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Artikel

Pragmatische vreemdelingenrechters

Over rolverschuiving van vreemdelingenrechters als gevolg van de coronamaatregelen

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Judiciary, COVID-19, Online hearing, Fair trial
Auteurs Karen Geertsema, Yasemin Glasgow, Ashley Terlouw e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution we investigated:

    1. What changes in the handling of immigration law suits has the corona pandemic led to?

    2. What influence have these changes had on the role of first-line migra­tion judges?

      1. Has their working method been adjusted as a result of the corona measures? If so, does this still fit in their view and that of the parties to the proceedings within the requirements of a fair trial and the professional standards that apply to judges?

      2. Do the changes in working ­methods require different skills from migration judges?

      3. Are the changes in the handling of cases and the way of working, temporary or permanent?


Karen Geertsema
Karen Geertsema is docent migratierecht, afdeling rechtssociologie en migratierecht, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, onderzoeker in het project ‘gevolgen van de coronacrisis voor de rechtspraak en positie van kwetsbare rechtzoekenden’.

Yasemin Glasgow
Yasemin Glasgow is junior onderzoeker (met een mastertitel in jeugdrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden), afdeling rechtssociologie en migratierecht, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, junior onderzoeker in het project ‘gevolgen van de coronacrisis voor de rechtspraak en positie van kwetsbare rechtzoekenden’.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is hoogleraar rechtssociologie, vaksectievoorzitter CMR/rechtssociologie en voorzitter van het onderzoekscentrum voor Staat en Recht (SteR). Tevens is zij onderzoeker in het project ‘gevolgen van de coronacrisis voor de rechtspraak en positie van kwetsbare rechtzoekenden’.

Marijke ter Voert
Marijke ter Voert is hoogleraar Empirical Legal Studies, Radboud universiteit Nijmegen. Tevens is zij projectleider van het project ‘gevolgen van de coronacrisis voor de rechtspraak en positie van kwetsbare rechtzoekenden’.
Discussie

Empirical Legal Studies in het juridisch onderwijs: waar staat Nederland en hoe nu verder?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden ELS, empirical legal studies, education, teaching, law school
Auteurs dr. Ekaterina Pannebakker LL.M., Dr. Helen Pluut, Mr. dr. Stijn Voskamp e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De groeiende aandacht voor Empirical Legal Studies (ELS) in Nederland roept vragen op over het onderwijs in empirisch-juridische vaardigheden in ons land. Er gebeurt al het nodige op dit vlak, maar een nauwkeurige inventarisatie van welke ELS-vakken reeds concreet worden aangeboden in Nederland ontbreekt. Een dergelijk overzicht zou het mogelijk maken dat opleidingen van elkaar leren en kennis en kunde uitwisselen in plaats van het wiel opnieuw uit te vinden. Daarom hebben wij een uitgebreide rondgang gemaakt langs de diverse opleidingen aan rechtenfaculteiten, om in kaart te brengen welke vakken met aandacht voor empirische methoden reeds in het reguliere rechtencurriculum worden aangeboden. In dit artikel rapporteren wij de resultaten van deze landelijke inventarisatie en werpen een blik op de toekomst in het licht van recente discussies en ontwikkelingen die verband houden met ELS in Nederland.


dr. Ekaterina Pannebakker LL.M.
Ekaterina Pannebakker is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Privaatrecht aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden. Haar onderzoek en onderwijs richten zich op privaatrechtelijke rechtsvergelijking en harmonisatie, recht en taal, en internationaal contracteren.

Dr. Helen Pluut
Helen Pluut is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de afdeling Bedrijfswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. dr. Stijn Voskamp
Stijn Voskamp is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Privaatrecht aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden. Haar onderzoek en onderwijs richten zich onder andere op het contractenrecht en aansprakelijkheidsrecht met bijzondere aandacht voor onderwijsrecht.

