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Artikel

De ontwikkeling van het aantal door bestuursorganen behandelde overtredingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden administrative sanctions, trend, minor offences, restorative sanctions, punitive sanctions
Auteurs Dr. Debora Moolenaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper looks at the number of administrative sanctions for minor offences since 2005. Administrative sanction can be divided into two categories: restorative sanctions and punitive sanctions. Information is limited and dispersed. The number of offences handled by welfare agencies has decreased with 21% in the period 2005-2016. In the same period the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by the police/public prosecutor have decreased with 14% (mainly originating from automated traffic cameras). Also administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory financial agencies have decreased with 58%. For some organisations the observation period is a shorter. In the period 2011-2016 the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by municipalities has increased with 41% and the number of administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory non-financial agencies have decreased with 47%. There is no information available on administrative sanctions for tax fraud.


Dr. Debora Moolenaar
Dr. D.E.G. Moolenaar is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Staatloosheid als moderne vorm van uitsluiting

Naar een duurzame oplossing voor staatlozen in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden statelessness, determination procedure, legislative proposal, limbo, exclusion
Auteurs Marlotte van Dael MSc, Mr. Jelle Klaas en Loïs Vaars LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article maps the current Dutch practice on statelessness, and tries to expose the current issues in particular. The published legislative proposal for a statelessness determination procedure in September 2016 is an attempt by the Dutch government to solve part of these problems after wide criticism from, among others, the Advisory Committee on Migration Affairs (ACVZ) in 2013. The introduction of a statelessness determination procedure is a long awaited development and a step in the right direction with a view of improving current practice and law for stateless persons residing in the Netherlands. However, significant deficiencies in the legislative proposal risk to greatly undermine the operation and value of the new procedure, especially for those currently left in limbo and excluded from society. This article focuses on the shortcomings in the procedure and provides recommendations how to revise these to ensure that stateless persons are enabled to demonstrate their statelessness adequately and obtain the rights associated with it as intended in the Statelessness Conventions signed by the Netherlands.


Marlotte van Dael MSc
M. van Dael MSc is als projectcoördinator en onderzoeker staatloosheid verbonden aan het ASKV/Steunpunt Vluchtelingen.

Mr. Jelle Klaas
Mr. J. Klaas is mensenrechtenadvocaat en Litigation Director NJCM.

Loïs Vaars LLM
L. Vaars LLM is dossierhouder staatloosheid bij het Public Interest Litigation Project (PILP).
Artikel

Onmaatschappelijkheidsbestrijding en de cultuur van volksbuurten in Brabant

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Noord-Brabant, marginal neighborhoods’ culture, antisocial behavior, Crime, government policy
Auteurs Prof. dr. P. Tops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ‘Volksbuurten’ (marginal neighborhoods) in Brabant emerged from poverty and backwardness, but have developed their own way to deal with it. ‘Deviant behavior’, including forms of illegal and criminal activity, is important in there. That behavior gradually gets sustainable features. These neighborhoods are usually the result of conscious and active government policy; in particular the approach of ‘antisocial behavior’ in the forties and fifties of the last century has been important. In this article the author first sketches the outlines of this particular ‘volksbuurten’ culture, to focus then on the history of a particular street in one of those neighborhoods and its culture around 1960: the Ruisvoornstraat in Tilburg. Knowledge of the history of these neighborhoods is one of the keys to understanding the specifics of the history of Brabant and its partial intertwining with a culture of acting illegally and criminally.


Prof. dr. P. Tops
Prof. dr. Pieter Tops is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en lector ‘politie en openbaar bestuur’ aan de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Een kwestie van integraal slim slaan?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden elder abuse, financial exploitation, criminal investigation, all party approach, cases of prosecutionof financial abuse
Auteurs Drs. L.M. Cremers en Drs. E.J.H. de Kluijs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors discuss the opportunities and challenges they experience from the criminal investigation of financial exploitation of the elderly. By sharing knowledge and experience, they stress that the all party approach in this distressing problem, from the viewpoint of criminal investigations, will achieve the best results. This article could thus be seen as a first step, and invitation, to discuss future interventions and policymaking on fighting the exploitation of the elderly to prevent, detect and investigate these crimes.


Drs. L.M. Cremers
Drs. Lucas Cremers MCI is als operationeel specialist werkzaam bij het Team Financieel Rechercheren van de politie Oost-Nederland.

