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Artikel

De vrederechter in historisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden legal history, justice of the peace, Conciliation, small claim courts, access to justice
Auteurs Mr. dr. Emese von Bóné
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is about the history of the justice of the peace, a low profile judge where people easily have access to. The history of the justice of the peace goes back to the seventeenth century. The justice of the peace was reintroduced in the Netherlands in the French period, when the country was annexed by the French Empire under the reign of Napoleon. The justice of the peace was also introduced in Belgium and is still in use. The most important task of the justice of the peace is ‘conciliation’. In the conciliation procedure the justice of the peace has a very active role. The judge tries to mediate between the parties in order to come to an agreement.


Mr. dr. Emese von Bóné
Mr. dr. E.K.E. von Bóné is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de Capgroep Privaatrecht van de Erasmus School of Law (ESL) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij doceert rechtsgeschiedenis en doet rechtshistorisch en rechtsvergelijkend onderzoek naar laagdrempelige rechtspraak.
Artikel

De ontwikkeling van het aantal door bestuursorganen behandelde overtredingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden administrative sanctions, trend, minor offences, restorative sanctions, punitive sanctions
Auteurs Dr. Debora Moolenaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper looks at the number of administrative sanctions for minor offences since 2005. Administrative sanction can be divided into two categories: restorative sanctions and punitive sanctions. Information is limited and dispersed. The number of offences handled by welfare agencies has decreased with 21% in the period 2005-2016. In the same period the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by the police/public prosecutor have decreased with 14% (mainly originating from automated traffic cameras). Also administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory financial agencies have decreased with 58%. For some organisations the observation period is a shorter. In the period 2011-2016 the number of administrative sanctions for traffic offences imposed by municipalities has increased with 41% and the number of administrative sanctions imposed by supervisory non-financial agencies have decreased with 47%. There is no information available on administrative sanctions for tax fraud.


Dr. Debora Moolenaar
Dr. D.E.G. Moolenaar is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Hybridisering van de zwaardmachten: realiteit of fictie?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden militarization of the police, constabularisation of the military, peace support operations, blurring of police and military functions, high-end policing
Auteurs Dr. Peter Neuteboom en Hans Hovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National and international security are becoming increasingly interdependent. The question is whether this leads to a certain level of militarization of the police and constibularisation of the military. In some of their operations and units, the Dutch police apply tactics, technologies and organizational principles that resemble those of the military. The police also contribute to international peace support operations and stability missions to train or monitor police in post-conflict areas. The Dutch army has been involved in some sort of interim policing during several stability missions and increasingly support the Dutch police in law enforcement operations by providing search and analytical support. Finally, as a police force with a military status, the Royal Marechaussee has acquired a structural and strong position in the Dutch police system. Although there is some sort of convergence, the authors conclude that the level of militarization of the police and constabularisation of the military remains limited.


Dr. Peter Neuteboom
Dr. P.C.J. Neuteboom is directeur Duurzaamheid en Opsporing bij de Inspectie Leefomgeving & Transport en research fellow bij de Nederlandse Defensie Academie.

Hans Hovens
J.L. Hovens is kolonel b.d. van de Koninklijke Marechaussee.
Redactioneel

Access_open Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Auteurs dr. Marc Schuilenburg en Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

dr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr.mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens lid van de redactieraad van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Crimmigratie en het uitzetten van strafrechtelijk veroordeelde vreemdelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden crimmigration, bordered penality, migration, banishment, bifurcation
Auteurs Jelmer Brouwer MSc E.MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses to what extent current responses to crime committed by immigrants can be seen as a modern version of the classical practice of banishment. To that end it analyses three recent policy developments directed at criminally convicted immigration. The analysis shows that during the last ten years there has been a sharp increase in the number of immigrants losing their residence permit following a criminal conviction. Moreover, punishment aimed at criminally convicted immigrants without a legal right to stay is increasingly aimed at permanent exclusion through the practice of deportation. Drawing on the theoretical notions of crimmigration and bordered penality, it is therefore argued that criminally convicted immigrants increasingly see themselves confronted with punishment practices that are the modern equivalent of the classical practice of banishment. This raises important questions about where we should draw the line between insiders and outsiders.


