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Artikel

De best mogelijke rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Legal system, Effectiveness, Legal innovations, Dispute resolution, New technologies
Auteurs Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article outlines the need in the Netherlands for socially effective justice that better resolves citizens’ problems. The author argues that new forms of dispute resolution should be integrated in the justice system. The author first describes various types of innovations. Then he outlines the obstacles to innovations. A major obstacle is that many stakeholders in the existing legal system are simultaneously the gatekeepers for the admission of innovations. It is necessary to create an infrastructure that welcomes, reinforces, tests, finances and imports new treatments for legal problems.


Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht
Prof. dr. M. Barendrecht is als research director verbonden aan The Hague Institute for Innovation of Law (HiiL).
Artikel

Facebookvrienden worden met de verdachte

Over undercoverbevoegdheden op internet

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden undercover operations, investigative powers, infiltration, Internet, jurisdiction
Auteurs Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates which online undercover investigative methods are applied in practice and how they fit in the Dutch legal framework. In particular, the three special investigative powers of a pseudo purchase, systematic information gathering and infiltration are examined. Investigative powers cannot be applied unilaterally (across state borders). When law enforcement officials cannot reasonably determine the location of the suspect, the online unilateral application of undercover investigative powers is allowed. However, there is still a risk that diplomatic tensions arise with the involved state. States should agree in treaties under which circumstances cross-border online undercover operations are allowed.


Mr.dr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans
Mr. dr. J.J. Oerlemans is als onderzoeker verbonden aan eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Zwijgen is zilver en spreken is goud

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Prof. dr. Bob de Graaff en Dr. Constant Hijzen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Although traditionally, it has been argued that intelligence and security services can barely be discussed in public – a veil of secrecy makes a thorough and informed debate almost impossible, the outside world is ignorant, say the insiders – we argue that today’s mature civil society does not accept that anymore. Although the government has struggled to address social anxiety and political criticism in the past decades, communication and strategic discussions have never received proper attention. Due to the technological changes, affecting the intelligence practice as well as daily life of citizens, the authors argue that the positioning of intelligence and security services in the broader democratic state should receive structural attention and sustainable communication efforts.


Prof. dr. Bob de Graaff
Prof. dr. B.G.J. de Graaff is hoogleraar intelligence and security studies aan de Universiteit Utrecht, www.uu.nl/medewerkers/bgjgraaff/0.

Dr. Constant Hijzen
Dr. C.W. Hijzen is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs en aan het Instituut Geschiedenis (Universiteit Leiden).
Artikel

Toezicht in de Wiv 2017

Kansen en uitdagingen voor een effectief en sterk toezichtstelsel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017, Oversight, Effectiveness, Safeguards, Mass Surveillance
Auteurs Mr. dr. Mireille Hagens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The new Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 has generated a lot of criticism in The Netherlands. Although the act was adopted in parliament in July 2017, the implementation will take place in May 2018. Beforehand an advisory referendum will give the public the opportunity to express their opinion on the new act: the modernisation of the investigatory powers of the services and the strengthening of the necessary safeguards and oversight mechanisms. Both have met with their share of criticism. In this paper the focus is on the enhanced oversight mechanism. It is argued that although different choices could have been made regarding the organisation of oversight, the new system fulfills the requirements set by the European Court of Human Rights. The real question is whether the new act provides for effective and strong oversight in practice to ensure a proper balance between national security and privacy protection in this digital era. The opportunities and challenges are explored.


Mr. dr. Mireille Hagens
Mr. dr. M. Hagens is senior-onderzoeker bij de Commissie van Toezicht op de Inlichtingen- en Veiligheidsdiensten (CTIVD) en gastonderzoeker bij de faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie van de Universiteit Utrecht. Deze bijdrage is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