Mr. dr. Wouter de Zanger
Wouter de Zanger is als universitair docent Strafrecht verbonden geweest aan de Universiteit Utrecht waar hij onder andere onderzoek verrichtte op het gebied van financieel-economisch strafrecht. Tegenwoordig is hij werkzaam als advocaat bij FvKG Advocaten te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Belemmeringen bij de aanpak van onregelmatigheden door de curator

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Insolvency practitioner, Insolvency fraud, Directors’ liability, Enforcement, Empty estates
Auteurs Jessie Pool LL.M. BSc., Dr. Helen Pluut en Prof. mr. Reinout Vriesendorp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For years, Dutch legal scholars have been debating about the desirability of mandatory private enforcement of irregularities and fraud by the insolvency practitioner. The assumption is that revenue-oriented insolvency practitioners impede efficient enforcement of irregularities in insolvency. The findings of our quantitative study support the assumption that insolvency practitioners do not take enforcement actions in every suspicious insolvency and that norm violations are less likely to enforced when no recourse is offered. The findings of our qualitative study indicate that there are additional explanations for this relative lack of enforcement, such as lack of renumeration and poor follow-up procedures. Therefore, although the insolvency practitioner is assumed to be of great importance in combatting irregularities in bankruptcies, we doubt the effectiveness and preventive effect of the role of the insolvency practitioner. We make various recommendations to facilitate insolvency practitioners in dealing with irregularities.


Jessie Pool LL.M. BSc.
Jessie Pool is als PhD-Fellow verbonden aan de afdeling Ondernemingsrecht van de Universiteit Leiden. Dit artikel is geschreven in het kader van haar proefschrift over het signaleren en redresseren van onregelmatigheden door de curator.

Dr. Helen Pluut
Helen Pluut is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de afdeling Bedrijfswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. mr. Reinout Vriesendorp
Reinout Vriesendorp is als hoogleraar Insolventierecht verbonden aan de afdeling Ondernemingsrecht en de afdeling Bedrijfswetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden en is advocaat te Amsterdam.
Recensies en signalementen

Twee perspectieven op rechterlijke besluitvorming

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs mr.dr. André Verburg
Auteursinformatie

mr.dr. André Verburg
André Verburg is staatsraad bij de Afdeling bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State en verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht / het Montaigne Centrum voor Rechtsstaat en Rechtspleging. In 2019 is hij gepromoveerd op Bestuursrechtspraak in balans. Bejegening, beslechting en bewijs (diss. Utrecht), Den Haag: Boom juridisch (Verburg 2019), een proefschrift waarin de verhouding tussen procedurele rechtvaardigheid en de procedure bij de rechter wordt doordacht.
Werk in uitvoering

The role of attitudes in the professional judicial decision-making progress: a work in progress

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Professional judicial decision-making process, Attitudes, Impartiality, Semi-structured interviews, Scenario-survey
Auteurs Mr. Elke Olthuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In our daily decision-making processes, attitudes play an important role. An attitude is an evaluative judgement of a person, object or an issue on a scale of favorability. A large amount of research has been done on the role of attitudes in our daily decision-making processes. There is, however, a gap in empirical knowledge when it concerns the role of attitudes in the professional judicial decision-making process. It has been accepted that the professional judicial decision-making process has a subjective element, but this subjective element remains unexplained. Attitudes are inherently personal and subjective, and they can make our decision-making process easier. They can, however, also be the basis for biases and prejudices. Herein lies a potential risk, especially in the professional judicial decision-making process. If attitudes play a role in the decision-making process of judges there is a possibility that impartiality, one of the judiciary’s core professional values, might be unobtainable. To see whether attitudes play a role in the professional judicial decision-making process semi-structured interviews will be conducted among judges, who will also be asked to fill in a scenario survey. Hopefully the obtained data will lead to a start in filling this gap in empirical knowledge.


Mr. Elke Olthuis
Elke Olthuis is een promovenda bij de Universiteit van Amsterdam. In haar onderzoek integreert ze recht en psychologie. Ze is verbonden aan het PPLE College en het Paul Scholten Centre for Jurisprudence.
Artikel

Upperdogs Versus Underdogs

Judicial Review of Administrative Drug-Related Closures in the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Eviction, War on drugs, Party capability, Empirical legal research, Drug policy
Auteurs Mr. Michelle Bruijn en Dr. Michel Vols
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, mayors are entitled to close public and non-public premises if drug-related activities are being conducted there. Using data from the case law of Dutch lower courts, published between 2008 and 2016, this article examines the relative success of different types of litigants, and the influence of case characteristics on drug-related closure cases. We build on Galanter’s framework of ‘repeat players’ and ‘one-shotters’, to argue that a mayor is the stronger party and is therefore more likely to win in court. We categorise mayors as ‘upperdogs’, and the opposing litigants as ‘underdogs’. Moreover, we distinguish stronger mayors from weaker ones, based on the population size of their municipality. Similarly, we distinguish the stronger underdogs from the weaker ones. Businesses and organisations are classified as stronger parties, relative to individuals, who are classified as weaker parties. In line with our hypothesis, we find that mayors win in the vast majority of cases. However, contrary to our presumptions, we find that mayors have a significantly lower chance of winning a case if they litigate against weak underdogs. When controlling for particular case characteristics, such as the type of drugs and invoked defences, our findings offer evidence that case characteristics are consequential for the resolution of drug-related closure cases in the Netherlands.