Jelmer Brouwer MSc E.MA
J. Brouwer MSc E.MA is als promovendus verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Verbanning en uitzetting in Noordwest-Europa sinds de vroegmoderne periode

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden banishment, expulsion, history, early modern period, Northwest Europe
Auteurs Dr. Margo De Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To supplement recent debates concerning the expulsion of criminal foreigners and the repelling of poor refugees with longer-term insights, this contribution examines banishment practices in early modern and modern Northwest Europe. It argues that banishment, a sanction involving a person’s geographical and social exclusion, served both to punish deviants and to monitor mobile newcomers. Expulsion practices were shaped mainly by concerns about the regulation of access to the labor market and poor relief. The profile of the expellee displays remarkable continuity across time: the poor unwanted stranger, lacking social bonds and, in the case of female migrants, perceived as being prone to prostitution. Albeit banishment often proved only temporary and thus not effective, authorities continued to rely on it because of its symbolic function, displaying their diligence in purifying and protecting local society. This was much to the detriment of the expellees, who were driven into marginality and illegality.


Dr. Margo De Koster
Dr. Margo De Koster is als universitair docent Historische Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

Het subversieve Brabant

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Dutch province of North Brabant, regional history, subversive culture, crime, drugs production
Auteurs Dr. P. Klerks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various forms of organized crime are concentrated in the Dutch province of North Brabant, bordering Belgium. In this essay it is argued that specific historic, geographic, social economic, cultural and social psychological factors created an enduring window of opportunity in which criminality can flourish. Brabant is portrayed as a marginalized province that suffered from war, exploitation by the central government, rural gangs, a lack of law enforcement, extreme poverty as well as from discrimination because of its mainly catholic population. Against this background the population developed a mentality of solving problems on their own. Their survival strategies implied not only legal activities like agriculture and small-scale production in private houses, workplaces and factories, but also smuggling and illegal alcohol production. In more recent times the production of synthetic drugs, growing cannabis and transport criminality became widespread.


Dr. P. Klerks
Dr. Peter Klerks is werkzaam bij het Parket-Generaal van het Openbaar Ministerie en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Criminele families in Noord-Brabant

Over generatie-effecten in de zware criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden criminal family networks, organized crime, North Brabant, intergenerational transmission, opportunity structures
Auteurs Drs. H. Moors en Prof. dr. T. Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article on intergenerational transmission of crime in families is based on a study of seven families of which at least one member held a key position in an organized crime group. The authors retrieved information on at least three generations (preceding and succeeding this key member’s generation) to investigate whether transmissions occurred, and if so, how these might be explained. Throughout the generations the majority of family members indeed have criminal records. However, it seems to be less easy to transfer criminal leadership in organized crime from one generation to the next. Leading a criminal group seems to demand qualities that are not transferred easily. Successful successors appear to be able to establish their own networks within the deviant subcultures from which they stem. This also explains the persistence of criminal behavior: both men and women select their friends and partners from these closed communities and seem to prefer for their social and love relationships those who have already developed substantial criminal track records. Organized crime families in North Brabant took advantage of criminal opportunities that were presented to them over the years. Particularly XTC production, starting in the 1990s, allowed them to step up their criminal activities from the local to the global level. In addition, they may have capitalized on a moral economy with sentiments of subordination present in the province of North Brabant, dating back to the seventeenth century, which resulted in a more reserved attitude towards authorities than in other parts of the Netherlands. Finally, law enforcement agencies have been generally slow to respond to developments in criminal opportunities that benefited these seven families.


Drs. H. Moors
Drs. Hans Moors is partner van advies- en onderzoeksbureau EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag.

Prof. dr. T. Spapens
Prof. dr. Toine Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan Tilburg University.
Artikel

Cultureel erfgoed én crimineel probleem: over de subcultuur van woonwagenbewoners

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden traveler communities, Subculture, Noord-Brabant, Criminality, multi-agency approach
Auteurs Drs. R. Witte en Dr. H. Moors
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the Province of Noord-Brabant, the ‘traveler community’ possesses a specific position, coloring the developments in crime throughout the region and being a main focus for major concern among policymakers and professionals. The authors reflect on the historical development of the ‘traveler community’ and their perceived subculture as well as on state response to these developments. Along this, the attempts of social work to contribute to social climbing of ‘travelers’ outside criminality in the 1980s and 1990s are portrayed. The contribution rounds up with some reflections on the present call for a ‘multi-agency approach’ towards organized and undermining crime in which again, and increasingly so, the importance of the so-called ‘soft side of crime prevention and repression’ is underlined.


