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Artikel

Access_open Detentie van asielzoekers: een kwestie van gevoel?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden street-level bureaucrats, aliens detention, asylum seekers, emotions, intuition
Auteurs Mr. drs. Wouter van der Spek en Dr. Anita Böcker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper analyses how street-level bureaucrats in the Netherlands decide on detaining asylum seekers. The paper is based on interviews with officers of the national police and the military police who take these decisions as part of their job. The relevant Dutch and European legal rules are not clear and unambiguous and the officers are given wide margins of discretion in making these decisions. Many interviewees said that they ultimately rely on their ‘feelings’. The paper therefore pays special attention to whether and how gut feelings and emotions of the officers influence their decision-making. In addition, the paper examines whether and how the increased use of ICTs and the Europeanisation of migration and asylum law have reduced the officers’ discretion and autonomy.


Mr. drs. Wouter van der Spek
Wouter van der Spek is junior docent bestuursrecht en promovendus aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. Anita Böcker
Anita Böcker is universitair hoofddocent rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit.
Artikel

De rol van intermediairs in het Nederlandse prostitutiebeleid

Top-down toepassen of bottom-up aanpassen van regels?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden regulatory intermediaries, Social Working theory, Regulatory Intermediary Target model, prostitution policy
Auteurs Nicolle Zeegers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Similar to the more current Regulator Intermediary Target (RIT) model, Griffiths’ Social Working (SW) theory points to the relevance of intermediaries for explaining rule following behavior. In this article, the author applies both theories (RIT and SW) concerning the role of intermediaries in rule following to explain developments in Dutch prostitution policy: the non-implementation of the emancipatory, sex workers’ rights based approach, and its replacement by a more repressive policy of closing down sex facilities. The analysis shows that although both theories contain useful starting point for explaining these developments, the SW theory’s special value is its acknowledgement of how regulatory intermediaries operate in a social field with existing social rules and a specific balance of power. Such rules and power relations have put barriers to the implementation of the Dutch prostitution policy as formulated in 1999. As illustrated in the article, the SW- theory offers more tools than the RIT- model for an analysis of how legal rules work in practice.


Nicolle Zeegers
Nicolle Zeegers is universitair docent politicologie bij de vakgroep Transboundary Legal Studies (TLS), Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. In haar onderzoek richt zij zich op vraagstukken over invloed en macht in de totstandkoming en werking van wetgeving. In augustus 1998 werd zij lid van de vakgroep Rechtstheorie waarvan John Griffiths de voorzitter was. Zij heeft verschillende malen over de sociale-werkingstheorie gepubliceerd (zie Weyers & Stamhuis 2003 en Zeegers, Witteveen & Van Klink 2005).
Artikel

Becker’s theory on crime and punishment, a useful guide for law enforcement policy in The Netherlands?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Economics of crime, law enforcement policy, Gary Becker
Auteurs Ben van Velthoven en Peter van Wijck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Becker’s theory on crime and punishment provides guidelines for designing an optimal law enforcement policy. In designing such a policy the costs of law enforcement should be traded-off against the benefits that originate in deterring criminal acts. We investigate whether law enforcement policy in the Netherlands is consistent with this guidelines. Since policy makers are not very precise on the goals of law enforcement policy and hardly anything is known about the effectiveness and efficiency of instruments, it turns out to be impossible to say whether law enforcement policy actually contributes to social welfare. This is not necessarily problematic if, in line with the efficient law hypothesis, law enforcement automatically converges to an efficient outcome. Furthermore, Becker’s theory appears to miss a crucial element by not taking account of existing preferences for retribution. If utility is derived from seeing that justice is done, this should be included in the welfare criterion. Assuming policy makers prefer welfare enhancing law enforcement, they would be well-advised to start systematically collecting information on the effectiveness and efficiency of instruments of law enforcement policy.


