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Artikel

Verdachten met een LVB in het politieverhoor

De invloed van verhoormethoden op de inhoud van verklaringen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden interrogation methods and techniques, suspect and witness, (borderline) intellectual disability, false confessions, false statements
Auteurs P.R. Kranendonk MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The main goal of an interrogation is to elicit truthful information about the involvement of a suspect or witness in a criminal act. Some interrogation methods and techniques are useful for extracting information from otherwise unwilling suspects, but they can also elicit false confessions or statements from innocent (and vulnerable) suspects and witnesses. Multiple studies show that a large proportion of false confessions are made by suspects with an intellectual disability. Intellectual disabilities are often difficult to recognize, because of an individual’s streetwise behavior. This vulnerable group is extremely sensitive to suggestibility, compliance and acquiescence. Some interrogation methods and techniques used by the police can have a severe influence on these features and therefore on the reliability of statements. Given the overrepresentation of people with an intellectual disability in the Dutch criminal justice system, it is of great importance to prevent unwanted risks in the interrogation.


P.R. Kranendonk MSc
Robin Kranendonk MSc doet als promovenda bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam onderzoek naar de knelpunten en risico’s bij het verhoren van verdachten en getuigen met een LVB.
Artikel

Politie en beeldtechnologie: gebruik, opbrengsten en uitdagingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden CCTV, bodycams, ANPR, smart cameras, police
Auteurs Drs. S. Flight
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch National Police deploys video technology, for instance body-worn video camera (bodycams), drones, helicopters with cameras, and mobile units for surveillance. Four types of video technology are discussed: CCTV, bodycams, smart cameras and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR). These four types will be the most prominent applications of visual technology in the coming years, according to ‘Vision on sensing’, published in 2015 by the National Police. The potential benefits of video images for prosecution and in the courtroom are discussed in a separate paragraph, followed by a survey of recent changes in the laws regulating this technology.


Drs. S. Flight
Drs. Sander Flight is zelfstandig adviseur en onderzoeker op het terrein van veiligheid en criminaliteit.
Artikel

Wat is witwassen eigenlijk?

Introductie tot theorie en praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden money laundering, Organized, Crime, Bitcoin, financial crime
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en M.R.J. Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, which serves as an introduction, the authors take a closer look at theoretical definitions as well as empirical manifestations of money laundering. They discuss the judicial definition and the often used theoretical distinction between ‘three stages’ of money laundering. Furthermore, the authors provide the reader with a quick overview of several forms of money laundering. This overview is based on actual criminal investigations. It covers the transfer of cash money and ‘concealed consumption’, both of which are frequently overlooked by authors who use the three stages model. Also ‘traditional’ forms of money laundering such as loan backs, abuse of legal trade, feigning gambling profit, structuring of real estate deals and ‘new’ forms, i.e. the use of bitcoins, are dealt with.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

M.R.J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior-onderzoeker werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie, afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid.
Artikel

Voorbij goed en kwaad

Het mensbeeld achter ‘zinloos geweld’ in de literatuur en filosofie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden meaningless violence, acte gratuit, nihilism, literature, philosophy
Auteurs J.L. Goedegebuure
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay focuses on the parallels between the recently coined phrase ‘meaningless violence’ and the literary theme of the ‘acte gratuit’, developed by the French modernist author André Gide, but also represented in the novels of Dostojewski, Camus and Arnon Grunberg. From a philosophical perspective the acte gratuit can be connected with Nietzsche’s ‘Wille zur Macht’, but also with Bataille’s interpretation of violence as an expression of the will to break taboos and exceed the borders between the profane and the sacred.


J.L. Goedegebuure
Prof. dr. Jaap Goedegebuure is als emeritus hoogleraar Moderne Nederlandse Letterkunde verbonden aan het Leiden University Centre for the Arts in Society.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Auteurs T.W.A. de Wit en J.A.A.C. Claessen
Auteursinformatie

T.W.A. de Wit
Gastredacteur prof. dr. Theo de Wit is als universitair docent sociale en politieke filosofie en bijzonder hoogleraar vraagstukken geestelijke verzorging in justitiële inrichtingen verbonden aan de Faculteit Katholieke Theologie van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

J.A.A.C. Claessen
Gastredacteur mr. dr. Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Daarnaast is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg en redacteur van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht en het Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht.
Artikel

Duitsland en de zigeuners: van uitsluiting tot Endlösung der Zigeunerfrage, 1407-1945

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden gypsies, Germany, Holocaust, racial theories, the Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. M.T. Croes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives an overview of the persecution of the gypsies in Europe from their arrival in Central and Western Europe in 1407 till the Baro Porrajmos ('great devouring' in some Romani dialects) as the mass killing of gypsies during the Second World War is called. The focus in this article is on Germany.