Mr. Michelle Bruijn
Michelle Bruijn is promovendus en docent aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Haar onderzoek richt zich op de regulering van cannabis en de sluiting van drugspanden.

Dr. Michel Vols
Michel Vols is hoogleraar Openbare-Orderecht aan Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Zijn onderzoek richt zich op Openbare orde en veiligheid, en het gebruik van data science (machine learning) bij het bestuderen van juridische data.
Artikel

Participatie in circulaire gebiedsontwikkeling

Over het creëren van alternatieve ruimtes door professionele stadmakers

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Circular City, Sustainable Development, City Makers, Co-creation, The Netherlands
Auteurs Linda van de Kamp PhD, Michaela Hordijk PhD, John Grin PhD e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    We analyze two citizen collectives of ‘professional city makers’ who have shaped participation in circular area development in anticipation of the Dutch Environment and Planning Act. The activities of professional city-makers form an interesting new phenomenon that requires attention as well as the implications: it is precisely through the professionalism of the city-makers’ efforts that there is a regular tension in the participation process between their role as citizen and professional in their contact with the government. We therefore discuss how the participation of professional city-makers in area development exposes different paradoxes that must be taken into account in the further implementation of the Environment and Planning Act. In short, we argue that participation in the Act is presented in a traditional way and does not fit the new role of citizens in area development in the 21st century.


Linda van de Kamp PhD
Linda van de Kamp is cultureel antropoloog en universitair docent aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Michaela Hordijk PhD
Michaela Hordijk is Universitair Hoofddocent aan de afdeling Sociale Geografie, Planologie en Internationale Ontwikkelingsstudies van de Universiteit van Amsterdam en verbonden aan het Kennisactieprogramma Water.

John Grin PhD
John Grin is Hoogleraar beleidswetenschap en systeeminnovaties aan de afdeling Politicologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

(dr.ig.) Gert-Joost Peek PhD
Gert-Joost Peek is lector Gebiedsontwikkeling en Transitiemanagement aan de Hogeschool Rotterdam. Daarnaast is hij eigenaar van SPOTON Consulting en is hij als fellow Ruimtelijke procesorganisatie verbonden aan de Amsterdam School of Real Estate (ASRE). Hij is bestuurslid van I’M BINCK.

Frank Alsema MA
Frank Alsema is kwartiermaker Stadslab Buiksloterham, regisseur, producer en entrepeneur.

Saskia Müller MA
Saskia Müller is ondernemer en kwartiermaker Stadslab Buiksloterham.
Werk in uitvoering

The alternative war on drugs: drug evictions and the (re)regulation of cannabis

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Drug eviction, Drug policy, Culture of Control, Empirical legal research
Auteurs L. Michelle Bruijn LLM Ph.D.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As a reaction to the perceived enforcement deficit of criminal law in the field of drug control, several countries implemented alternative regulatory strategies. One such strategy is the reregulating drugs, especially cannabis. Another strategy is the use of civil or administrative law to address drug-related crime. Especially the use of eviction to combat drug activities has become increasingly popular.
    My PhD research focuses on these two developments within the field of drug control. More specifically, on the underlying rationales for the policies on recreational cannabis, the possibilities that international law provide to regulate recreational cannabis, the legal protection against drug-related evictions, and the explanation for the use of eviction to fight drug-related activities.


L. Michelle Bruijn LLM Ph.D.
Michelle Bruijn is promovendus en docent aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

De rol van intermediairs in het Nederlandse prostitutiebeleid

Top-down toepassen of bottom-up aanpassen van regels?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden regulatory intermediaries, Social Working theory, Regulatory Intermediary Target model, prostitution policy
Auteurs Nicolle Zeegers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Similar to the more current Regulator Intermediary Target (RIT) model, Griffiths’ Social Working (SW) theory points to the relevance of intermediaries for explaining rule following behavior. In this article, the author applies both theories (RIT and SW) concerning the role of intermediaries in rule following to explain developments in Dutch prostitution policy: the non-implementation of the emancipatory, sex workers’ rights based approach, and its replacement by a more repressive policy of closing down sex facilities. The analysis shows that although both theories contain useful starting point for explaining these developments, the SW theory’s special value is its acknowledgement of how regulatory intermediaries operate in a social field with existing social rules and a specific balance of power. Such rules and power relations have put barriers to the implementation of the Dutch prostitution policy as formulated in 1999. As illustrated in the article, the SW- theory offers more tools than the RIT- model for an analysis of how legal rules work in practice.