Ben van Velthoven
Ben van Velthoven is universitair hoofddocent Rechtseconomie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

Peter van Wijck
Peter van Wijck is universitair hoofddocent Rechtseconomie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

The need for an integrated comparison of the effectiveness of international sustainable forestry, coffee and cocoa initiatives

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden effectiveness, private sustainability standards, certification, FSC, UTZ Certified
Auteurs Martijn Scheltema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To date the effectiveness of private sustainability standards has been assessed from different angles which attribute different meanings to effectiveness. This contribution compares the effectiveness of two international certification initiatives (i.e. sustainable forestry (Forest Stewardship Council, FSC) and sustainable coffee and cacoa (UTZ Certified)) from three different angles (legal, impact, acceptance/legitimacy/governance). Based on publicly available data, it is shown that FSC scores better on some dimensions of these three angles (e.g. enforcement, cost and price premium, and government acceptance), while UTZ Certified scores better on others (e.g. verifiable evaluation criteria, regular evaluation, innovation). Hence, this analysis shows that a comparative evaluation of both initiatives would have been biased if it would have been based on a single angle approach. There is all the more reason to use such an integrated approach, since the different angles are intertwined. Therefore, it has been established that in order to establish the effectiveness of private certification initiatives an integrated approach is needed which combines different angles. This contribution shows such an approach is feasible.


Martijn Scheltema
Martijn Scheltema is professor at Erasmus University Rotterdam (the Netherlands). He researches the effectiveness of international private regulation in the CSR arena. He is board member of ACCESS Facility (www.accessfacility.org.) Beside this, he is board member of the CSR committee of the International Bar Association and attorney at law/partner with Pels Rijcken & Droogleever Fortuijn (The Hague, the Netherlands).
Artikel

De Pardonregeling: risico’s van regularisatieprogramma’s en de in Nederland gehanteerde oplossingen

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden asylum, regularisation programme, residence permit, return migration
Auteurs Monika Smit, Moira Galloway en Vina Wijkhuijs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The 2007 Dutch Pardon Regulation, a regularisation programme to settle the legacy of the old immigration law, was meant to deal with backlogs in the settling of asylum procedures. According to the literature there are several risks attached to such regularisation programmes. The parties involved in the implementation of the Dutch Pardon Regulation managed to evade most of these risks, partly because of their great efforts and close cooperation. The results of the Regulation were according to plan with respect to the number of asylum seekers who received a permit in the context of the regulation and their housing. In two respects the Regulation did not have the desired result: temporary shelter in municipalities decreased but was not ended, and it proved difficult to carry through the return of people who were ineligible for the regularisation programme.


Monika Smit
Monika Smit is hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving en Internationale en vreemdelingenaangelegenheden (RWI) van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Moira Galloway
Moira Galloway is freelance onderzoeker, zij is werkzaam geweest bij het WODC.

Vina Wijkhuijs
Vina Wijkhuijs is momenteel als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het lectoraat Crisisbeheersing van het Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid/Politieacademie. Zij is eveneens werkzaam geweest bij het WODC.
Artikel

Transnationalism, Legal Pluralism and Types of Conflicts

Contractual Norms Concerning Domestic Workers

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Antoinette Vlieger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Transnationalism and migration are recognised contributors to legal pluralism. Scholars of legal pluralism state that in conflicts, social actors sustain their claims with arguments from coexisting legal systems. They manoeuvre between different legal systems, or contradicting norms within one system, to achieve the most satisfactory decision in a conflict. In doing so, they use norms as discursive tools. Indeed, according to data on domestic workers in Saudi Arabia and the Emirates, this manoeuvring with norms as discursive tools is often recognisable in conflicts between workers and their employers. However, transnational contractual norms and the legal pluralism they create are not merely discursive tools in existing conflicts; they are also regularly the cause of conflicts. Domestic workers conclude agreements with agents in their countries of origin, while employers conclude agreements with different agents in the destination countries. Both parties believe the other party has signed the same contract, while in reality that is not the case. Because of the differences between the two sets of contractual norms, these norms cause conflicts; they are not merely discursive tools. This finding calls for a division between different types of conflicts, which is proposed here for the purpose of socio-legal analysis of conflicts in general and particularly in situations of transnationalism and legal pluralism.


Antoinette Vlieger
Antoinette Vlieger is a researcher and lecturer at the Law School of the University of Amsterdam. For the last five years she has been researching conflicts between domestic workers and their employers in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Her PhD thesis on this topic is to be published in fall 2011. Thereafter she hopes to do research on the question of why there is little labour protection on the Arabian Peninsula, combining this with hands-on human rights work in the Middle East.
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