Dr. M.T. Croes
Dr. Marnix Croes werkt als onderzoeker bij het WODC. Zijn proefschrift uit 2004 handelt over de overlevingskansen van joden in Nederland tijdens de Duitse bezetting van 1940-1945 en werd bekroond met de studieprijs van de Stichting Praemium Erasmianum.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Auteurs Bert Berghuis en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Bert Berghuis
Gastredacteur Bert Berghuis is als raadadviseur verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving en Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid & Justitie. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

Marit Scheepmaker
Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Als je merkt dat niemand het merkt

Over fraude in de wetenschap

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden categories of science fraud, history of science fraud, causes of science fraud, publication pressure, supervision
Auteurs C.J.M. Schuyt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author deals with some issues concerning fraud in science. First, he wonders if this is a new phenomenon. After exploring the definition of scientific fraud he sets the inquiry to the prevalence of this phenomenon. Various recent science fraud cases are discussed, as well as possible explanations for science fraud. Finally, the author formulates a criminological-oriented hypothetical explanation, which opposes frequently heard explanations dealing with contemporary problems in the universities, such as the publication pressure.


C.J.M. Schuyt
Prof. dr. mr. Kees Schuyt is lid van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen, voorzitter van het Landelijk Orgaan Wetenschappelijke Integriteit en emeritus hoogleraar Sociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Faillissementsfraude: een hardnekkig fenomeen

Pleidooi voor een preventieve aanpak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Bankruptcy fraud, Preventive approach, Prosecution, Trade Register, New legislation
Auteurs F. Kemp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands new criminal law measures will be introduced to prevent and combat bankruptcy fraud. In this article the author argues that the emphasis on criminal law measures is not sufficient to effectively tackle the phenomenon of bankruptcy fraud because prosecution and punishment always occur after the damage is done. What is needed is an integrated approach realising preventive measures, such as tools to detect fraud at an early stage. Fraud is, after all, characterised by typical behaviour that throws up digital red flags. After detecting those red flags subsequent action can be taken to stop the fraud. Also modernising the Trade Register would contribute considerably to the protection of creditors.


F. Kemp
Mr. Frits Kemp is als advocaat en curator verbonden aan Fort advocaten te Amsterdam. Hij is lid van de initiatiefgroep 1Overheid en docent Insolventierecht bij verschillende universiteiten en instellingen.
Artikel

De bestrijding van voedselfraude in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden NVWA-IOD, food fraud, food industry, food laundering, criminal cases
Auteurs K.E. Gussow en L.H. Kuiper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud has recently been recognized as a blind spot among regulators. In Europe, few organizations have experience with large cases of food fraud; also scientific knowledge into this type of crime is limited. This article aims to contribute experience to this gap. The NVWA-IOD is a specialist crime unit in the Netherlands, carrying out criminal investigations into, among other things, food fraud. This article gives insight into numbers of cases dealt with by the NVWA-IOD in the past fifteen years, for different types of food fraud. Nine criminal cases, concentrating on suspects within trade and industry, are analyzed in more detail from a basic criminological perspective. There is looked into, among other things, the motive, the opportunity and the product. The cases discussed relate to products such as meat, eggs, fish and dairy products. The main motive for committing food fraud is making money; the gain makes fraudulent activities attractive and financially beneficial. Opportunities refer mainly to ambiguous laws and regulations and little supervision. Also, evasive behavior was found. To combat food crime, specialist knowledge of tempting opportunities is essential.


K.E. Gussow
Dr. Karen Gussow is als senior inspecteur verbonden aan de Inlichtingen- en Opsporingsdienst (IOD) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA).

L.H. Kuiper
Loes Kuiper studeerde af aan de Hogeschool Van Hall Larenstein te Leeuwarden en loopt stage bij de Inlichtingen- en Opsporingsdienst (IOD) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA).
Artikel

Mensenrechten begrensd: detentie in het vreemdelingenrecht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden immigration detention, human rights, Dutch immigration law, detention of children, territorial sovereignty
Auteurs G. Cornelisse
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates the practice of immigration detention in the Netherlands, which has been fiercely criticized by international organizations and NGOs. It focuses in particular on three aspects of that measure: justification, implementation, and its use with regard to children. These issues are discussed in the light of human rights law, more in particular the case law by the European Court of Human Rights. It will be shown that this Court, by portraying immigration as a phenomenon implicating first and foremost territorial sovereignty, makes it difficult for immigrants’ individual interests to be addressed in substance, let alone to be perceived as rights. It is argued that the European Court of Justice in its application of EU law in this field is perhaps better suited to grant unwanted migrants their human rights than traditional human rights law has done so far.


