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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2013 x

    Since the mid-1980s American recipes for the fight against crime and nuisance are very popular amongst Dutch policymakers. The question posed in this article is why they rather look at the United States than at European countries far more comparable to the Netherlands. The authors answers this question by pointing at the popularity of neo-liberal recipes in general, an emotional historical bond marked by the time that New York was still called New Amsterdam and the liberation from Nazism in 1945, the (sometimes reluctant) acceptance of the US’ role as ‘the world’s policeman’ and a (mostly unspoken) belief that ‘bigger is better’. Next, the author draws some lessons from research on ‘how policy travels’: 1) crime policies are always in much wider social policies and idea(l)s; 2) if something ‘works’ in country A it doesn’t mean it also ‘works’ in country B; 3) policies are always adopted to national circumstances; 4) policymakers are particularly fond of simple messages and dislike nuances and criticism; 5) you can also look at the US in order to find out where ‘we’ don’t want to go; and 6) you most of all learn more about yourself if you look at other countries. The author concludes with a plea for critical cosmopolitanism and a decolonisation of criminology from national biases.


R. van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationale en comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, wetenschappelijk directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie. E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

The product of design

Veiligheidsbeleid op Amerikaanse leest geschoeid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs V. Lub
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In policy development and academic research on urban problems such as poverty, disorder and crime, the United States has served as a model country for the Netherlands for years. This article analyses two Dutch policies in the field of neighbourhood safety that are strongly influenced by American policy. It specifically focuses on the efficacy and applicability of social interventions, i.e. approaches that appeal to residents’ active involvement in the improvement of public safety and quality of life: resident representation comities (I) and neighbourhood watch schemes (II). Available research into the two policy cases illustrates that the ‘hard’ science from the United States can often be complemented with more qualitative information from the Netherlands. American research can thus be used to support Dutch policy designs, provided that knowledge is fine-tuned and contextualised.


V. Lub
Drs. Vasco Lub is oprichter en directeur van het Bureau voor Sociale Argumentatie en tevens promovendus bij de capaciteitsgroep Sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

De criminaliteitsdaling in New York

Over de zin en onzin van veiligheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs M.B. Schuilenburg en M.B. Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the long decline of crime rates in New York, as analysed by Franklin Zimring in his book The city that became safe (2012). The author discusses and analyses the processes involved in ‘lesson drawing’ and the ‘policy transfer’ from New York to the Netherlands. Issues that are further addressed include the opportunities of prevention and the enforcement of ‘hot crimes’.


M.B. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is verbonden aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

M.B. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is verbonden aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Pot, crack en Obama’s ‘third way’

Liberalisering van drugsbeleid in de Verenigde Staten?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs I. Haen Marshall
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay describes the most important recent events in the field of American drugs legislation covering the liberalization of cannabis policies in several states as well as the reduction of penalties for the possession of crack at the federal level. These developments are situated in a broader context of a complicated and big country with plenty of room for extreme moral views and a very punitive justice policy that targets Blacks and Latino’s much more than the white middle class. The disproportionate impact of the punitive drugs legislation is an important driving force behind the trend towards liberalization, next to the high costs of maintaining an overcrowded prison system.


I. Haen Marshall
Ineke Haen Marshall, PhD is Professor bij het Department of Sociology & Anthropology and School of Criminology and Criminal Justice van de Northeastern University in Boston.
Artikel

Een ommekeer in de Amerikaanse strafrechtpleging?

De inzet van alternatieve rechtspraakprogramma’s ter bestrijding van overbevolkte gevangenissen in Texas

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs M. Bachmann, P. Kinkade en B. Smith-Bachmann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article introduces and evaluates three different specialty court programs that are being enacted in a large Texas county to locally fight the growing tide of unsustainably high incarceration rates that is sweeping the United States. The study provides a brief description of the general dilemma of the American criminal justice system that, as a result of the widespread fear of crime and a mainstream news arena that favors grossly simplistic sound-byte-compatible get-tough policies, has become so immensely punitive and overburdening on public budgets that it is de facto no longer sustainable and in desperate need of immediate change. Faced with a situation of political stalemate on state and federal levels, county judges in Texas and other states are taking it upon themselves to bring about change in their local jurisdictions. Through newly designed specialty courts models, they seek to divert special-needs offenders away from the default incarceration track. The article evaluates the overall effectiveness of these new sentencing alternatives and identifies specific areas that need further improvement.


