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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2012 x
Artikel

Particuliere beveiligers als publieke handhavers

De inzet van private boa’s door gemeenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden private security officers, public surveillance, public private partnership, local government, police work
Auteurs J. Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch local governments increasingly decide to contract private security officers for surveillance and enforcement tasks in the public space. This article presents an analysis of the daily work of these private security officers. Local governments contract these private workers because they are faced with problems of social disorder and crime. Although the police should formally manage the work of these private security workers, in practice this task is hardly realized. These private workers are faced with four problems: their work is boring, they are uncertain about what they are expected to do, don’t know exactly what their formal powers are, and are unsatisfied about their lack of means for self-defence. Although they don’t differ in their work style from their public colleagues, their position as private worker and the flexible job they have, are hard to reconcile with what they are expected to do (like reassuring citizens).


J. Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Marktwerking in het forensisch onderzoek: toekomst of toekomstmuziek?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden forensic research in the Netherlands, competition in forensic research, pilot project commercial forensic research, quality of forensic research, closure of Forensic Science Service United Kingdom
Auteurs N. Struiksma en H.B. Winter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For a long time the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) was the sole provider of forensic services in the Netherlands. Since the beginning of this century, several other private forensic institutes have been established. These institutes partly deliver the same products and services as the NFI, including for the police and judicial authorities. This article discusses the results from a pilot project in which police and judicial authorities were given additional opportunities for furnishing assignments to private investigation agencies instead of the NFI. A budget of EUR 3.5 million was provided. Many respondents viewed the speed of the investigations and reports by private forensic institutes as a very positive aspect of outsourcing to these institutes. On four out of five aspects (transparency, clarity, bureaucracy and readability), the private institutes scored better than the NFI. The NFI scored better on ‘safety’. Despite the positive experiences with outsourcing, the Minister of Security and Justice decided not to follow up the pilot. Although the police and prosecution are free to use the services of the private institutes, it is unlikely that they’ll do so very often because the investigation costs will be at the expense of their budget. The bill for the services provided by the NFI however is sent to the ministry. Therefore the NFI can continue operating as a monopolist.


N. Struiksma
Mr. Niko Struiksma is directeur van Pro Facto, bureau voor bestuurskundig en juridisch onderzoek en advies.

H.B. Winter
Prof. dr. Heinrich Winter is directeur van Pro Facto, bureau voor bestuurskundig en juridisch onderzoek en advies. Winter is daarnaast als universitair hoofddocent en bijzonder hoogleraar Toezicht verbonden aan de Juridische Faculteit van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

De inbreng van ngo’s bij het Nederlandse mensenrechtenexamen

Een terug- en vooruitblik door Amnesty International

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review, human rights in the Netherlands, Amnesty International, non-governmental organizations
Auteurs C. Mommers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The UPR is an increasingly important instrument for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to advocate for the protection and promotion of human rights in the Netherlands. In this article, the way that NGOs have used the UPR in relation to the Netherlands will be discussed. This will be done primarily from the perspective of Amnesty International. The article first outlines how NGOs can contribute to the UPR process. Subsequently, it discusses the substantive input provided by Amnesty International for the review of the Netherlands. Finally, the potential impact of this intervention on the promotion and protection of human rights on the ground in the Netherlands will be considered. This impact will depend, inter alia, on the de-politicization of the UPR, the credibility of the process, the follow-up of recommendations made during the review and, prominently, the political will of the incoming government.


C. Mommers
Drs. Christian Mommers is als senior medewerker Politieke Zaken verbonden aan Amnesty International, afdeling Nederland.
Artikel

Uitwisseling van opsporingsinformatie

Over technische en vooral organisatorische knelpunten binnen de politie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden police and ICT, criminal investigation, information management, police culture, police organisation
Auteurs J. Kort
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Crime suspects followed by the police move well across various police regions and national borders. As a result, police forces independently collect information on the same people. It is essential that whenever possible, accurate information is shared between various police forces and e.g. investigation teams. Developments in the field of ICTs have opened many possibilities for this, long ago. However, information exchange hardly improved. In this article it is argued that apart from the quality of existing ICT-applications, there are also organisational problems creating obstacles for information sharing. The article starts with a brief history of intelligence-led policing in the Netherlands, followed by an overview of the obstacles for information sharing within the Dutch police. It concludes with similarities between police reforms based on new ICTs in the Netherlands and the USA.