G. Cornelisse
Mr. dr. Galina Cornelisse is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Transnational Legal Studies van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

    As a contribution to literature drawing together green criminology and studies of organized and corporate crime, this paper provides a case study of crimes and public health harms linked to the Naples garbage disposal crisis. The context is the inability of modern consumer society to cope with the problem of mass production of waste. In turn this leads to opportunities for both legal and criminal entrepreneurs to offer services that promise but fail to ‘dispose’ of the problem. The analysis draws upon environmental law and classic studies of organised crime.


V. Ruggiero
Prof. Vincenzo Ruggiero is als hoogleraar sociologie verbonden aan de Middlesex University in Londen.

N. South
Prof. Nigel South is hoogleraar sociologie aan de University of Essex.

    This paper analyses the association between rural youth violence, drinking alcohol in the weekend and going to the pub, as compared to their peers in more urbanized areas. In addition, the paper analyses whether the gender gap in the use of violence is larger for rural youth. Based on self-report data of 5,062 youngsters aged 14-22 years old, two forms of violence were analysed. The first concerns physical violence: fighting, hitting someone resulting in medical treatment and wounding someone with a weapon. The second comprises behaviour that prepares for the use of violence: threatening and carrying a weapon. These two forms of violence were related to two types of rural areas on the basis of population density. It turned out that youngsters living in the least densely populated areas were not less likely to have engaged in physical violence whereas their peers in more densely populated rural areas had somewhat lower chances to do so. Concerning behaviour that prepares for violence, the analyses showed that in both rural areas, youth were slightly less likely to have engaged in such behaviour. Furthermore, the association between drinking alcohol and the use of physical violence was stronger for youth living in both rural areas. The results also indicate that the gender gap in youth violence is not larger for rural youth. The paper concludes that future research should inquire the specific meanings of alcohol and violence in rural youth culture. Such research should take the diversity of rural areas into account, rather than relying on measures of population density only.


D. Weenink
Dr. Don Weenink is als hoofddocent verbonden aan de Rural Sociology Group van de Universiteit Wageningen. Dit artikel is onderdeel van een onderzoek naar geweld onder jongeren, ondersteund door een NWO Venibeurs.

    Comparing an organized crime group to an ‘enterprise’ or ‘firm’ and its key persons to ‘entrepreneurs’ is only a small step to viewing its illegal activities as a business process. Yet, it took until the early 1990s before criminologists started to study the logistics of specific illegal activities. Since then, the Dutch police have adapted to thinking of organized crime in terms of criminal business processes and to erecting barriers (preferably insurmountable ones) to specific steps in these processes. Firstly, the police analyze logistical processes to find weak spots that can be targeted to hinder illegal activities most effectively, either through investigative action or by means of preventive measures. Secondly, law enforcement agencies consider such an analytical approach an attractive tool to explore the viability of involving other public or private parties in setting up barriers. The Dutch investigation authorities have used this concept successfully in the case of ecstasy production, by aiming at the small number of suppliers of particular chemicals and hardware. As regards large-scale (and indoor) cannabis cultivation, however, the approach is less fruitful, because there are no explicitly ‘vulnerable’ stages in the cultivation process. Furthermore, some of the intended barriers can be deemed rather intrusive, such as a plan to persuade banks to withdraw a mortgage if the police discover a cannabis nursery in a person's private home. This raises the question to what extent the police and the judiciary may call in other parties to help them put up barriers to illegal activities, instead of using the conventional tool of criminal investigation.


A.C.M. Spapens
Dr. Toine Spapens is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is tevens lector milieucriminaliteit aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn.
Artikel

Obstakels voor samenwerking

Bevindingen uit de procesevaluatie van de programmatische aanpak mensenhandel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2011
Auteurs B. van Gestel en M. Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The recent approach to combating organised crime in the Netherlands emphasizes the importance of interventions aimed at the underlying ‘facilitating structure’ of crime. A great deal of attention is being devoted to professions, companies and services that - consciously or unconsciously - facilitate crime in a structural manner. In addition to a repressive approach to this type of crime, structural hindrances should also be created to aid in combating organised crime. This means that investigative services have to work closely together with each other and other relevant agencies. On the basis of this perspective, the Public Prosecution Service developed the ‘programmatic approach’. The programma-based approach was first tried out as a pilote in 2006 in the field of Human trafficking (trafficking for sexual exploitation). This article investigates what kind of problems have occurred in practice during the pilote, and focuses on an explanation of why cooperation fails.