M. Bachmann
Michael Bachmann, PhD is als assistant professor verbonden aan het Department of Criminal Justice van de Texas Christian University.

P. Kinkade
Patrick Kinkade, PhD is associate professor aan het Department of Criminal Justice van de Texas Christian University.

B. Smith-Bachmann
Brittany Smith-Bachmann is als lecturer verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht van de Texas Christian University.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is verbonden aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Blik naar het Noorden?

Een kenschets van het justitiële beleid in Scandinavië

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs P. Kruize
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the question whether Dutch policy makers and researchers ought to look more often to Scandinavia for inspiration and less to the West (UK and USA). Scandinavian countries are also influenced by Anglo-American ideas about crime and justice, but at the same time the number of incarcerated persons has not changed dramatically while recidivism rates are low. Dutch policy makers and researcher do sometimes look at initiatives and practices in Scandinavian countries, most often Sweden. Dutch society shares many similarities with the Scandinavian welfare states and therefore it should be natural – according to the author – to benefit more often from Scandinavian experiences. Some suggestions are discussed in the article.


P. Kruize
Dr. Peter Kruize is associate professor bij de Juridische Faculteit van de Universiteit van Kopenhagen. Daarnaast is hij partner bij Ateno – bureau voor criminaliteitsanalyse – in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Een toevluchtsoord voor klokkenluiders

Brengt het Huis het ideaal van transparantie dichterbij?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden whistleblowing discussion, whistleblowing legislation, transparency, integrity, rule of law
Auteurs C. Raat
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The draft of the Dutch Whistleblower Protection Act that is currently discussed in Parliament can be regarded as an essential step forward in the protection of whistleblowers. However, it can be questioned if the Act will contribute in an optimal manner to the ideal of transparency and the fight against the abuse of power, which should be the main goal of the Act. The tasks and powers of the new House for Whistleblowers are rather unclear and they do not meet legal standards. The combination of advice and support to whistleblowers and independent research into major violations of integrity should be abolished.


C. Raat
Mr. dr. Caroline Raat is bestuursrechtjurist en bestuurswetenschapper. Zij is werkzaam als adviseur en voorts als onderzoeker verbonden aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Het is transparantie wat de klok slaat

Publeaks als geduchte concurrent voor het Huis voor klokkenluiders?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden Publeaks, whistleblowing, transparency, journalism ethics, confidentiality
Auteurs J. Beckers, H.G. van de Bunt en K. van Wingerde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As a result of the democratization of technology we now seem to live in an era of ‘Wiki-regulation’. Increasingly transparency is considered to be the universal solution to all sorts of problems. In line with this dominant viewpoint there has been a proliferation of whistleblower initiatives in recent years. A newly established Dutch initiative is Publeaks. Launched by a large number of Dutch media outlets and aimed at protecting whistleblowers, shedding light on wrongdoings and encouraging investigative journalism, Publeaks is a website ‘for people to leak documents to the media securely and anonymously’. In this opinionated article the authors propose three arguments against this particular form of whistleblowing: the protection against unfunded accusations, the negative side effects of ‘scandal overkill’, and the value of non-transparency.


J. Beckers
Drs. Joep Beckers is als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

H.G. van de Bunt
Prof. dr. Henk van de Bunt is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

K. van Wingerde
Dr. Karin van Wingerde is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Het Adviespunt Klokkenluiders in de praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden whistleblowers in the Netherlands, wrongdoing, Advice Centre Whistleblowers, concern, confidentiality
Auteurs H.G. de Jong en L.S. Mol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Advice Centre for Whistleblowers in the Netherlands (het Adviespunt Klokkenluiders) opened on 1 October 2012 and offers independent and confidential advice to (potential) whistleblowers. Even though the Advice Centre opened only recently, this article gives an overview of the findings of the Advice Centre up-to-date, because of its relevance for the public debate on whistleblowers. The article inter alia mentions the number of whistleblowers that needed advice from the Advice Centre, the sectors where they work(ed), the types of wrongdoing involved in the cases and it describes the questions and dilemmas of whistleblowers who approached the Advice Centre. The article also points out how the Advice Centre could help persons with raising their concern about possible wrongdoing or malpractice in the workplace.


