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Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid x Jaar 2016 x
Artikel

“The production of law”: Law in action in the everyday and the juridical consequences of juridification

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden juridification, production of space, law in action, local bye-laws
Auteurs dr. mr. Danielle Chevalier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In an increasingly diversifying society, public space is the quintessential social realm1x Lofland 1998. where members of that diverse society meet each other. Thus space is shared, whilst norms regarding that space are not always shared. Of rivalling norms, some are codified into formal law, in a process Habermas called juridification. Early Habermas regarded juridification a negative process, ‘colonizing the lifeworld’. Later Habermas argued juridification a viable pillar for conviviality in diversity. The shift in Habermas’ perspective invites the question how law works in action. In this article a frame is offered to scrutinize the working of law in action in public space, by applying the conceptual triad of spatial thinker Lefebvre to understand how law is “produced”. It argues that how law is perceived in action is pivotal to understanding how law works in action. Moreover, it discusses the possible ramifications of the perception of law in action for how the legal system as a whole is perceived.

Noten

  • 1 Lofland 1998.


dr. mr. Danielle Chevalier
Danielle Chevalier is a lecturer and research fellow at the University of Amsterdam, affiliated to both the Bonger Institute for Criminology and the Amsterdam School for Social Science Research. Her academic works focuses on the intersection of the legal and the spatial, positioned within the frames of urban sociology, criminology and legal sociology. More specifically she researches legal interventions in the urban realm through qualitative methods, and publishes both on law in action and research methods. Her current project centers on the development of the concept 'emotional ownership of public space'.
Artikel

Framing labor contracts: Contract versus network theories

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden contract theory, Network theory, Labor regulation, subjectivity, performativity
Auteurs Robert Knegt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the 18th century the ‘contractual model’ has become both a paradigm of social theories (f.i. ‘rational choice’) and a dominant model of structuring labour relations. Its presupposition of the subjectivity of individual actors as a given is criticized with reference to network-based theories (Latour, Callon) and to analyses of Foucault. The current contract model of labour relations is analyzed from a historical perspective on normative regimes of labour relations, that imply different conceptions of ‘subjectivity’. Research into the regulation of labour relations requires an analysis in terms of an entanglement of human beings, technologies and legal discourse.


Robert Knegt
Senior researcher at Hugo Sinzheimer Institute, University of Amsterdam
Artikel

Social theory and the significance of free will in our system of criminal justice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden free will, determinism, communicative action, legitimacy, social theory
Auteurs Dr. Rob Schwitters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Free will is a key assumption of our system of criminal justice. However, the assumption of a free will is questioned by the rapidly growing empirical findings of the neuro and the brain sciences. These indicate that human behavior is driven by subconscious forces beyond the free will. In this text I aim to indicate how social theory might contribute to this debate. This text is an attempt to demonstrate that social theory does not automatically side with the deterministic attacks on free will. The denial of the free will is to a great extent based on a flawed interpretation of free will, in which it is seen as a capacity of separate individuals. I will suggest that it is the sociological realization that free will is embedded in intersubjective relations that helps to clarify which value is at stake when we deny free will. Free will presumes social practices and social relations that facilitate moral and political discourse. As long as we see human actors as capable to evaluate these practices and contexts in moral and political terms, we cannot deny them a free will. My argumentation will build on the theories of Peter Strawson, Anthony Giddens and Jürgen Habermas.


Dr. Rob Schwitters
Rob Schwitters is Associate Professor of Sociology of Law and connected to the Paul Scholten Centre at the University of Amsterdam. He publishes on tort law, responsibility and liability, the welfare state and compliance.