De Wiv 2002 en Wiv 2017 op enkele hoofdlijnen vergeleken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden New Intelligence and Security Services Act, Advisory referendum, Powers of intelligence and security services, Safeguards, Supervision
Auteurs Drs. Rob Dielemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Last year, Dutch parliament approved the proposal for a new Intelligence and Security Services Act (Wiv 2017). This law will replace the current Intelligence and Security Services Act 2002 (Wiv 2002). The Wiv 2017 should be considered feasible with effect from 1 May 2018. Before that time however, an advisory referendum on the new law will be held on 21 March. This article first discusses the nature of the law and the need for innovation. Subsequently, a comparison of both laws takes place in general terms, with regard to the powers of the intelligence and security services, the safeguards, the supervision, the complaint handling and the international cooperation between intelligence and security services. It is argued that the extension of the powers of the services in the Wiv 2017 is only limited in scope, while the safeguards have been considerably strengthened. The introduction of a binding judgment in complaint handling also contributes to a better and more effective legal protection for citizens.


Drs. Rob Dielemans
Drs. R.J.I. Dielemans is werkzaam bij de Directie Constitutionele Zaken en Wetgeving van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties. Dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

Hoe de bezwaarprocedure bij de overheid kan profiteren van inzichten uit empirisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden administrative authorities, objection procedure, conflict, dispute resolution, neutrality
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. A.T. Marseille
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, someone who disagrees with an administrative order is only allowed to seek redress with the administrative courts after he has lodged an objection with the administrative authority responsible for the order. Administrative authorities have much freedom with respect to the organization of their objection procedure. Their freedom concerns two aspects of handling objections. Firstly, they can choose between setting up an independent external advisory committee or using only their own personnel in preparing their decision. Secondly, they can choose to model their objection procedure after the procedure before the administrative courts or to opt for a more consensual, as opposed to a more conflictual, style of dispute resolution. This article focuses on the question to what extent results of recent research can help administrative authorities in making a choice between these options. While the available research does not provide specific and finite answers as to which way the procedure should be organized, it does show that it is important that the procedure is characterized by information, consultation and neutrality.


Prof. mr. dr. A.T. Marseille
Prof. mr. dr. Bert Marseille is als hoogleraar bestuurskunde verbonden aan de vakgroep Staatsrecht, Bestuursrecht en Bestuurskunde van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Data Protection by Design als argument in het FBI vs. Apple-debat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden FBI vs. Apple, Data Protection by Design, Data Protection by Default, GDPR, privacy
Auteurs Dr. C. Cuijpers en S. van Schendel LLB
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Adhering to a strict interpretation, Data Protection by Design (DPbD) can conflict with the needs of law enforcement in their fight against terrorism and criminality. An illustration of this tension can be found in the case of FBI vs. Apple, where the FBI wants Apple to help bypass security on an iPhone in order to gain access to data. The FBI needs the help of Apple – or third parties – to get such access, for which they might need to create new legal mandates. However, private parties like Apple, may want to design their products in such a way that evading and breaking the security of the system is not possible, as consumers demand secure and privacy friendly devices. This article adds to this debate by posing DPbD as an argument in favor of private parties not to cooperate in making their products less secure and less privacy friendly. This argument is especially relevant when a similar case unfolds in the EU under the new regime of the General Data Protection Regulation in which DPbD is explicitly embedded.


Dr. C. Cuijpers
Dr. Colette Cuijpers is als Associate Professor verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).

S. van Schendel LLB
Sascha van Schendel, LLB is als student-assistent verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).
Artikel

Politie en beeldtechnologie: gebruik, opbrengsten en uitdagingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden CCTV, bodycams, ANPR, smart cameras, police
Auteurs Drs. S. Flight
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch National Police deploys video technology, for instance body-worn video camera (bodycams), drones, helicopters with cameras, and mobile units for surveillance. Four types of video technology are discussed: CCTV, bodycams, smart cameras and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR). These four types will be the most prominent applications of visual technology in the coming years, according to ‘Vision on sensing’, published in 2015 by the National Police. The potential benefits of video images for prosecution and in the courtroom are discussed in a separate paragraph, followed by a survey of recent changes in the laws regulating this technology.