Drs. E.J.H. de Kluijs
Drs. Esther de Kluijs is als operationeel specialist werkzaam bij het Team Financieel Rechercheren van de politie Oost-Nederland.
Artikel

Het bestrijden van uitkeringsfraude: mogelijkheden en moeilijkheden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden social security fraud, social assistance benefits, detecting fraud, municipalities, local policies
Auteurs M. Fenger en W. Voorberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the role of local municipalities in detecting and sanctioning benefit fraud, specifically fraud with social assistance benefits. Since the early 2000's, the government's attention for benefit fraud has been increased, resulting in the strengthening of the tasks and responsibilities of local municipalities in combatting and detecting fraud. There are indications that this has been successful: there is an increase in detection and the number of people that claims to offend the rules is decreasing. However, there is a significant amount of variety between municipalities in their performance with this regard. The authors argue that these differences are related to the design and implementation of local policies concerning the detection of benefit fraud. They offer several recommendations for more effective policies at the local level. These recommendations include a better use of available data and knowledge about the background of offenders and social assistance recipients.


M. Fenger
Dr. Menno Fenger is universitair hoofddocent aan de opleiding Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

W. Voorberg
William Voorberg MSc is promovendus aan de opleiding Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Auteurs Bert Berghuis en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Bert Berghuis
Gastredacteur Bert Berghuis is als raadadviseur verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving en Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid & Justitie. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

Marit Scheepmaker
Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Patronen in de criminele ontwikkeling van fraudeurs

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, life course, risk taking, adult offending, opportunities
Auteurs J.H.R. van van Onna
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both white-collar research and law enforcement tend to focus on the circumstances surrounding the white-collar offence and pay less attention to the background of the offender. Research shows that white-collar offenders are a heterogeneous group and that different development pathways and offender profiles can be identified. For many offenders the offence appears to be an isolated occurrence in norm conform lives, for others patterns in offending can be distinguished. For some this is a divers and long criminal career, others display a mix of norm conform and deviant behaviour. After briefly exploring if an underlying tendency for deviant and risk full behaviour may characterise white-collar offenders and how this may interact with opportunities for white-collar crime, the significance of these findings for law enforcement is discussed.


J.H.R. van van Onna
Drs. Joost van Onna werkt als onderzoeker bij het Functioneel Parket (Openbaar Ministerie) en is als promovendus verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam, waar hij onderzoek doet naar de criminele ontwikkeling van fraudeurs.
Artikel

Ik ben geen freak! Het leven van transgenders in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden transgender, gender identity, sex operations, social acceptance, mental health
Auteurs S. Keuzenkamp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some people are born as men, but feel like a woman; some feel like both a man and a woman; and some feel neither man nor woman. Similarly, there are people who are born as women, but feel like a men, etcetera. For these people, their birth gender and gender identity do not (completely) correspond. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP) studied the lives of these so-called transgender persons. 459 transgender persons filled out an online questionnaire between September 2011 and April 2012. Half the respondents knew before the age of 10 that their gender identity did not correspond with their birth gender. Almost a third of the respondents are still (mainly) living in the closet. Negative reactions are quite common. And compared with the rest of the Dutch population, transgender persons are much more often declared unfit for work and suffer much more often from mental health problems.


S. Keuzenkamp
Prof. dr. Saskia Keuzenkamp is als bijzonder hoogleraar Emancipatie in internationaal vergelijkend perspectief verbonden aan de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Zij is tevens sinds kort werkzaam als manager van de afdeling Effectiviteit bij Movisie in Utrecht. Daarvoor was zij verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau in Den Haag.
Artikel

De politiefunctionaris en het risico op PTSS

Een terechte zorg of medicalisering van een beroepsgroep?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden police officers, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), psychosocial problems, medicalization
Auteurs M.J.J. Kunst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Several policy measures have recently been undertaken to enhance resilience in Dutch police officers. The author of this article argues that these initiatives rely on false beliefs about the stressful nature of police work. Police officers are often exposed to traumatic or otherwise stressful events, but this does not necessarily render them at an increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other (trauma-related) psychosocial problems. After a discussion of empirical studies which support his view, he speculates that these false beliefs are grounded in the Western tendency to qualify stressful events as (potentially) traumatic. This tendency to medicalize stressful events is reflected both in the history of the diagnostic criteria for PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the empirical literature. The author concludes with pointing out a potential negative by-effect of this medicalization tendency: simulating PTSD (symptoms) for external motives, such as financial gain.


