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Artikel

Het verlies van geld, geluk en gezicht

Romance scams, datingfraude en ‘sweetheart swindles’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden cybercrime, victimization, romance scam, dating fraud, cybervictimology
Auteurs Raoul Notté MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Romance scams have seen a worldwide increase and are one of the most financially damaging forms of cybercrime. In addition, victims suffer strong emotional impact and are confronted with victim blaming. Research shows how the combination of various emotional and financial impact can induce a ‘double-hit’ on victims. Knowledge and possibilities for law enforcement are insufficient, which leads to a lack of financial compensation and support for victims.


Raoul Notté MSc
R.J. Notté MSc is als researcher/lecturer verbonden aan The Hague University of Applied Sciences (Faculteit IT & Design/Centre of Expertise Cyber Security). Hij is tevens promovendus bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van Tilburg University.
Artikel

En wat als het misgaat?

De omzetting en herroeping van toezicht op justitiabelen in de samenleving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden breach decision-making, revocation, recall, conditional release, community service order
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The decision to revoke or recall a conditional sanction is barely researched in criminal justice research, despite the interests involved for the offender as well as society. This article reflects on some results from a comparative research project on breach decision-making (COST Action on Offender Supervision in Europe). Using Hawkins’ concept of serial decision-making, the interdependence of early stage and final stage decision makers is highlighted. The significant power exercised by early stage actors raises the issue of the need to ensure credibility of community sanctions and appropriate due process protections, without reducing their discretion so much that they cannot perform their role of supporting the offender to complete the supervisory order successfully.


Prof. mr. dr. Miranda Boone
Prof. mr. dr. M.M. Boone is als hoogleraar criminologie en vergelijkende penologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Reflecties op het verantwoord gebruik van kunstmatige intelligentie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Artificial Intelligence, Ethical dilemma’s, Designing process, Restrictions and controls, Human rights
Auteurs Dr. M.V. Dignum en Prof.dr. J. van den Hoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The potential perils of robots and other forms of artificial intelligence (AI) have been a subject for discussion since the 1950s. Nevertheless it seems that society is still not prepared for the great impact of the rapid advancement of AI in the last decennium and the many ethical dilemmas involved. How can moral, social and legal values be integrated in the designing process of AI technologies? Is it imaginable that these AI systems would ever be considered as ethical entities? How to control these systems? The authors argue that we should not only analyze these problems, but also reflect on ethics itself. AI has the potential to change the way we live and work. But it is important to introduce restrictions and controls to guarantee our freedom, autonomy and fundamental human rights.


Dr. M.V. Dignum
Dr. Virginia Dignum is als Associate Professor verbonden aan de Faculteit voor Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Prof.dr. J. van den Hoven
Prof. dr. Jeroen van den Hoven is als hoogleraar Ethiek verbonden aan de Faculteit voor Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

Over mens- en wereldbeelden en hun bijbehorende misdaadrecht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden worldview, view of man, (pre-/trans-)modernity, science and religion, restorative justice
Auteurs J.A.A.C. Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminal law is embedded in a specific view of man and the world. This thesis implies that a change of the view of man and the world leads necessarily to a change of criminal law. Since our view of man and the world is constantly changing, the same applies for our law governing wrongful conduct. In this article is described how our view of man and the world has changed through the ages (during pre-modernity and modernity) and what changes have occurred under the influence thereof. Given the limited size of this article, a macro-perspective is utilized. At the end of the article, the author advocates a new (trans-modern) view of man and the world and a new corresponding law governing wrongful conduct.


J.A.A.C. Claessen
Mr. dr. Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Daarnaast is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg en redacteur van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht en het Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht.
Artikel

Pot, crack en Obama’s ‘third way’

Liberalisering van drugsbeleid in de Verenigde Staten?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs I. Haen Marshall
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay describes the most important recent events in the field of American drugs legislation covering the liberalization of cannabis policies in several states as well as the reduction of penalties for the possession of crack at the federal level. These developments are situated in a broader context of a complicated and big country with plenty of room for extreme moral views and a very punitive justice policy that targets Blacks and Latino’s much more than the white middle class. The disproportionate impact of the punitive drugs legislation is an important driving force behind the trend towards liberalization, next to the high costs of maintaining an overcrowded prison system.