Drs. S. Flight
Drs. Sander Flight is zelfstandig adviseur en onderzoeker op het terrein van veiligheid en criminaliteit.
Artikel

Het levenstestament

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden life will, power of attorney, protection of vulnerable adults, mental (in)capacity, ageing
Auteurs Mr. C.G.C. Engelbertink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A legal document appointing one or more people to help a person make decisions or to make decisions on the person’s behalf is a power of attorney (levenstestament). It is meant to be used in situations when illness prevents a person to make decisions that need to be made. In the levenstestament certain trusted people have been given the authority to manage money affairs, property and medical decisions on behalf of the ill person. The document is registered. The author argues that mental incapacity can also be temporarily or partially.


Mr. C.G.C. Engelbertink
Mr. Chanien Engelbertink is estate planner en (levens)executeur te Bussum.
Artikel

Woningovervallen op ouderen: een zeldzaam, maar heftig fenomeen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden house robberies, oldsters, violence, risk factors, house robbery offenders
Auteurs Dr. B. Rovers en S. Mesu MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years the total number of violent robberies in the Netherlands has gone down sharply, but the number of robberies on private homes doesn’t decline. Especially robberies on private homes of the elderly are notorious for the level of violence used by the attackers, while the loot is often negligible. In this article the authors investigate this offense. Chances of becoming a victim are very small, but people who are robbed in their own homes often face severe violence. On the one hand these high violence levels and consequential injuries are related to the age of the victims: the elderly resist the attackers more than younger people do, and because of their age they are more vulnerable to physical attacks. On the other hand the high levels of violence are typical of (all) robberies on private homes: the unknown space and the unpredictable behavior of residents contribute to this. Most of these robberies are poorly planned and executed. This also explains why so many of these incidents turn nasty. The elderly are not specially targeted, the reasons they are robbed do not differ from other robberies on private homes: the attackers expect an easy accessible and substantial loot. In many cases both assumptions turn out to be wrong. Risk factors and prevention options are discussed.


Dr. B. Rovers
Dr. Ben Rovers is criminoloog/onderzoeker bij onderzoeksbureau BTVO in Den Bosch.

S. Mesu MSc
Sally Mesu MSc is teamleider Informatieknooppunt Korpsleiding (en voormalig onderzoeker) bij de Nationale Politie.
Artikel

Ouderenmishandeling

Een verkenning naar aard en omvang

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden elder abuse, victims, prevalence, definition, study method
Auteurs Drs. I. Plaisier en Drs. M. de Klerk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Older people can become victims of abuse by someone they know and whom they depend on, such as family, friends or professional caregivers. Elder abuse is not always intentional, sometimes it is due to care falling short. Conducting a study to explore the prevalence of elder abuse is difficult. Commissioned by the Dutch State Secretary for Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP) has brought together the current knowledge on this topic using the most recent data drawn from qualitative research, surveys of older persons, professionals and volunteers, and record data. The sources together do not produce an unambiguous picture of the actual number of victims in the Netherlands. All sources produce far lower figures than the estimated 200,000 based on a study of twenty years ago. The numbers found depend strongly on the research method and definition of the phenomenon.


Drs. I. Plaisier
Drs. Inger Plaisier is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP) in Den Haag.

Drs. M. de Klerk
Drs. Mirjam de Klerk is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP) in Den Haag.
Artikel

Witwasonderzoeken zonder aantoonbaar gronddelict

Het rechterlijk toetsingskader en efficiënt opsporen in zes stappen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Criminal investigations money laundering, Prosecution, Jurisprudence, Burden of proof, Administration of justice
Auteurs J.P. Rozemeijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Dutch criminal money laundering investigations there is no need to fully proof the predicate offence. When a criminal suspicion of money laundering exists without a direct connection to the predicate offence it’s the suspect who must prove the legal origin of his income or possessions. If the suspect doesn’t succeed in this, the judge will rule that the origin has to be criminal. This article shows in six steps how judges rule in this kind of cases and how an investigation can be done. These six steps are combined with examples from recent jurisprudence. The goal of this article is to raise awareness on this subject in order to operate more efficiently and effectively in money laundering investigations.


