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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2014 x
Artikel

40 jaar JV!

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2014
Auteurs Bert Berghuis, Marit Scheepmaker, Ben Rovers e.a.

Bert Berghuis

Marit Scheepmaker

Ben Rovers

Frans Leeuw

Albert Klijn

Frits Huls
Artikel

Een kansloze minderheid in de marge?

De sociaaleconomische en politieke positie van de Roma in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Roma, social inclusion, political participation, minority activism, equal citizenship
Auteurs Prof. dr. P. Vermeersch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides an overview of the current socio-economic and political situation of the Roma in Europe, the continent's largest and most marginalized minority. While a host of new regulations and initiatives on different levels of government have been issued in order to foster the social inclusion of the Roma in various areas of life, the situation on the ground remains far from hopeful. Poverty and discrimination continue to be huge problems in most of the countries where Roma live. New avenues for political and social mobilization have become available to Roma activists and politicians. Yet also in this area important challenges remain. The recent popularity of extreme right-wing populist responses to Roma mobilization and migration has created important obstacles to the full participation and equal citizenship of Roma in our contemporary societies.


Prof. dr. P. Vermeersch
Prof. dr. Peter Vermeersch is als hoogleraar politieke wetenschappen verbonden aan de KU Leuven (www.petervermeersch.net).
Artikel

Hoe Europa zijn zigeuners uitvond

Over een schaduwzijde van de moderniteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden European culture, history of gypsies, modernity, images of gypsies, European literature
Auteurs Prof. dr. K.M. Bogdal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Europe is commonly depicted as the cradle of modernity. But this image usually has a blind eye for marginal communities and cultures existing seemingly apart of the big developments. An example of this is the neglect of the Roma people who settled here early, on the threshold of the Middle Ages and the modern era. The attitude of the European people towards this mobile ethnic group can be described as moving between contempt and fascination. Referring to images of gypsies in literature and other cultural expressions the author shows how during the Romantic era the gypsies were serving as a projection object for desires and fantasies about socially deviant lifestyles. The subsequent process of ‘de-Europeanization’ together with the creation of exotic images through ethnology is described as well as the racial theories and their political consequences for the Roma people in the twentieth century. Instead of contributing to the creation of borderlines and fuelling destruction fantasies, art and sciences should give more attention to the undividedness of humankind and to human dignity.


Prof. dr. K.M. Bogdal
Prof. dr. Klaus-Michael Bogdal is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de afdeling Germanistische literatuurwetenschap van de Universiteit Bielefeld. Zijn boek Europa erfindet die Zigeuner. Eine Geschichte von Faszination und Verachtung (Bogdal 2011) werd in 2013 bekroond met de Leipziger Buchpreis für Europäische Verständigung.
Artikel

Duitsland en de zigeuners: van uitsluiting tot Endlösung der Zigeunerfrage, 1407-1945

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden gypsies, Germany, Holocaust, racial theories, the Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. M.T. Croes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives an overview of the persecution of the gypsies in Europe from their arrival in Central and Western Europe in 1407 till the Baro Porrajmos ('great devouring' in some Romani dialects) as the mass killing of gypsies during the Second World War is called. The focus in this article is on Germany.


Dr. M.T. Croes
Dr. Marnix Croes werkt als onderzoeker bij het WODC. Zijn proefschrift uit 2004 handelt over de overlevingskansen van joden in Nederland tijdens de Duitse bezetting van 1940-1945 en werd bekroond met de studieprijs van de Stichting Praemium Erasmianum.
Artikel

De taal van de Roma en Sinti

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Romani, gypsies, language archeology, minorities, the Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. P. Bakker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Roma and Sinti (formerly called gypsies) have a language of their own called Romani or Romanes. The language has been present in the Netherlands since 1420, and the first documentation from our country dates from the 1500s. Linguists have established that the language is a continuation of Indian languages. The dialects of Romani from all corners of Europe also show the clear unity of the language. It is not – as sometimes supposed – a secret jargon. After centuries of neglect or downright oppression of the people and their language, Romani is now recognized at the national and European levels. This also led to an increasing use of a written language, used for all genres, from literature to cookbooks and political texts. Despite having been spoken beside other languages for over a millennium, its vitality is higher than for all of the more recent immigrant languages in the Netherlands.