Nicolle Zeegers
Nicolle Zeegers is universitair docent politicologie bij de vakgroep Transboundary Legal Studies (TLS), Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. In haar onderzoek richt zij zich op vraagstukken over invloed en macht in de totstandkoming en werking van wetgeving. In augustus 1998 werd zij lid van de vakgroep Rechtstheorie waarvan John Griffiths de voorzitter was. Zij heeft verschillende malen over de sociale-werkingstheorie gepubliceerd (zie Weyers & Stamhuis 2003 en Zeegers, Witteveen & Van Klink 2005).

Dr. Ap Zaalberg
Ap Zaalberg is onderzoeker bij het WODC, gespecialiseerd in de neurobiologie van crimineel gedrag in het algemeen en de relatie tussen dieet en crimineel gedrag in het bijzonder.
Praktijk

Wat gebeurt er op de gang? Een kwalitatief empirisch onderzoek naar schikkingsonderhandelingen tijdens civielrechtelijke procedures

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Settlement negotiations, Distributive negotiations, Qualitative empirical research, Biases, Heuristics
Auteurs Mr. Lucas Lieverse
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is little known on settlement negotiations during civil lawsuits in the Netherlands. Settlement negotiations take place during a (suspension of the) public court hearing. The public hearing takes place in the majority of the civil lawsuits in the Netherlands. The qualitative empirical research I am carrying out, intents to give insight in these settlement negotiations and questions what lawyers actually do during these negotiations. The research intents to contribute to the effectiveness of settlement negotiations in the sense that (i) the number of settlements increases and of compulsory settlements decreases, (ii) the perceived fairness of procedure and outcome in settled cases increases, and (iii) the number of resolved underlying conflicts increases.
    I expect to find that most settlement negotiations can be qualified as distributive negotiations (as opposed to integrative negotiations). Furthermore, based on a literature review on biases and heuristics I hypothesized that settlement could be more effective than they actually are. The paper touches on the methodology and on both hypotheses.


Mr. Lucas Lieverse
Lucas Lieverse is docent en onderzoeker bij Zuyd Hogeschool en voor zijn PhD-onderzoek als buitenpromovendus verbonden aan het Montaigne Centrum voor Rechtspleging en Conflictoplossing van de Universiteit Utrecht. Hij heeft als gewezen advocaat ervaring met en is geïnteresseerd in civiel (proces)recht en (juridische) conflictoplossing, waarbij hij inzichten uit verschillende disciplines verbindt.

Prof. Dr. Heinrich Winter
Heinrich Winter is hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en verantwoordelijk voor de opleiding Juridische Bestuurskunde.
Artikel

The precaution controversy: an analysis through the lens of Ulrich Beck and Michel Foucault

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Precautionary principle, risk society, governmentality, risk governance, environmental law
Auteurs Tobias Arnoldussen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the precautionary principle lack of scientific evidence for the existence of a certain (environmental) risk should not be a reason not to take preventative policy measures. The precautionary principle had a stormy career in International environmental law and made its mark on many treaties, including the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). However it remains controversial. Proponents see it as the necessary legal curb to keep the dangerous tendencies of industrial production and technology in check. Opponents regard it with suspicion. They fear it will lead to a decrease in freedom and fear the powers to intervene that it grants the state. In this article the principle is reviewed from the perspectives of Ulrich Beck’s ‘reflexive modernisation’ and Michel Foucault’s notion of governmentality. It is argued that from Beck’s perspective the precautionary principle is the result of a learning process in which mankind gradually comes to adopt a reflexive attitude to the risks modernity has given rise to. It represents the wish to devise more inclusive and democratic policies on risks and environmental hazards. From the perspective of Michel Foucault however, the principle is part and parcel of neo-liberal tendencies of responsibilisation. Risk management and prudency are devolved to the public in an attempt to minimise risk taking, while at the same time optimising production. Moreover, it grants legitimacy to state intervention if the public does not live up to the responsibilities foisted on it. Both perspectives are at odds, but represent different sides of the same coin and might learn from each other concerns.


Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is a socio-legal scholar affiliated with the University of Amsterdam Law School and the PPLE honours college. Next to lecturing on a variety of subjects, he focusses on interdisciplinary legal research into the possibilities of law to deal with contemporary social problems.
Boekbespreking

Soft-drugs, morality and law in Late Modernity

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden review-essay, proefschrift Chevallier, blow-verbod, symbolic crusade, culture of control
Auteurs Thaddeus Müller
Auteursinformatie

Thaddeus Müller
Thaddeus Müller is senior onderzoeker bij de Law School, Lancaster University (criminology). Hij is gespecialiseerd in kwalitatieve methoden en zijn belangstelling gaat uit naar de sociale constructie van perspectieven op veiligheid in publieke ruimten, in het bijzonder in multi-culturele buurten. Een ander thema dat zijn belangstelling heeft is de constructie en ontwikkeling van het softdrugs-beleid in Nederland en over de grenzen. Thaddeus Müller heeft ook gepubliceerd over andere thema’s, met name over de marginalisering van etnische jongeren in de laat-moderniteit, vooral in de context van het strafrechtstelsel, academische fraude (gerelateerd aan de organisatie van academische instellingen), met name de Diederik Stapel-zaak en over Rock en Roll, in het bijzonder Lou Reed.
Discussie

KEI en ODR: hand in hand vooruit

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden ODR, online courts, access to justice, ADR
Auteurs Mr. dr. Jin Ho Verdonschot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Is online dispute resolution (ODR) the way to organise 100% access to justice? Or is it more of a bubble-solution looking for a problem? Experiences are mixed but there are reasons to be optimistic. A Dutch example of an online divorce platform show how technology can better serve the justice needs of citizens. But for that we need to stop thinking in terms of ADR, ODR and court litigation but rather design more hybrid processes.


Mr. dr. Jin Ho Verdonschot
Jin Ho Verdonschot is directeur HiiL Rechtwijzer Technology en een van de grondleggers van het Rechtwijzer platform.
Artikel

Understanding judges’ choices of sentence types as interpretative work: An explorative study in a Dutch police court

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Judicial decision-making, sentencing type, (ir)redeemability, whole case approach
Auteurs Peter Mascini, Irene van Oorschot PhD, Assistant professor Don Weenink e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article critically evaluates the prevailing factor-oriented (e.g. a priori defined legal and extralegal characteristics of defendants) approach in analyses of judicial decision-making. Rather than assuming such factors, we aim to demonstrate how Dutch judges engage in interpretative work to arrive at various sentence types. In their interpretative work, judges attempt to weigh and compare various legal and extralegal features of defendants. Importantly, they do so in the context of the case as a whole, which means that these features do not have independent or fixed meanings. Judges select and weigh information to create an image of defendants’ redeemability. However, extralegal concerns other than redeemability also inform judges’ decisions. We argue that studying the naturally occurring interpretative work of judges results in a better understanding of judicial decision-making than outcome-oriented studies, which view criminal cases as collections of independent legal and extralegal factors.


Peter Mascini
Peter Mascini holds a chair in Empirical Legal Studies at the Erasmus School of Law of the Erasmus University Rotterdam, where he is also associate professor of sociology at the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences. His research focuses on the legitimization, implementation, and enforcement of laws and policies.

Irene van Oorschot PhD
Irene van Oorschot is a PhD candidate at the Faculty of the Social Sciences at the Erasmus University Rotterdam and will soon start as a postdoctoral researcher at the Anthropology Department of the University of Amsterdam. Drawing on actor network theory and feminist studies of knowledge, her research focuses on legal and scientific modes of truth-production.

Assistant professor Don Weenink
Don Weenink is assistant professor of Sociology at the Department of Sociology at the University of Amsterdam. He has published work on, among other subjects, ethnic inequalities in judicial sentencing.

Gratiëlla Schippers
Gratiëlla Schippers has studied Sociology at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. For her master thesis she has done research about the understanding of judges’ choices of sentence types.
Artikel