M.J.J. Kunst
Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

    The main difference between various forms of prevention of organised crime is between primary and secondary prevention on the one hand and tertiary prevention on the other. The latter is directed at diminishing an already existing problem. This article deals with social conditions which promote the arising of organised crime and with relevant specifically vulnerable factors and sectors (primary and secondary prevention). The authors argue that in a way every society gets the organised crime it deserves. Organising and regulating society often has the side effect of creating opportunities for individuals and groups which gain profit by exploiting the illegal markets that arise as a consequence of regulations. Whether the desire for regulation or the prevention of (organised) crime should prevail is a topic for political and social debate.


A.C. Berghuis
Drs. Bert Berghuis is als raadadviseur verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving & Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie te Den Haag.

J. de Waard
Mr. drs. Jaap de Waard is als senior beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving & Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie te Den Haag.
Artikel

Stoppen met crimineel gedrag

Een kwalitatief, longitudinaal onderzoek naar Marokkaanse en Nederlandse mannen met een crimineel verleden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2011
Auteurs H. Werdmölder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is a first report on the longitudinal study of forty Moroccan and Dutch criminal men. The research was started in 1982. The author returned to the subject in 1988. In 2008, the author started a new research project with the same men.
    The focus of this article is on the process of desistance. Ten men already ended their criminal period in the late eighties (the ‘early desisters’). In between time, two of them relapsed. Nine men can be called ‘late desisters’. They had many more obstacles to face in their re-integration, such as long-term employment and addiction to hard drugs. The combination of getting regular work, marriage and a permanent place of living is very effective in the process of desistance. But in the end, personal qualities, such as discipline, taking up responsibility and motivation, will be decisive.


H. Werdmölder
Dr. Hans Werdmölder is als lector Jeugd en Veiligheid werkzaam aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool in Brabant en als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Universiteit van Utrecht. Dit artikel kwam mede tot stand dankzij een verblijf van een half jaar aan het Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies (NIAS) te Wassenaar en een subsidiëring van het Fonds Bijzondere Journalistieke Producties (www.fondsbjp.nl).

    This article focuses on a phenomenon often called ‘function creep’. This is the process whereby new functions are added to systems that are basically intended for other purposes, or when systems or data originally intended for function A are linked to other systems or data having function B. New technical possibilities have definitely paved the way for function creep and a growing number of ICT-applications appear no longer limited to the purpose for which they were originally set up. Function creep is an inherent feature of innovation. But at the same time it poses risks if considered from a privacy perspective. After detailing many examples of function creep, the article elaborates on a potential risk not often discussed: loss of data quality. The analysis concludes in arguing that citizens can act as a crucial countervailing power to limit the expansion of function creep. This however requires that governments are more open and accountable to allow for a transparent and verifiable comparison between the interests at stake.


J.E.J. Prins
Prof.mr. Corien Prins is hoogleraar aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT), Universiteit van Tilburg en Raadslid bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (WRR). Deze bijdrage is voor een belangrijk deel ontleend aan het rapport iOverheid van de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (maart 2011, zie: www.wrr.nl), dat onder haar verantwoordelijkheid werd opgesteld.

    Charles Kindleberger unravelled the anatomy of a typical financial crisis in his famous book Manias, panics and crashes (1978). He stresses that during a boom the tendency to swindle and be swindled runs parallel to the tendency to speculate. In this article five famous and non-famous swindles over the past ninety years are analyzed. Each financial boom, and each financial crisis during this period of modern capitalism experienced at least one famous financial swindle, which is to be seen as typical for the boom and the subsequent deception. The five swindlers described are Charles (Carlo) Ponzi in the 1920s, Ivar Krueger around 1930, Bernie Cornfeld in the 1960s/1970s, Michael Milken in the 1980s and - very recently - Bernard Madoff. His 65 billion dollar fraud is to be seen as the first worldwide Ponzi scheme - a fraud that lasted longer, reached wider and cut deeper than any similar scheme in history. An analysis of these five cases yields several striking similarities. It is concluded that financial swindles are no random events, but the result of both structural changes and circular waves of economic and financial boom and bust.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is beleidsmedewerker bij de Directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

    The question of social engineering is an important aspect of debates on security: up to what point can undesired behavior be corrected, prevented or diminished? To what extent is human behavior malleable? This article is a reflection on the development of social engineering, through the lense of the developments in the north of Amsterdam. It is an area that can be seen as a laboratory, a testing ground for the social democratic dream to create a new man, by uplifting and disciplining the urban poor. The central thesis is that the present redevelopment of Amsterdam Noord is predicated upon a shift in governmental strategy: from social engineering to spatial engineering. Location is arguably no longer used to uplift the population, presently the social composition of the population is being changed to uplift the location.