J.P. Rozemeijer
Mr. Joris Rozemeijer is werkzaam als beleidsmedewerker witwassen bij het bureau van de Landelijk Officier van Justitie (LOvJ) Witwassen en Terrorisme Financiering van het Functioneel Parket.
Artikel

Is de mens voor een biocriminoloog per definitie onvrij?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden biocriminology, autonomy, plasticity, integration of neurosciences, psychology and social data, conscious and unconscious processes
Auteurs L.J.M. Cornet en C.H. de Kogel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Does biocriminology by definition corrode the image of human beings as ‘free’ in the sense of being autonomous and responsible? This article focuses on modern biocriminological research and discusses important aspects in which current biocriminological insights differ from historical perspectives on biology and criminal behaviour. Three aspects are discussed: plasticity, integration and conscious/unconscious processes. Illustrating their case with empirical research examples the authors argue that modern biocriminological research does not consider human beings as ‘unfree’. Instead, research shows that biological characteristics are subject to change and that biological insights are complementary to more traditional psychological and sociological perspectives. Finally, the authors argue that recognizing the biological influences on human behaviour should not be viewed as a threat to autonomy, but instead should be considered as an enrichment of our understanding of human behaviour, and may therefore even increase autonomy.


L.J.M. Cornet
Liza Cornet, MSc is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

C.H. de Kogel
Dr. Katy de Kogel is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Het veranderende mensbeeld in het strafrecht

Een bespiegeling op basis van ervaringen in de rechterlijke macht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden administration of justice, cynicism, optimism, pondering interests, forgiving
Auteurs G.J.M. Corstens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author explains his optimistic view of humanity. He argues that a judge, like he was before, should always keep in mind that defendants and convicted people deserve a positive approach, even if this seems to be contrary to the general experience of recidivism. Criminal judges should never adopt an attitude of cynicism and being merciless. However, criminal justice has to take into account the interests of society in general, of victims and of accused and convicted people. Sometimes severe punishment is required in order to underline the rules we have to obey. But even then the judge has to consider whether there is hope. Pondering all the interests concerned is necessary. Sometimes pardoning is appropriate.


G.J.M. Corstens
Mr. Geert Corstens is oud-president van de Hoge Raad der Nederlanden en oud-hoogleraar straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Hij is tegenwoordig Appointing Authority bij het Iran US Claims Tribunal en lid van de Ethische Commissie van het Internationaal Olympisch Comité.
Artikel

Kapitalistische banken als criminele ondernemingen: de casus Wall Street

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden finance crime, financial crisis, financial networks, white collar crime, Goldman Sachs
Auteurs D.O. Friedrichs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central thesis of this article is that the structure of the present financial system, its culture, and its collective practices and policies are fundamentally criminal and criminogenic. The harms emanating from this financial system are exponentially greater than those emanating from the disadvantaged environments that generate a disproportionate percentage of conventional crime. Accordingly, on various levels, there is much at stake in more fully and directly recognizing and identifying many core policies and practices of the financial system for what they are: crimes on a very large scale.


D.O. Friedrichs
Prof. David O. Friedrichs is als distinguished professor verbonden aan het Department of Sociology, Criminal Justice & Criminology van de University of Scranton. Hij is tevens gasthoogleraar aan de School of Law van de University of Western Australia (Perth).
Artikel

Burgers in bezwaar en beroep

Over de toegankelijkheid van het bestuursrecht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden administrative law, appeal procedures, discretionary power, informality, conflict solving
Auteurs A.T. Marseille
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article contains an analysis of changes in the access to justice in administrative law disputes in the Netherlands. In analysing these changes, it is necessary to look not only at court procedures, but also at the objection procedure that precedes them. A large majority of administrative law disputes are resolved in such an informal objection procedure. The analysis shows that, more than the legislator and the administrative courts, administrative authorities are responsible for changes concerning (the interpretation and execution of the rules on) access to justice. They increasingly use their discretionary powers in the objection procedure to try to solve conflicts about their decisions by interpreting and using the rules of access in a flexible way.


