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    This article collects publications in this journal about the emergence and effects of legislation. It covers the developments and results of research of the last four decades. First it is concluded that there has been considerable attention to the subject. Second a clear broadening and (theoretical) deepening from different perspectives can be observed. Social-legal research of legislation also appears to have specific characteristics. Subsequently, various points of attention are pointed out, such as more attention to the relationship between legal characteristics and effects, more variation in research methods and more systematic theory-driven research. Finally, attention is drawn to the relationship between (the working of) legislation and social transformations such as globalization, digitization and the increasing and profound influence of social media in society.


Bert Niemeijer
Bert Niemeijer is rector van de Academies voor Wetgeving en Overheidsjuristen in Den Haag en bijzonder hoogleraar Empirische Rechtssociologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Hij is lid en voorzitter van de redactie geweest en is op dit moment lid van de redactieraad.
Artikel

Manoeuvreren binnen smalle marges

Over de rol van wetgevingsjuristen bij de totstandkoming van wet- en regelgeving

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Legislation, Legislative drafting, Professionalism, Legal Ethics, Sociology of Law
Auteurs Dr. Nienke Doornbos en Mr. dr. Arnt Mein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past five years, the Council of State, the National Ombudsman and several academics have criticized the way in which new legislation has been made. In their view, principles of law and the rule of law are insufficiently uphold due to an instrumentalist view on law. This criticism urged the authors to conduct an empirical study into the question how legislative drafters deal with legislative plans which are problematic from a legal or rule of law point of view, and how they justify their role in the legislative process. This study is explorative and qualitative in nature. During the summer of 2018, 24 legislative lawyers from five different Dutch ministries have been interviewed. The results show that the role of legislative lawyers can best be characterized as constructively critical. As their tasks encompass much more than solely the actual drafting of legislation, they more and more resemble their colleagues from the policy department. The authors suggest that legislative lawyers should articulate their distinctive professional ethics in order to strengthen the checks and balances within the ministries.


Dr. Nienke Doornbos
Nienke Doornbos is universitair docent aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Haar onderzoek richt zich onder meer op beroepsethische kwesties bij juridische beroepen.

Mr. dr. Arnt Mein
Arnt Mein is lector Legal Management aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam, faculteit Maatschappij en Recht. Hij doet onderzoek naar onder meer de beroepshouding van juristen.

Dr. Rob Schwitters
Rob Schwitters is universitair Hoofddocent Rechtssociologie aan de UvA.
Artikel

The effective public enforcement of cartels: perceptions on the functioning of the objection procedure and the reality

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Dispute resolution, Objection procedure, Cartel enforcement, Administrative law, Stakeholder interviews
Auteurs Mr. Annalies Outhuijse LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Companies fined for infringing the cartel prohibition are denied access to the courts until the competition authority has reviewed its fining decision in the objection procedure. Several stakeholders have been negative about the functioning of this objection procedure in case of cartel fines, including because of its limited ability to resolve disputes and the cost and length of the procedure. In light of the discussions on the effectiveness of this objection procedure, this article analyses the ability of the cartel objection procedure to resolve disputes on basis of an analysis of the decisions on objection, as well as interviews with the parties involved in the objection procedure and a study of relevant literature. Previous studies have shown that the success of the objection procedure, regarding dispute resolution, depends on the nature of the dispute, the reason that the objection is made and the organisation of the procedure. Reviewing the data which was gathered through the interviews and case analysis with the knowledge of these factors influencing the success of the objection procedure, the article concludes that these previously carried out studies can explain the limited ability of the cartel objection procedure to resolve disputes.


Mr. Annalies Outhuijse LLM
Annalies Outhuijse is PhD fellow at the Department of Administrative Law at the University of Groningen.

Mr. dr. Arnt Mein
Arnt Mein is als lector verbonden aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam, bij de Faculteit Maatschappij en Recht.
Boekbespreking

De bestuurlijke boete gewogen

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden AFM, DNB, civil penalty, administratieve law, Review
Auteurs Wim Huisman
Auteursinformatie

Wim Huisman
Wim Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Wim Huisman doet onderzoek naar regelovertreding binnen organisaties, alsmede de bestrijding daarvan.
Boekbespreking

Taalgrens als wetenschapsgrens

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden book review
Auteurs Erhard Blankenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Recht der Werkelijkheid.


Erhard Blankenburg
Erhard Blankenburg is emeritus hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Burgerschap en verschil

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden parliamentary discourse, citizenship, Habermas, Foucault
Auteurs Bertjan Wolthuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The citizen, understood in the classical republican sense as the political actor, is on occasion confronted with issues that concern the room for difference in politics. In the Netherlands, for example, the recent entrance of populist citizens in parliament is regarded as a problem by more deliberative citizens. Do populist citizens threaten ordinary politics or do ordinary citizens, on the contrary, restrict the space of politics too much? To prepare future research on this point, in this article three similar historical controversies in Dutch parliament are examined. In these cases citizens struggle with the problem how much room parliament ought to provide for the differences between them. In these cases citizens eventually grant each other the freedom to engage in politics in their own way, unless that way threatens the freedom of parliamentary politics itself. They defend the right to debate the widest range of issues in the sharpest way, for example, but prohibit making insults and endorsing illegal activities. Further research is needed to confirm and specify these still tentative conclusions.