I. Haen Marshall
Ineke Haen Marshall, PhD is Professor bij het Department of Sociology & Anthropology and School of Criminology and Criminal Justice van de Northeastern University in Boston.
Artikel

Een ommekeer in de Amerikaanse strafrechtpleging?

De inzet van alternatieve rechtspraakprogramma’s ter bestrijding van overbevolkte gevangenissen in Texas

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs M. Bachmann, P. Kinkade en B. Smith-Bachmann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article introduces and evaluates three different specialty court programs that are being enacted in a large Texas county to locally fight the growing tide of unsustainably high incarceration rates that is sweeping the United States. The study provides a brief description of the general dilemma of the American criminal justice system that, as a result of the widespread fear of crime and a mainstream news arena that favors grossly simplistic sound-byte-compatible get-tough policies, has become so immensely punitive and overburdening on public budgets that it is de facto no longer sustainable and in desperate need of immediate change. Faced with a situation of political stalemate on state and federal levels, county judges in Texas and other states are taking it upon themselves to bring about change in their local jurisdictions. Through newly designed specialty courts models, they seek to divert special-needs offenders away from the default incarceration track. The article evaluates the overall effectiveness of these new sentencing alternatives and identifies specific areas that need further improvement.


M. Bachmann
Michael Bachmann, PhD is als assistant professor verbonden aan het Department of Criminal Justice van de Texas Christian University.

P. Kinkade
Patrick Kinkade, PhD is associate professor aan het Department of Criminal Justice van de Texas Christian University.

B. Smith-Bachmann
Brittany Smith-Bachmann is als lecturer verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht van de Texas Christian University.
Artikel

Van stoornis naar neurocognitie in de behandeling van tbs-patiënten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden disordered offenders, neurocognition, DSM-V, risk taxation, Good Lives Model
Auteurs K. von Borries, E. Bulten en Th. Rinne
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Psychology, psychiatry, criminology and sociology provide scientific knowledge for the forensic psychiatry about disorders, the behaviour of offenders, offenses and the influence of the environment. In recent decades the What Works principles (risk, need, responsivity) became theoretical cornerstones of forensic psychiatry. However, additional theories have gained popularity: models addressing protective factors and the well-being of the delinquent. As in general psychiatry neurobiological research about the relationship between the brain and behaviour is influencing forensic psychiatry more and more. The translation of these results into regular assessment and treatment seems a matter of time. The development of a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery is an attempt to bridge the gap between this basic neurobiological-neurocognitive research and forensic psychiatric practice. This article describes the influence of the neurocognitive, neuropsychological knowledge in general and in particular the construction of this battery and its usefulness in daily practice. Whether this development is the beginning of a fundamental paradigm shift or an addition to the current approach, remains to be seen.


K. von Borries
Drs. Katinka von Borries is verbonden aan de Pompestichting in Nijmegen.

E. Bulten
Dr. Erik Bulten is verbonden aan de Pompestichting in Nijmegen.

Th. Rinne
Dr. Thomas Rinne is werkzaam bij het Pieter Baan Centrum van het Nederlands Instituut voor Forensische Psychiatrie in Utrecht.
Artikel

Het aanzien van de Staat

Over de praktijk van tenuitvoerlegging van de levenslange straf

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment the Netherlands, effects of life imprisonment, reintegration, pardon policy, pardon cases
Auteurs W.F. van Hattum
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 1870 in the Netherlands the death penalty was replaced by the sanction nearest to that effect: lifelong imprisonment. For the government though this penalty was acceptable only in connection with the possibility of mercy. The sanction was to be executed humanely and should not result in torture. The way the sanction was executed since, the administration developed a policy of mercy taking into account the devastating effects of the sanction. This policy resulted in mental care for the convicted and his release after approximately twenty years imprisonment. More than hundred years later, about 2004, the policy of mercy changed. Since then, according to the responsible ministers, life imprisonment should end by the onset of death. In this article the practice under the old and the new policy is illustrated by a case study. The conclusion is that like the death penalty lifelong imprisonment corrodes the prestige of the State.