J. Kort
Jelle Kort MSc is als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen (Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid).
Artikel

Drieënvijftig tinten grijs

Afnemende verantwoording van en controle op hybride politiewerk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Policing, hybrid police complex, private policing, governance of security, democratic control
Auteurs A.J.J. Meershoek en A.B. Hoogenboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Fifty three shades of grey refers to the radical transformation of policing and security in society from a traditional public – and foremost ‘blue’ – police system into a hybrid(semi)public and private policing system which is losing its dominant – and visible – blue character. Using the criminological concepts ‘police as an institute’ and ‘policing as a process’ the ongoing blurring of boundaries between different public and private organisations is discussed in the context of the proliferation of different forms of multi-agency cooperation. Whereas in the traditional discourse of the public police system a strong tradition of analysing the democratic nature of policing exists, in the public and scientific perception of the new, variegated police constellation such notions are still lacking, which contributes to the relative lack of political control, the defective democratic accountability and fragile human rights in the grey areas. The public discourse on the police remains too narrowly focused on the public police system. ‘Normal science’ of policing needs to break away from ‘police as an institute’ to incorporate new research questions and new concepts regarding ‘policing as a process’.


A.J.J. Meershoek
Dr. Guus Meershoek is als lector Politiegeschiedenis verbonden aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn. Hij is tevens universitair docent Maatschappelijke Veiligheidszorg aan de Universiteit Twente.

A.B. Hoogenboom
Prof. dr. Bob Hoogenboom is hoogleraar Forensic Business Studies aan de Nyenrode Business Universiteit. Daarnaast is hij bijzonder hoogleraar Politie en Veiligheidstudies aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Bronnen van professionele effectiviteit

Over verantwoordelijkheid en ruimte van reclasseringswerkers

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden professionalism, probation history, probation workers, evidence-based practice
Auteurs Drs. A. Menger en Dr. A.G. Donker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the authors question the relation between professionalism in Dutch probation work and the tendency to create protocols for work processes that used to be under the rather autonomous control of the professionals themselves. Starting point is the professionalism model of De Jonge, placing professional space as key element of professionalism under the restriction that there is an acknowledged societal position as well as an explicitly recognized knowledge base for the professional. A brief historical overview of the probation work itself and the way it has been organized over the decades is described, resulting in the identification of five decisive developments in the initial (but recently changing) perception among Dutch probation workers of gradually restricted professional space despite the growing body of knowledge.


Drs. A. Menger
Drs. Anneke Menger is lector Werken in Justitieel Kader bij Hogeschool Utrecht.

Dr. A.G. Donker
Dr. Andrea Donker is lector Sociale Veiligheid bij Hogeschool Utrecht. Zij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

    The future of wiretapping is threatened by encryption and developments in the telecommunications industry. Internet communications changed the wiretapping landscape fundamentally. In practice it is often impossible to wiretap all possible internet connections. Not all communication providers are obliged to execute wiretap orders. This limits the use of a wiretap in an increasingly digital world. Although the content of certain encrypted Voice-over-IP communications and private messages might not be visible to law enforcement officials, the traffic data are. These traffic data show when the suspect connects to certain communication services, which provide important clues to proceed in a criminal investigation. It is important to have a discussion whether our wiretap laws need to be amended to better fit the needs of law enforcement. However, to make such a debate possible we need transparency. A good first step is to provide details and statistics about the use of internet wiretaps.


J.J. Oerlemans
Mr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans is promovendus bij eLaw@Leiden, Centrum voor Recht in de Informatiemaatschappij van de Universiteit Leiden. Daarnaast is hij juridisch adviseur bij Fox-IT.

    As a contribution to literature drawing together green criminology and studies of organized and corporate crime, this paper provides a case study of crimes and public health harms linked to the Naples garbage disposal crisis. The context is the inability of modern consumer society to cope with the problem of mass production of waste. In turn this leads to opportunities for both legal and criminal entrepreneurs to offer services that promise but fail to ‘dispose’ of the problem. The analysis draws upon environmental law and classic studies of organised crime.


V. Ruggiero
Prof. Vincenzo Ruggiero is als hoogleraar sociologie verbonden aan de Middlesex University in Londen.

N. South
Prof. Nigel South is hoogleraar sociologie aan de University of Essex.
Artikel

Cybercrime en politie

Een schets van de Nederlandse situatie anno 2012

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs W.Ph. Stol, E.R. Leukfeldt en H. Klap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2004 the main problem of the Dutch police concerning cybercrime was a lack of knowledge, for example about how to act in a digital world, about the character of cybercrime and about the effectiveness of measures. The main question in this article is if this situation has changed, and if so, how. Although the legislator has given the police special powers to fight crime in a digital world, the police still struggle with questions about what exactly are the powers they have. Although the police have invested in pilot projects and in the recruitment of digital experts, knowledge about ‘policing a digital society’ is not yet common in the police organisation - which is a shortcoming since ‘digital is normal’ in the lives of the common people. Although the police established digital aspects in police training, digital is not yet a common feature in police education. In sum, although the police in various ways pay attention to digital aspects of policing, digital is not yet a regular part of the police organisation, police training and/or everyday police practice.


W.Ph. Stol
Prof. dr. Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.

E.R. Leukfeldt
E.R. Leukfeldt Msc is onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie.

H. Klap
Drs. Henk Klap MPM is programmamanager van het landelijke politiële Programma Aanpak Cybercrime (PAC).
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