H.G. de Jong
Mr. Hannah de Jong is als senior adviseur verbonden aan het Adviespunt Klokkenluiders in Den Haag.

L.S. Mol
Mr. Liesbeth Mol is als senior adviseur verbonden aan het Adviespunt Klokkenluiders in Den Haag.
Artikel

Naar een Algemene Klokkenluiderswet

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden whistleblowing in the Netherlands, Whistleblowing Protection Act, Advice Centre Whistleblowers, National Ombudsman, supervising authorities
Auteurs M.A.P. Bovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The private member’s bill ‘Huis voor klokkenluiders’ is a step forward in the protection of whistleblowers in The Netherlands. However, adoption of the bill will not end the discussion about the protection of whistleblowers, because the bill has several flaws. The new ‘Huis’ has too many roles, the ‘Fonds’ provides the wrong incentives, and whistleblowers who go straight to the relevant authorities are not protected. Therefore, the next step should be a general Whistleblowing Protection Act, which provides legal protection, both to public and private employees who report serious organizational deviances to the relevant authorities and who, in doing so, have acted with due care. Enforcement of the Act, including the award of compensation, should be provided by the industrial law courts and not by a ‘Huis’ or a ‘Fonds’.


M.A.P. Bovens
Prof. dr. Mark Bovens is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht en is tevens lid van de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (WRR).
Artikel

Een luisterend oor

Het interne meldsysteem integriteit binnen de Nederlandse overheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden whistleblowing research, internal reporting systems, public sector, public servants, confident counselors
Auteurs G. de Graaf en K. Lasthuizen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Whistleblowing and whistleblowers have received a lot of attention over the last decade, not just in popular discourse, also in academic research. So by now we know a lot about ‘the’ whistleblower; internal reporting procedures received less attention. That is remarkable, because from previous research we know that by far most reports of wrongdoing are (first) reported internally. Reporting in line seems the most logical step for most observations, but how well are Dutch public managers handling these reports, and what are the experiences of and with so-called confidential integrity advisors? The authors’ main research question is: How does the internal reporting system function in the public sector, and what improvements are possible? Here the authors answer these questions based on a survey conducted among Dutch civil servants, which was filled out by 7,543 respondents and on 25 in-depth interviews with confidential integrity officers.


G. de Graaf
Dr. Gjalt de Graaf is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep Quality of Governance van de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (zie www.fsw.vu.nl/nl/onderzoek/onderzoeksprogrammas/bestuurskunde/quality-of-governance).

K. Lasthuizen
Dr. Karin Lasthuizen is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep Quality of Governance van de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (zie www.fsw.vu.nl/nl/onderzoek/onderzoeksprogrammas/bestuurskunde/quality-of-governance).
Artikel

Principes van klokkenluiden: de benadering van de Raad van Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden Council of Europe, whistleblowing, legal improvements, Recommendation Council of Europe, basic principles of whistleblowing
Auteurs P. Stephenson en M. Levi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National governments have adopted a variety of approaches to the protection of whistleblowers. This article refers to examples in Slovenia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, and ongoing work in Ireland, the Netherlands and Serbia. It is not always clear what would count as success, but none of the existing laws appears to have wholly achieved its aims. The Council of Europe aims to establish some common ground in Europe by drafting a Recommendation which will establish principles on which Member States should draft laws and establish systems. This article considers the work done so far on the draft Recommendation, discusses some of the most important and problematic aspects, and suggests improvements.


P. Stephenson
Paul Stephenson is oud-functionaris van het ministerie van Justitie (Verenigd Koninkrijk) en deskundige op het gebied van anticorruptie.

M. Levi
Prof. Michael Levi is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit van Cardiff.

B. de Graaf
Dr. Beatrice de Graaf is als hoogleraar Conflict en Veiligheid in historisch perspectief verbonden aan de Campus Den Haag van de Universiteit Leiden.
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