Dr. P. Bakker
Dr. Peter Bakker is als associate professor verbonden aan de afdeling Linguïstiek van de Universiteit van Aarhus.
Artikel

Participatie, veiligheid en beeldvorming van Romaminderheden

Een kritische reflectie op het Nederlandse beleid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Roma, Europeanization, European minority policies, securitization, the Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. H. van Baar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article critically evaluates the recent developments in Dutch policy formation regarding Roma minorities from the perspective of the increased attention paid to their position at European level. First, the author discusses the so-called ‘Europeanization of Roma representation’, that is the post-1989 representation of the Roma as a European minority and the simultaneous large-scale, Europe-wide devising of development, inclusion, and empowerment programs meant for them. Thereafter, the author argues that some of the risks of the Roma’s Europeanization – such as the isolation and culturalization of policy formation and the diminishing of democratic accountability – have also and ambiguously affected Dutch policies meant for Roma, Sinti and caravan dwellers. By means of a brief analysis of recent policy developments, the author demonstrates that the Dutch shift towards a policy that, at least in name, encourages social participation, has actually tended to result into a one-sided focus on the Roma as a ‘problem group’ and ‘security threat’.


Dr. H. van Baar
Dr. Huub van Baar is verbonden aan het Institut für Politikwissenschaft, Justus-Liebig Universität Gieβen, en aan het Amsterdam Centre for Globalisation Studies, Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Tussen eigenheid en aanpassing

Over cultuur en integratie van Nederlandse Roma en Sinti

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Dutch Roma and Sinti, Culture, Sokaša, Integration, Dutch Roma and Sinti policies
Auteurs P. Jorna
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on ‘culture’ as a concept currently dominating the approach towards Roma and Sinti, in policies and public opinion in the Netherlands and probably in Europe too. The author argues that a culture-sensitive approach is useful indeed, but a fixation on culture leads into a dead end street – especially in the static way in which it is (implicitly) conceptualised. Explaining some traditional Roma habits and values, the author describes examples of everyday life in Roman communities, as well as some lively debates among Roma and Sinti insiders. It is important that the complexity and dynamics of Roma culture are recognised and that outsiders stop defining what Roma culture ‘is’. Instead, recognising the differences between communities as well as the reality of changing norms and values will provide a breeding ground for finding a healthy balance between authenticity and adjustment.


P. Jorna
Peter Jorna is consultant social inclusion inzake Roma- en Sinti-issues.
Artikel

De geest als aangrijpingspunt

De betekenis van gedragssturing in veiligheid, gezondheid en onderwijs

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden mind politics, nudging, security, public health, social policy
Auteurs Dr. R. Peeters en Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

Dr. R. Peeters
Dr. Rik Peeters is werkzaam als adviseur bij de Kafkabrigade (www.kafkabrigade.nl) en als onderzoeker en docent bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur.

Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Indammen van sociale agressie met dynamische verlichting

Het De-escalate-project in Eindhoven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden aggression, escalation, environmental factors, lighting, light applications
Auteurs Dr. A. Haans en Dr. Y.A.W. De Kort
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There are numerous situations in which human behavior may escalate; in which persons lose self-control, get abusive, aggressive, and cross behavioral boundaries they would normally not cross. Such situations may occur in crowded outdoor situations (public events, urban night life) as well as in small-scale indoor settings (prisons, service & help desks, psychiatric wards). The De-escalate project studies the utilization of dynamic lighting in preventing escalation and in defusing aggressive situations. In De-escalate, Eindhoven University of Technology cooperates with governmental and non-profit organizations, and commercial partners to develop and test mechanisms for de-escalation through light, for example, by lowering arousal, inducing positive mood, broadening attention, increasing self-awareness and self-control. The project aims to broaden our understanding of the effects of light in controlled laboratory studies, and will develop and test methods of de-escalation through light in situ; in two escalation-prone real life settings including Eindhoven’s inner-city entertainment area Stratumseind.