M. Oudenampsen
Drs. Merijn Oudenampsen is freelance onderzoeker. Hij studeerde politicologie en sociologie en was tot 2009 als onderzoeker verbonden aan de Jan van Eijck Academie in Maastricht. Hij werkt op het moment aan een boek over populisme en symboolpolitiek.
Artikel

De architect heeft het gedaan!

De rol van stedenbouw, architectuur en stadsbestuur in de rellen in de Franse voorsteden van 2005

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2010
Auteurs W. Vanstiphout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Is the design of a city a decisive factor in the development of violent behavior by its inhabitants? The discussion following the 2005 riots in the French suburbs shows that many blame the concept of La Ville Radieuse and its most famous founding father, the architect Le Corbusier, for the social degeneration of the banlieues. For some critics, like the British author Theodore Dalrymple, this ‘totalitarian’ architecture symbolizes the evil of the welfare state with its social security, mass immigration, egalitarism and its elites with their blindness for the threat to the western Enlightenment values coming from these ‘black’ suburbs. However, the truth of urban development is that cities are fundamentally unpredictable. After several generations a building will be used in a completely different way than perceived, by people whose existence one wasn't aware of and in a social context one couldn't have predicted. This ‘natural’ development is labeled as the failure of a project, often leading to a policy of repression and demolition. However, local politicians, project developers and architects should realize that it's not their actions that determine the development of cities, but the way the inhabitants use and interpret their environment. They create their own city. Instead of replacing the inhabitants by demolishing their houses, we probably have no other choice than getting to know these quarters better and renovate these together with and for the local inhabitants.


W. Vanstiphout
Prof. dr. Wouter Vanstiphout is lid van Crimson Architectural Historians. Met Crimson houdt hij zich sinds 1994 bezig met stedenbouwkundig onderzoek, ontwerp, het maken van tentoonstellingen en het schrijven en redigeren van boeken. Hij is tevens hoog leraar Ontwerp & Politiek aan de Faculteit Bouwkunde van de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Titel

Hulpverlening aan slachtoffers van mensenhandel: Mensenrecht of beloning?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 07 2007
Trefwoorden Slachtoffer, Mensenhandel, Aangifte, Verblijfsvergunning, Politie, Sepot, Strafrecht, Strafvordering, Voorwaarde, Bedenktijd
Auteurs Rijken, C. en Dijk, J. van

Rijken, C.

Dijk, J. van
Titel

Warme overdracht of koude kermis? Wat goed en slecht gaat in de nazorg voor ex-gedetineerden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 04 2007
Trefwoorden Gedetineerde, Gemeente, Overdracht, Re-integratie, Recidive, Identiteitsdocument, Inkomen, Betaling, Gemeentelijke basisadministratie, Ministerie van justitie
Auteurs Moors, H. en Balogh, L.

Moors, H.

Balogh, L.
Titel

Fortuyn was uniek, zijn gedachtegoed niet: Een analyse van rechts-populistische partijen in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 02 2007
Trefwoorden Democratie, Overeenkomst, Regering, Vereniging, Verkiezing, Homohuwelijk, Referendum, Verlies, Werknemer, Belastingverlaging
Auteurs Lucardie, P.

Lucardie, P.
Titel

De erfenis van vier jaar Leefbaar Rotterdam

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 02 2007
Trefwoorden Bestuurder, Gemeente, Wethouder, Nalatenschap, Politie, Gemeenteraadsverkiezing, Verkiezing, Overlast, Voeging, Aansprakelijkheid
Auteurs Ostaaijen, J.J.C. van en Tops, P.W.

Ostaaijen, J.J.C. van

Tops, P.W.
Titel

Identiteitsfraude op de arbeidsmarkt en in de sociale zekerheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 07 2006
Trefwoorden Identiteitsfraude, Werkgever, Identiteit, Illegaal, Werknemer, Arbeidsmarkt, Uitzendbureau, Fraude, Identiteitsdocument, Paspoort
Auteurs Barensen, J. en Eijkelenboom, J.A.

Barensen, J.

Eijkelenboom, J.A.
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