The legacy and current relevance of Cappelletti and the Florence project on access to justice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden definition and dimensions access to justice, recommendations, historic context access to justice, current context access to justice
Auteurs Bernard Hubeau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explains what access to justice can encompass and how the ideals about access to justice have developed in time. The way to do this is going back to the work of the famous scholars Cappelletti and Garth, who were responsible for a worldwide project on access to justice in the 1970s. Their main issue was to explain access to justice is more than the access to a judge and the organization of courts. Primarily, the system must be equally accessible to all, irrespective of social or economic status or other incapacity. But it also must lead to results that are individually and socially just and fair. Equal access and effective access are the central notions. Their work is put in perspective. The importance of their legacy and the question how we can get along with their work are stressed. Their definition is compared to a few other authoritative definitions. The waves in the history of access to justice are described and putting them in the current context illustrates why a fourth waved can be observed. The major question to be answered is how one can assess the challenges and obstacles of access to justice in the current context. Therefore, some recent dimensions and developments within access to justice are presented: the democratic dimension, the effectiveness of new social rights, the attention for poor and vulnerable people, further juridification, expanding frontiers of and monitoring access to justice, e-justice, and self-help. Finally, a few building blocks for reforms are presented.


Bernard Hubeau
Bernard Hubeau is a full-time Professor in Sociology and Sociology of Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp. He also teaches at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Antwerp and the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the University of Brussels. He is the former ombudsman of the city of Antwerp and of the Flemish Parliament.
Artikel

Social security and social welfare: barriers and retrograde policies, but cause for optimism?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden social security, legal representation, means-testing, Britain, fees
Auteurs Amir Paz-Fuchs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution addresses the limits placed on access to justice in the context of social services, with a particular, but not exclusive, focus on the UK, across five central platforms: legal representation, the financial barriers, the structure of the programme, the attitude of the bureaucracy, and the personal attributes of the client. The contribution finds that there exist, for decades, problematic elements that constitute barriers to justice in this area: the means-tested element in the programmes and the bureaucracy’s double role as provider of services and detector of fraud. But to them, in recent years, significant barriers were added: recent cuts in legal aid and the imposition of tribunal fees in the UK are retrograde steps, reverting 40 years of impressive achievements in the field.


Amir Paz-Fuchs
Amir Paz-Fuchs (D. Phil Oxford) is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Law, University of Sussex, where he teaches employment law, public law, and legal theory. In addition, he is a Visiting Research Fellow at the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies and a Research Associate at Wolfson College, both at the University of Oxford. He is also Co-Director of the ‘The Limits of Privatization’ research project, based at the Van Leer Institute in Jerusalem. He also served on the board of several human rights and social justice NGOs.
Artikel

Merits testing in the English legal aid system: exploring its impact in asylum cases

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden access to justice, asylum seekers, merits testing, English legal aid system
Auteurs Tamara Butter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, there has been much discussion on the legal aid cuts and reforms in England and Wales, and the possible consequences this would have on access to justice for vulnerable groups in society, including immigrants and asylum seekers. This contribution focuses on one element of the English legal aid system: merits testing by legal aid providers in asylum cases. It explores whether and, if so, how this aspect may affect the access to justice for asylum seekers lacking the financial means to pay privately for legal assistance and representation. The findings indicate that a merits test which makes access to legal aid on appeal conditional upon a case having at least 50% prospect of success and makes legal aid providers responsible for conducting this assessment may compromise asylum seekers’ ability to achieve justice both within and outside the existing body of law.


Tamara Butter
Tamara Butter is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law/Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University of Nijmegen. Her research consists of a comparative case study into the professional decision making of asylum legal aid lawyers in the Netherlands and England.
Artikel

Responsibilities of the state and legal professions

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden responsibilities, the state, lawyers, the judiciary and judges
Auteurs Mies Westerveld en Ashley Terlouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution, which is based on the Dutch legal system, deals with the responsibilities of the State and legal professions in ensuring access to justice. The responsibilities of the four main players involved in bringing justice to the citizen are discussed: the legislator, the executive, the judiciary, and the legal profession. Responsibilities for access to justice do not only stem from the law, they do also evolve from societal problems and discussions. The contribution deals with both. Several actors share some of the responsibilities. One can think of responsibilities for information, for financing, and for being aware of vulnerabilities and other obstacles. What are the legal responsibilities and what other responsibilities are felt by the actors involved and how do they deal with them? And as a result: do they contribute to access to justice, do they form an obstacle, or both?


Mies Westerveld
Mies Westerveld is Professor Legal aid by special appointment and Professor in Labour Law (social insurance) at the University of Amsterdam. Her research concentrates on current issues of access to justice and state-financed legal aid on the one hand and the decreasing role of social insurance on a fragmented labour market on the other hand.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is Professor in Sociology of Law at the Radboud University of Nijmegen. She is responsible for the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University. Besides she is part-time Judge at the District Court of Gelderland. Her research concentrates on legal and societal issues of asylum and equal treatment and on the working of the judiciary.
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