Drs. R. Witte
Drs. Rob Witte is senior adviseur en onderzoeker bij EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag.

Dr. H. Moors
Dr. Hans Moors is partner bij EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag. www.emma.nl.
Artikel

Ontwikkelingen in de jeugdcriminaliteit, 1997 tot 2015

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden trends in juvenile and young adult crime, crime drop, Cybercrime, explanations for the crime drop, social media
Auteurs Dr. A.M. van der Laan, Dr. M.G.C.J. Beerthuizen en Dr. H. Goudriaan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2008 juvenile crime rates in the Netherlands annually decreased. The decrease is shown in official police and justice crime, as well as in self-reported delinquency. However, this crime drop mainly accounts traditional offline crime, whereas little is known about cybercrime amongst juveniles and young adults. According to the Juvenile Crime Monitor, approximately 20% of juveniles and young adults report involvement in cyber or digitized delinquency. Trends with regard to cyber or digitized crime are not (yet) available. Previous research indicates that multiple factors are responsible for the crime drop amongst juveniles. These explanations mainly regard to offline factors and are primarily focused on traditional offline crime. In this article the increased use of social media is also discussed as a potential explanation.


Dr. A.M. van der Laan
Dr. André van der Laan is senior onderzoeker en plaatsvervangend afdelingshoofd bij de afdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Zie www.wodc.nl/organisatie/medewerkers/CRS/AndrevanderLaan.aspx.

Dr. M.G.C.J. Beerthuizen
Dr. Marinus Beerthuizen is onderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Zie www.wodc.nl/organisatie/medewerkers/CRS/RikBeerthuizen.aspx.

Dr. H. Goudriaan
Dr. Heike Goudriaan is senior onderzoeker en plaatsvervangend afdelingshoofd bij het Team Rechtsbescherming en Veiligheid van het CBS in Den Haag.
Artikel

Tussen Heumensoord en Winschoten

Over de tegenstrijdige betekenis van burgerparticipatie in de veiligheidszorg

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2016
Trefwoorden community crime prevention, public security, instrumental perspective, social polarization, social diversity
Auteurs Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the concluding article of this special issue on civilian participation in public security it is argued that this term covers many different phenomena, from neighborhood watchers cooperating with the police to extremist militia. Much of the literature on civilian participation implicitly and wrongfully has an instrumental perspective. The participation of civilians in public security however, is much more than just an instrument of public administration or the police. Not all activities of citizens in the field of public security are decent or according to the perspective of the administration and the police. Moreover, there is no consensus on what public security exactly means, while the motives of people to get involved in public security activities differ greatly. Mobilizing citizens on the basis of fighting crime bears the risk of producing differences and conflicts in society instead of creating open, tolerant and inclusive communities.


Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Analysemethoden en technieken voor criminologisch onderzoek

Oude trends en nieuwe ontwikkelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Qualitative research, Criminology, Multivariate analytical methods, Size and causes of crime, Mixed methods
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the developments in the use of analytical methods and technics for criminological research in the Netherlands since the beginning of the eighties. The author focuses on quantitative research methods. While classical multivariate technics like (M)AN(C)OVA, canonic correlation analysis and LISREL were dominant until the beginning of the new century, new multivariate analytical methods appeared from 2005 onwards. Especially the analysis of life course trajectories of criminal offenders caught on. The author also discusses various methods to measure the size of crime, like randomized response and capture-recapture, as well as methods identifying the causes of crime. In this latter field the use of fixed-effects methods and the propensity score matching technic has expanded considerably in the last couple of years. When it comes to explaining why people commit crime, quantitative methods do not suffice. The author argues that thorough quantitative methods can reveal the context in which criminal acts occur. The wider use of so-called mixed methods (quantitative as well as qualitative) could contribute to a deeper understanding of crime and stimulate theoretical development. In doing so these methods contribute considerably to understanding why people commit crime.


Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld is directeur van het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De Arabische Lente en artikel 1F Vluchtelingenverdrag

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Article 1F, Islamic State, Syria, Arab Spring, refugees
Auteurs M. Bolhuis MSc en Dr. mr. J. van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the authors discuss in general terms the relevance of Article 1F Refugee Convention in relation to the recent increased asylum influx and the ‘Arab Spring’. More specifically, they answer the question to what extent it can be expected that the application of Article 1F is an appropriate means for identifying potential IS sympathizers and thus possibly for removing the threat of future terrorist attacks. With regard to countries like Syria it is more likely that relatively low-level persons who have been employed as a soldier or officer in a repressive state apparatus are excluded on the basis of Article 1F, than IS sympathizers with future terrorist plans. When the situation in Syria does not improve, it is likely that those 1F-excluded individuals will end up in a limbo situation for a prolonged period of time. This not only has significant negative consequences for the individuals involved, but also means that every 1F-exclusion today creates a political problem for the future.


M. Bolhuis MSc
Maarten Bolhuis MSc werkt bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (www.cicj.org) en is als promovendus verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

Dr. mr. J. van Wijk
Dr. mr. Joris van Wijk werkt bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (www.cicj.org) en is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Niemand slaapt bij ons op straat?

Over de noodopvang van onrechtmatig verblijvende vreemdelingen en het steekspel tussen centrale overheid en gemeenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden immigration policy, refugees, shelters, central government, local government
Auteurs Prof. dr. R. Staring
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch policies concerning the illegal stay of aliens are characterized by regular tensions between central and local governments. This article describes various concrete (proposals for) policy changes in the last twenty years and examines the reasons for these tensions while using the distinction between policy strategies based on denial versus strategies based on adaptation (Garland). When it comes to refugee policies, the central government works in the denial mode while local governments adapt and try to find solutions in order to bring problems under control. This attitude can be explained by the local governments’ duty to provide for in the case of humanitarian emergency situations.


Prof. dr. R. Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Hoe Europa zijn zigeuners uitvond

Over een schaduwzijde van de moderniteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden European culture, history of gypsies, modernity, images of gypsies, European literature
Auteurs Prof. dr. K.M. Bogdal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Europe is commonly depicted as the cradle of modernity. But this image usually has a blind eye for marginal communities and cultures existing seemingly apart of the big developments. An example of this is the neglect of the Roma people who settled here early, on the threshold of the Middle Ages and the modern era. The attitude of the European people towards this mobile ethnic group can be described as moving between contempt and fascination. Referring to images of gypsies in literature and other cultural expressions the author shows how during the Romantic era the gypsies were serving as a projection object for desires and fantasies about socially deviant lifestyles. The subsequent process of ‘de-Europeanization’ together with the creation of exotic images through ethnology is described as well as the racial theories and their political consequences for the Roma people in the twentieth century. Instead of contributing to the creation of borderlines and fuelling destruction fantasies, art and sciences should give more attention to the undividedness of humankind and to human dignity.


Prof. dr. K.M. Bogdal
Prof. dr. Klaus-Michael Bogdal is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de afdeling Germanistische literatuurwetenschap van de Universiteit Bielefeld. Zijn boek Europa erfindet die Zigeuner. Eine Geschichte von Faszination und Verachtung (Bogdal 2011) werd in 2013 bekroond met de Leipziger Buchpreis für Europäische Verständigung.
Artikel

Eerste hulp bij emancipatie: waarom we nudging nodig hebben

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden paternalism, Foucault, emancipatory norms, interactive metal fatigue, nudging
Auteurs Dr. G. van Oenen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both the traditional liberal view of freedom as absence of paternalist state interference and the nonliberal Foucaultian analysis of modern governmentality as fully consisting of behavioural management cannot provide an adequate explanation or justification of the popularity of nudging. Alternatively, the theory of interactive metal fatigue shows why nudging is neither paternalist nor managerial; it is better understood as a much-needed and very contemporary way of assisting the modern individual who is no longer able to carry the full burden of his own emancipation. Nudging is thus found unobjectionable, and even beneficial, as long as it enables individuals to act in accordance with the emancipatory norms they themselves adhere to, but not always manage to act on, due to interactive metal fatigue.


Dr. G. van Oenen
Dr. Gijs van Oenen is als universitair hoofddocent sociale en politieke filosofie verbonden aan de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam; daarnaast is hij fellow van het Erasmus University College.
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