Bertjan Wolthuis
Bertjan Wolthuis is universitair docent aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn onderzoeksinteresses zijn onder meer: de kwaliteit van het politieke debat, Jürgen Habermas, Michel Foucault, parlementaire geschiedenis, retorica en argumentatieleer.
Artikel

Een verliezer is geen winnaar

De naleving van civiele rechtspraak, 15 jaar na Van Koppen en Malsch

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden courts, civil justice, enforcement of judgments, procedural justice
Auteurs Roland Eshuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article compares two studies on the compliance with judicial decisions and friendly settlements in Dutch civil court procedures. A new study (Eshuis 2009) finds a higher rate of compliance, which can largely be attributed to the selection of cases. The older study (Van Koppen & Malsch 1991) included a high number of default judgments, which are associated with a low level of compliance, while friendly settlements – associated with a high level of compliance – were excluded. The new study finds full compliance rates of 31% for default judgments, 74% for judgments in defended cases and 85% for friendly settlements. The high compliance with friendly settlements suggests these settlements are ‘better’ outcomes; however, the difference in compliance can well be explained by selection effects. Interviews reveal that many friendly settlements are not the harmonious solutions one might expect.
    The new study finds no solid relation between compliance and procedural or distributive justice. In two relevant ways the conditions in the ‘real life’ judicial procedure are different from those in experimental research in which such relations are found. First, a large part of the non-compliance is caused by an inability of parties to comply. These participants may find the procedure and outcome fully ‘just’, but still won’t comply. Second, for those who can comply, there is no free choice on whether to comply or not. There are quite effective means of enforcement for such cases. So, those who can comply will, even if the procedure and its outcome are experienced as fully ‘unjust’.
    The first part of the title of the article is a comment on Van Koppen and Malsch’s earlier research. They concluded that winning in court often was a Pyrrhic victory, and the loser would win after all. In the interviews however, few of those who do not comply were found to fit the image of a ‘winner’. The sad conclusion is that in judicial procedures winners and losers do not come in the same numbers; after all, it produces far more losers than winners.


Roland Eshuis
Roland Eshuis verricht, als onderzoeker bij het WODC, empirisch onderzoek naar (civiele) rechtspraak en rechtspleging. Hij promoveerde in 2007 op onderzoek naar interventies ter versnelling van gerechtelijke procedures (Het recht in betere tijden, 2007). Vorig jaar verscheen De daad bij het woord (2009), een onderzoek naar de naleving van civiele rechtspraak. Recent publiceerde hij, met collega’s van de Raad voor de rechtspraak en het CBS, de eerste editie van Rechtspleging Civiel en Bestuur (2010), waarin statistische gegevens over civiele en bestuursrechtspraak zijn gebundeld.

    Like surfers, legislators … who wish to change everyday social norms must wait for signs of a rising cultural support, catching it at just the right time... (Kagan and Skolnick 1993: 85) The empirical study of the relation between the way a law comes into being and its effectiveness in practice is an underdeveloped subject in the sociology of law. In this article this relation is studied with respect to smoking bans in the Netherlands. The focus is on private companies in general, with special attention for Dutch cafés, bars, hotels and restaurants (where such a ban was recently introduced). Dutch smoking bans in private establishments were only enacted after the government was convinced of public support and after a period of selfregulation. This proved to be a good preparation. The general picture of the relation between the emergence and the effectiveness of smoking bans in Dutch hotels, restaurants etc. is much the same. However, there is one sector - bars, pubs and the like – in which the smoking ban has encountered problems. In this sector a fourth of the establishments refuse to comply. A question addressed in this article is whether the legislator acted too precipitously with respect to this sector. This is obviously the case: there is less public support for smoking bans in such establishments and there had not been a preparatory period of selfregulation.


Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker werkt bij het Instituut voor Rechtssociologie en het Centrum voor Migratierecht van de juridische faculteit van de Radboud Universteit Nijmegen. Zij doet onder meer onderzoek naar de regulering van migratie en de rechtspositie en maatschappelijke positie van immigranten.
Artikel

Rookverboden

Surfen op golven van een veranderende maatschappelijke norm

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 01 2009
Auteurs Heleen Weyers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Like surfers, legislators … who wish to change everyday social norms must wait for signs of a rising cultural support, catching it at just the right time... (Kagan and Skolnick 1993: 85) The empirical study of the relation between the way a law comes into being and its effectiveness in practice is an underdeveloped subject in the sociology of law. In this article this relation is studied with respect to smoking bans in the Netherlands. The focus is on private companies in general, with special attention for Dutch cafés, bars, hotels and restaurants (where such a ban was recently introduced). Dutch smoking bans in private establishments were only enacted after the government was convinced of public support and after a period of selfregulation. This proved to be a good preparation. The general picture of the relation between the emergence and the effectiveness of smoking bans in Dutch hotels, restaurants etc. is much the same. However, there is one sector - bars, pubs and the like – in which the smoking ban has encountered problems. In this sector a fourth of the establishments refuse to comply. A question addressed in this article is whether the legislator acted too precipitously with respect to this sector. This is obviously the case: there is less public support for smoking bans in such establishments and there had not been a preparatory period of selfregulation.


Heleen Weyers
Heleen Weyers is universitair docent bij de vakgroep Rechtstheorie van de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Ze promoveerde op een onderzoek naar de totstandkoming van de euthanasieregelgeving in Nederland. Sindsdien publiceert zij onderzoek waarin de verklarende kracht van veranderingen in waardes en vertrouwen voor de totstandkoming van dit type regelgeving wordt onderzocht.
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