicinity of ‘his’ bookshop, annex mosque in the Schilderswijk in The Hague. By means of this ban, the minister wanted to prevent Jneid from carrying out his ‘intolerant’ message any longer in an environment where many young people are susceptible to radicalization. The Temporary Act on Counterterrorism was supposed to provide an adequate basis for such a ban. This article argues that a measure restricting the freedom of movement with the aim of preventing someone from conveying his message is against the constitutional prohibition of censorship and may therefore not be imposed.


Prof. mr. dr. Jan Brouwer
Prof. mr. dr. J.G. Brouwer is hoogleraar-directeur van het Centrum voor Openbare Orde en Veiligheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Prof. mr. Jon Schilder
Prof. mr. A.E. Schilder is hoogleraar staats- en bestuursrecht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Verbanning uit het semipublieke domein

Toegangsverboden in juridisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden The semi-public domain, Misconduct, Exclusion orders, Civil court, Complaints committees
Auteurs Mr. dr. Mandy van Rooij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The semi-public domain covers the places that are accessible to the public but which are controlled by private entities. Shopping malls, public transport, bars and sports events are examples of such places. In case of misconduct, the private manager may impose exclusion orders. This sanction relies on legal contracts and the exclusive nature of the right to property. The legal framework consists therefore primarily of private law. Exclusion orders may not be imposed without reason. Prevention of disorder and harm may be a legitimate reason. The length and range of the ban must relate to the gravity of the disruption. In addition to this, public laws on non-discrimination and privacy are applicable. The civil court is competent to check the exclusion orders in de semi-public domain. The author sees added value in complaints committees, in which both public and private actors partake. Complaint committees can thrive if their assessment frameworks are transparent.


Mr. dr. Mandy van Rooij
Mr. dr. A.E. van Rooij verdedigde in 2017 aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam haar proefschrift Orde in het semipublieke domein. Particuliere en publiek-private orderegulering in juridisch perspectief, uitgegeven bij Boom juridisch (Den Haag). Deze bijdrage is gebaseerd op dit promotieonderzoek. Inmiddels is zij werkzaam als wetgevingsjurist bij het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en verbonden als onderzoeker aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de VU.
Artikel

Enkele kanttekeningen bij de Wiv 2017

De uitbreiding van bevoegdheden getoetst aan mensenrechten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017, Snowden disclosures, Dilemma’s, Checks and balances, Human rights
Auteurs Prof. dr. Nico van Eijk en Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The new Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 extends the (special) powers of the intelligence and security services and introduces a new system of checks and balances. In this article several of the most impactful changes and underlying issues are discussed. They include the technology neutral approach, the new bulk surveillance powers, oversight (its role, tasks, independence and the use of outside experts), complaints and whistleblowers procedure, the lack of appeal procedures and the exchange of information with foreign agencies.


Prof. dr. Nico van Eijk
Prof. dr. N.A.N.M. van Eijk is hoogleraar informatierecht verbonden aan het Instituut voor Informatierecht (IViR, Universiteit van Amsterdam), www.ivir.nl/employee/eijk.

Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman is ondervoorzitter van het College voor de Rechten van de Mens en lector Toegang tot het Recht bij de Hogeschool Utrecht. Deze bijdrage is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

Toezicht in de Wiv 2017

Kansen en uitdagingen voor een effectief en sterk toezichtstelsel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017, Oversight, Effectiveness, Safeguards, Mass Surveillance
Auteurs Mr. dr. Mireille Hagens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The new Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 has generated a lot of criticism in The Netherlands. Although the act was adopted in parliament in July 2017, the implementation will take place in May 2018. Beforehand an advisory referendum will give the public the opportunity to express their opinion on the new act: the modernisation of the investigatory powers of the services and the strengthening of the necessary safeguards and oversight mechanisms. Both have met with their share of criticism. In this paper the focus is on the enhanced oversight mechanism. It is argued that although different choices could have been made regarding the organisation of oversight, the new system fulfills the requirements set by the European Court of Human Rights. The real question is whether the new act provides for effective and strong oversight in practice to ensure a proper balance between national security and privacy protection in this digital era. The opportunities and challenges are explored.


Mr. dr. Mireille Hagens
Mr. dr. M. Hagens is senior-onderzoeker bij de Commissie van Toezicht op de Inlichtingen- en Veiligheidsdiensten (CTIVD) en gastonderzoeker bij de faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie van de Universiteit Utrecht. Deze bijdrage is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
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