A.T. Marseille
Prof. mr. dr. Bert Marseille is als bijzonder hoogleraar empirische bestudering van het bestuursrecht verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Tilburg. Daarnaast is hij werkzaam bij de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

De rol van de advocaat tijdens detentie en verhoor op het politiebureau

Een vergelijkende studie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden defence lawyers, interrogation, Salduz, procedural safeguards, comparative
Auteurs J. Hodgson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drawing on the findings of a recent empirical study conducted across four jurisdictions, this article considers the ways in which legal assistance is provided to suspects who are held in police custody for formal questioning. It sets out, very briefly, the legal framework developed by the European Court of Human Rights and now the EU, and the legal provisions in place in the four jurisdictions post Salduz. It then goes on to consider the kinds of factors that, in practice, promote or constrain the provision of effective legal assistance. These include the occupational cultures of police and lawyers and the availability of human and financial resources. Whilst the criminal processes of the four jurisdictions are different, there are many similarities in the working practices of police and lawyers and a lack of agreement among police and lawyers, as to the value of legal assistance to suspects before and during police interrogation.


J. Hodgson
Prof. Jacqueline Hodgson is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de rechtenfaculteit van de Universiteit van Warwick.
Artikel

De technologie van toegang tot het recht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden dispute resolution technology, acces to justice, ODR, justice innovation, e-Justice
Auteurs J.H. Verdonschot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Current trends in the delivery of legal services create the opportunity to develop a new generation of access to justice platforms. On the basis of two examples, the author illustrates how this can work. M-Sheria is a technology-based access to justice service that serves the poor in Kenya. It combines state of the art information technology (USSD, SMS, internet) and human technology (community paralegals and pro bono advocates) to help slum dwellers solve their legal problems. Rechtwijzer 2.0 is an internet-based platform that provides online human and technology-facilitated support to people with a legal problem in the Netherlands. These examples show how processes and professionals can be innovated to facilitate dispute resolution in delivering information and interventions just in time.


J.H. Verdonschot
Mr. dr. Jin Ho Verdonschot is werkzaam als dispute resolution technology advisor bij HiiL Innovating Justice.
Artikel

Een toevluchtsoord voor klokkenluiders

Brengt het Huis het ideaal van transparantie dichterbij?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden whistleblowing discussion, whistleblowing legislation, transparency, integrity, rule of law
Auteurs C. Raat
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The draft of the Dutch Whistleblower Protection Act that is currently discussed in Parliament can be regarded as an essential step forward in the protection of whistleblowers. However, it can be questioned if the Act will contribute in an optimal manner to the ideal of transparency and the fight against the abuse of power, which should be the main goal of the Act. The tasks and powers of the new House for Whistleblowers are rather unclear and they do not meet legal standards. The combination of advice and support to whistleblowers and independent research into major violations of integrity should be abolished.


C. Raat
Mr. dr. Caroline Raat is bestuursrechtjurist en bestuurswetenschapper. Zij is werkzaam als adviseur en voorts als onderzoeker verbonden aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Het Adviespunt Klokkenluiders in de praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden whistleblowers in the Netherlands, wrongdoing, Advice Centre Whistleblowers, concern, confidentiality
Auteurs H.G. de Jong en L.S. Mol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Advice Centre for Whistleblowers in the Netherlands (het Adviespunt Klokkenluiders) opened on 1 October 2012 and offers independent and confidential advice to (potential) whistleblowers. Even though the Advice Centre opened only recently, this article gives an overview of the findings of the Advice Centre up-to-date, because of its relevance for the public debate on whistleblowers. The article inter alia mentions the number of whistleblowers that needed advice from the Advice Centre, the sectors where they work(ed), the types of wrongdoing involved in the cases and it describes the questions and dilemmas of whistleblowers who approached the Advice Centre. The article also points out how the Advice Centre could help persons with raising their concern about possible wrongdoing or malpractice in the workplace.


H.G. de Jong
Mr. Hannah de Jong is als senior adviseur verbonden aan het Adviespunt Klokkenluiders in Den Haag.

L.S. Mol
Mr. Liesbeth Mol is als senior adviseur verbonden aan het Adviespunt Klokkenluiders in Den Haag.
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