W.F. van Hattum
Mr. dr. Wiene van Hattum is universitair docent bij de Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en voorzitter van het in 2008 opgerichte Forum Levenslang.
Artikel

De levenslange vrijheidsstraf internationaal vergeleken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life sentences, whole life imprisonment, human rights, European Court of Human Rights, release prospect
Auteurs D. van Zyl Smit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Life imprisonment is difficult to define. Sentences that are not called life imprisonment may also be indefinite sentences of detention which may result in the detention of offenders in prison until they die there. Even where a sentence is called ‘life imprisonment’ it may be difficult to ascertain for how long the offender will actually be held and what criteria will be applied to considering his eventual release. This paper sketches some recent developments in respect of indeterminate sentences that are not called life imprisonment, even though they amount to it in practice. It then turns to the question of life sentences that are imposed without provision for any fixed period after which they should be reconsidered. Questions are raised about the extent to which such sentences are acceptable in Europe, the United States and elsewhere, particularly in instances where at sentence there is an indication that the offenders may not be considered for release at all. It is argued that human rights law is moving towards requiring that all persons sentenced to life imprisonment should have a reasonable prospect of release. Given the widespread support for life imprisonment this paper seeks to raise some human rights concerns that arise with the use of this sentence. The concerns are essentially twofold. First, the sentence may be imposed in instances where it would be disproportionate punishment to do so. Secondly, the procedures for its implementation, in particular those that relate to the potential release of persons serving life sentences, may not be adequate to meet the requirement of a realistic prospect of release.


D. van Zyl Smit
Prof. Dirk van Zyl Smit is als hoogleraar vergelijkend internationaal en penitentiair recht verbonden aan de University of Nottingham.
Artikel

Perspectief voor levenslanggestraften?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment the Netherlands, High Court jurisprudence, parole procedures, reducing life sentences, judicial verdict
Auteurs T. de Bont en S. Meijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the ‘de iure’ and ‘de facto’ possibilities in Dutch penal law to reduce a life sentence. The question is whether the current legal framework offers sufficient perspective to life prisoners as required by the European Court of Human Rights. It also addresses the disadvantages of the current procedures. The authors argue that it is desirable that a legal possibility for release on probation of life prisoners is introduced in the Netherlands. They will set out a bill written by the NGO ‘Forum Levenslang’ that would make this possible.


T. de Bont
Mr. Tim de Bont is als advocaat werkzaam bij Cleerdin & Hamer Advocaten.

S. Meijer
Mr. dr. Sonja Meijer is universitair docent straf(proces)recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

‘Levenslang’: schadebeperking door levenslange gevangenisstraffen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment United States, prison culture, benefits of prison life, sociolinguistics, protection of society
Auteurs M.S. Fleisher
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay examines imprisoned felons’ perspectives and interpretations of ‘doing life’. Prisoners’ and ex-prisoners’ perspectives on the pros and cons of life imprisonment were documented over four decades of ethnographic research in prisons and on urban streets. The author’s research was conducted as a participant observer of street criminals and observing participant in federal prisons. Interviews with violent convicted felons in state and federal prisons and persistent criminals with histories of imprisonment reveal what it means to ‘do time’. Prisoners’ enculturation accommodates their adjustment to prison life and ability to negotiate daily prison life, but prison culture’s and prison programs’ inability to alter the nature of violent criminals pose a continuous threat to the population at large. Life imprisonment benefits prisoners’ physical and social health and protects communities by keeping violent criminals imprisoned.


M.S. Fleisher
Dr. Mark Fleisher is als research professor verbonden aan het Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education van de Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.
Artikel

Vrije wil en verantwoordelijkheid in de strafuitvoering

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden penal execution, rehabilitation, responsibility, life course approach, motivation
Auteurs M.M. Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Responsibility of the prisoner for his own rehabilitation is a central element of ‘Modernising Imprisonment’, the masterplan that aims to reform the execution of the prison sentence in the Netherlands. The Secretary of Justice strives for an individual approach based on the points of departure of the Life Course Approach in criminology. This method is designed in different ways. A central element is that rehabilitation will only be offered in the near future to prisoners that show responsibility for their rehabilitation. Based on this starting point, a far-reaching system of advancing and degrading is introduced. Prisoners can deserve freedoms by showing responsible behaviour, but loose them again in case of irresponsible or unmotivated conduct. Three objections against this aspect of Modernising Imprisonment are discussed. First, the rehabilitation principle itself does not allow for such a far-reaching exclusion of categories of prisoners. Second, the high demands put on prisoners are not realistic given the characteristics of the prison population. Third, the assumption that a strict system of advancing and degrading will increase the effectiveness of sentencing is not well founded and cannot be derived from research.