Elbert de Jong
Elbert de Jong is postdoc aan het Utrecht Centre for Accountability and Liability Law (UCALL). Zijn expertise richt zich in het bijzonder op het aansprakelijkheidsrecht en (rechterlijke) risicoregulering. Hij heeft veel gepubliceerd op het terrein van gezondheids- en milieurisico’s en het aansprakelijkheidsrecht. In zijn proefschrift ‘Voorzorgverplichtingen’ behandelt hij hoe de civiele rechter de vereiste omgang met onzekere risico’s dient vast te stellen, en hoe verschillende wetenschappelijke onzekerheden over risico’s daarbij dienen mee te wegen. Thans onderzoekt hij hoever de rechter mag gaan in het corrigeren van (vermeend) falend overheidsbeleid bij gezondheids- en milieurisico’s.
Praktijk

Aansprakelijkheidsverzekeringen: preventie door de verzekeraar en het effect op de bescherming van de verzekerde

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Liability insurance, Prevention, Protection of the insured, Knowledge
Auteurs Charlotte Henskens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Liability insurances shift the financial risk of the loss of a damage from the person who is liable for the damage to the liability insurer. To avoid negligent behavior of the insured, the insurer provides different prevention tools in the insurance policy. The insurer will attach certain sanctions or rewards to certain behavior and certain circumstances in the general conditions of the insurance contract. This research raises the question of the effectiveness of these instruments. The hypothesis is that without knowledge of the insured of these sanctions or rewards, these sanctions and rewards will not form an additional incentive for careful behavior and they will have no preventive effect. Additionally, these prevention tools may undermine the protection of the insured. For this reason the legislature has limited the freedom of contract. This study examines the extent to which the legislature has limited the possibilities of the insurer to provide in prevention tools in de insurance policy. It assesses the extent to which the legislature may or may not succeed in its purpose to protect the insured, and on the other hand, where there are still possibilities for the insurer to fulfill its prevention task.


Charlotte Henskens
Charlotte Henskens behaalde haar diploma van master in de rechten in 2013 aan de Universiteit Antwerpen. Sinds 2013 werkt ze als doctoraatsbursaal aan de Universiteit Antwerpen onder promotorschap van Prof. Britt Weyts en Prof. Bernard Hubeau. Zij bereidt een multidisciplinair proefschrift voor over de preventie door de verzekeraar en de bescherming van de verzekerde in aansprakelijkheidsverzekeringen. Daarnaast is zij auteur van verschillende publicaties zowel in het aansprakelijkheids- en verzekeringsrecht als in de rechtssociologie.
Artikel

Huurachterstand, huisuitzetting en rechterlijke besluitvorming

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Eviction, rent arrears, home interests, systematic content analysis
Auteurs Michel Vols en Nathalie Minkjan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent developments in the field of housing law have led to a renewed interest in eviction and the legal protection against homelessness. Because of European case law, courts need to apply a contextual approach in which tenants’ home interests and personal circumstances are taken into account more seriously. This paper explores the ways in which home interests and personal circumstances play a role in Dutch litigation concerning eviction because of rent arrears. Based on a quantitative systematic content analysis of nearly 100 written judgments of courts of first instance, it is found that tenants frequently advance various types of proportionality defences and refer to home interests and personal circumstances. Although Dutch courts do take these defences, home interests and personal circumstances into account, the vast majority of landlords’ claims are allowed. In one third of the analysed cases, the court dismisses the landlord’s claim and most of the time minimises the breach of the lease or refers to the disproportional effects of eviction or a tenant’s promise to change his behaviour.


Michel Vols
Michel Vols is adjunct hoogleraar Openbare-orderecht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en verbonden aan het Centrum voor Openbare Orde en Veiligheid. Hij doet onder meer onderzoek naar de bescherming van het recht op respect voor de woning en de aanpak van huisjesmelkerij en overlast. Hij is coördinator van de Housing Law Working Group binnen het European Network for Housing Research.

Nathalie Minkjan
Nathalie Minkjan is student aan de Togamaster en het Honours College aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Zij was tussen 2015 en 2016 als onderzoeksassistent verbonden aan het Centrum voor Openbare Orde en Veiligheid.

Nick Huls
Nick Huls is emeritus hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Erasmus School of Law en de Universiteit Leiden. Hij is tevens a visiting professor aan de Law Faculty of the University of Pretoria.
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