B. van Gestel
Dr. Barbra van Gestel is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

M. Verhoeven
Drs. Maite Verhoeven is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Geen smoesjes meer

De strategie van ‘removing excuses’ toegepast op financiële facilitators

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2011
Auteurs M.R.J. Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminals sometimes use so-called financial facilitators to invest their ill-gotten gains without drawing attention to themselves. These facilitators are experts at getting round anti-money laundering procedures. Because of their expertise and unique capabilities they play an important role in criminal networks. It therefore stands to reason that law enforcement focuses on them. That focus often translates in prosecution when laws are broken. However, what can we do to prevent financial experts in breaking the law? In this article the focus lies on the method of removing excuses. This technique is employed in every day crimes but has not been put to the test in the context of organized crime. Interviews with police officers show that the technique of removing excuses could work under certain conditions. However, it turns out that an important differentiation lies in the sort of activities financial facilitators undertake. Not all financial activities take place in the legal financial-economic system. Instead of distinguishing between the three classical phases of money laundering (placement, layering, integration), a two-pronged focus is proposed on those who are involved in cash based transactions and those who construct smokescreens on paper.


M.R.J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker werkzaam bij het KLPD. Hij schreef deze bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

De opbouw van de rechtsstaat in Afghanistan

Een bezinning op tien jaar buitenlandse hulp

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2010
Auteurs V.L. Taylor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this essay the author looks back at ten years of rule of law foreign assistance in Afghanistan. She first surveys the elements that make Afghanistan particularly challenging as a development. This is followed by a brief outline of foreign donor-assisted efforts at rule of law reform in the last decade. The features of law and legal systems in Afghanistan that are salient for would-be foreign reformers are analyzed. The concept of judicial independence serves as example of well-intentioned rule of law interventions that have not fared well in this complex environment. The author argues that better prepared international advisors with a better grasp of legal history and comparative law may have produced stronger outcomes. Ultimately, however, a pre-post-conflict setting constrains conventional rule of law programs in important ways and calls for more realism about what can be achieved, within what time frame and with what degree of sustainability.


V.L. Taylor
Prof. Veronica Taylor is als hoogleraar en directeur verbonden aan de School of Regulation, Justice and Diplomacy van de Australian National University. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op de Van Vollenhoven Lezing die zij op 20 mei 2010 uitsprak ter gelegenheid van haar benoeming als The Hague Visiting Professor of Rule of Law aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    The prehistory of criminology doesn't get all that much attention in the Low Countries. In the Dutch case many criminologists e.g. see the publication of Bonger's work in 1905 on crime and economic conditions as the real starting point of criminology. This narrow historical view overlooks the fact that, before the French Revolution, notably the ideas of Beccaria on crime and punishment sparked a rather fierce discussion in the Netherlands - this in contrast to the Austrian/Belgian provinces. Beccaria's views also inspired Calkoen to write the first comprehensive treatise on the prevention and repression of crime in 1778. Later, after 1830, two major figures in the prehistory of modern criminology stepped forward in the new independent state of Belgium. Quetelet was the first one in history to apply modern statistics in order to assess the nature, extent and development of crime problems. He became one of the founding fathers of criminal statistics. Ducpétiaux developed into an enlightened and brilliant defender of the Pennsylvania penitentiary system and completely rebuilt the Belgian system according to this model. Both men also had a notable impact on the discussion how to deal with crime and in particular on the construction of new prisons in the Netherlands. After the birth of modern criminology in 1876 - thanks to Lombroso - the writings of Quetelet were an important source of knowledge for Bonger and the Belgian criminologist Denis. Lombroso, however, equally had important followers in both countries: Aletrino in the Netherlands and Héger in Belgium. It is a pity that the (pre-)history of criminology in the Low Countries is not part of the contemporary international image of the history of criminology. Time has come to fill up this important gap in the historical analysis of criminology.


C. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut is gewoon hoogleraar aan de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Titel

Zero tolerance in de praktijk: Handhaving van de 'kleine norm' door politie of boa's?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2005
Trefwoorden Politie, Handhaving, Geweld, Overlast, Toezichthouder, Aanhouding, Bestuurlijke boete, Bedreiging, Belediging, Herstel
Auteurs Stokkom, B.A.M. van

Stokkom, B.A.M. van
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