Dr. A. Haans
Dr. ir. Antal Haans is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.

Dr. Y.A.W. De Kort
Dr. ir. Yvonne de Kort is als universitair hoofddocent werkzaam bij de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
Artikel

Gedragsbeïnvloeding via voeding

Enkele toepassingen besproken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden diet, food insecurity, behaviour modification, prediction of behaviour, glucose metabolism
Auteurs A. Zaalberg Msc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent research shows that behaviour is not only influenced by the psychosocial environment, but can also – partially – be explained by the biology in humans. In this paper dietary phenomena are explored. Data from large prospective cohort studies show that dietary patterns are associated with intelligence, school achievement and behavioural problems in children. Furthermore, detrimental behavioural effects of food insecurity, in severe cases hunger, are suggested by recent research. Sugar gets special attention in this paper. Contrary to common knowledge, sugar doesn’t seem to have a negative impact on behaviour. On the other hand, research suggests that glucose metabolism might explain aspects of impulsive aggressive behaviour. It might be possible to make prediction of future aggressive behaviour, using data from glucose metabolism. Finally experimental studies suggest that dietary modification is causally linked to behavioural improvement in offenders and people suffering from a variety of mental problems.


A. Zaalberg Msc
Ap Zaalberg MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC. Hij doet promotieonderzoek naar enerzijds de relatie tussen voeding en gedrag bij justitiabelen, en anderzijds de relatie tussen neurotoxische stoffen en crimineel gedrag.
Artikel

Eerste hulp bij emancipatie: waarom we nudging nodig hebben

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden paternalism, Foucault, emancipatory norms, interactive metal fatigue, nudging
Auteurs Dr. G. van Oenen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both the traditional liberal view of freedom as absence of paternalist state interference and the nonliberal Foucaultian analysis of modern governmentality as fully consisting of behavioural management cannot provide an adequate explanation or justification of the popularity of nudging. Alternatively, the theory of interactive metal fatigue shows why nudging is neither paternalist nor managerial; it is better understood as a much-needed and very contemporary way of assisting the modern individual who is no longer able to carry the full burden of his own emancipation. Nudging is thus found unobjectionable, and even beneficial, as long as it enables individuals to act in accordance with the emancipatory norms they themselves adhere to, but not always manage to act on, due to interactive metal fatigue.


Dr. G. van Oenen
Dr. Gijs van Oenen is als universitair hoofddocent sociale en politieke filosofie verbonden aan de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam; daarnaast is hij fellow van het Erasmus University College.
Artikel

Compliance analyseren met behulp van het Willen-Kunnen-Durven-model

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden compliance, Willing-being Able-daring framework, tendency to transgress, opportunity, deterrence
Auteurs Prof. dr. H. Elffers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The ‘Willing-Being Able-Daring’ (WBAD) framework for analysing rule compliance is introduced and explained. It models rule transgression as the result of climbing a three step staircase: people first have to form a will to not-comply, then see whether they can find an opportunity to transgress the rule without being caught for certain, and finally have to decide to take the risk, facing the consequences of being caught and issued an informal or formal reaction in terms of social disapproval or juridical prosecution. The WBAD framework proposes to identify which of these steps is (too) low, using expert meetings or surveys. It advocates to ponder on ways to increase the heights of the steps. It is claimed that the approach is simpler and hence more parsimonious than the Table-of-Eleven-approach commonly used in The Netherlands. The approach is illustrated with an example from the realm of tax compliance. The article concludes with sketching a perspective when to apply WBAD.


Prof. dr. H. Elffers
Prof. dr. Henk Elffers is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam en emeritus hoogleraar aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
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