M.M. Boone
Prof. mr. Miranda Boone is als bijzonder hoogleraar penitentiair recht en penologie verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Zij is tevens werkzaam bij het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Actieve verantwoordelijkheid in het strafrecht

Naar een brede opvatting van ‘recht doen’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden retrospective responsibility, prospective responsibility, virtues, therapeutic jurisprudence, rehabilitation
Auteurs B.A.M. van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminal justice is oriented at retrospective responsibility: examining whether the defendant is guilty and imposing a punishment that fits the crime. In this article it is argued that prospective responsibility needs more attention: taking responsibility. We have to remind the offender of his obligations: pay his debt, repair the harm done, work to change his behaviour and enhancing his situation. We should also take account of the interests and needs of the persons concerned. It is also argued that stimulating active responsibility should take place within the logics of ‘doing justice’. Criminal justice cannot respond to the imperatives of care, well-being and problem-solving.


B.A.M. van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

De exfiltratie van verdachte en veroordeelde criminelen

Over de onmisbaarheid van een effectieve regeling voor coöperatieve criminele getuigen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs C. Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure and the related guidelines of the College of Procurators-General are for all sorts of historical and ideological reasons heavily restrictive when it comes to the use of cooperative witnesses in criminal proceedings. What strikes most is that even in very serious cases it is not possible to grant a witness complete or partial immunity in exchange for his important cooperation. This contribution describes the problems arising sometimes in criminal cases wherein prosecutors, despite the existing narrow framework, make a deal with such a witness. The article outlines not only the historical and international background of the use of cooperative witnesses, but also its contemporary legal framework in the United States, Italy, the United Kingdom and Germany. The outcome of this comparative exercise is that at least the current legal provisions should be evaluated and that this evaluation should take into account the system and experiences in other countries as well as the problems of serious crime in the Netherlands and the leniency policies that govern the efforts to contain serious white collar crime like e.g. cartels.


C. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. em. Cyrille Fijnaut was tot voor kort als hoogleraar internationaal en vergelijkend strafrecht verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is thans voorzitter van de Toegangscommissie van de Commissie Evaluatie Afgesloten Strafzaken (CEAS).

    This article discusses the main features of the draft version of the new Criminal Code for the Netherlands Antilles, which was completely revised and updated in accordance with the latest case law and applicable international treaties. The draft legislation abolishes the dead penalty and minimum sentences. Also it introduces community services, a travel ban, an extension of self-defense in the direct vicinity of one's house and the obligatory review of life-long jail sentences after twenty years. Furthermore it adapts and modernizes the presently existing fines and criminal law for minors. The draft legislation is pending the recommendations of the Advice Council and will be presented to the Parliament thereafter.


M.F. Murray
Mr. Mirto Murray is advocaat en vennoot van Small Murray Scheper, Advocaten, te Willemstad, Curaçao. Hij is ouddeken van de Orde van Advocaten Curaçao en lid van de Commissie Herziening Wetboek van Strafrecht en de Gezamenlijke Commissie ter evaluatie van het Wetboek van Strafvordering.
Titel

Plea bargain en O.M.-afdoening als functionele equivalenten?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2005
Trefwoorden Strafvordering, Bewijslast, Openbaar ministerie, Strafrecht, Getuige, Kroongetuige, Misdrijf, Partijdigheid, Strafrechter, Aanhouding
Auteurs Nijboer, J.F.

Nijboer, J.F.
Titel

Het geweld in voormalig Joegoslavië: Tussen traditie, grote omwentelingen en kleine afrekeningen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 04 2006
Trefwoorden Geweld, Gedetineerde, Misdrijf, Delinquent, Aansprakelijkheid, Arts, Mishandeling, Getuige, Moord, Overleden
Auteurs Vlaming, F. de

Vlaming, F. de
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