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Artikel

Access_open ‘Dividing the goods or dividing the beds?’ De dreiging van triage in de risicomaatschappij

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Risk society, Cosmopolitan solidarity, Refexive modernization, Healthcare regulation, COVID-19
Auteurs Mr. dr. Tobias Arnoldussen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The COVID-19 pandemic caused overcrowded IC units. In the Netherlands a discussion erupted on what category of patients should be granted a bed, if there would not be enough place to treat everybody. In this article the medical guidelines for this situation as well as the public discussion are examined and related to Ulrich Beck’s theory of reflexive modernization. It is argued that discussion and regulation of this dilemma follow reflexive patterns, albeit patchy. The discussion and regulation displayed reflective understanding of the perilous position of the elderly and frail but issues of class and ethnicity were not discussed. This research revealed that Beck’s theory holds its own when tested in an empirical situation, but it has weaknesses in regard to the predicted emergence of cosmopolitan solidarity.


Mr. dr. Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is werkzaam als universitair docent rechtstheorie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij onderzoekt de invloed van groeiend milieubewustzijn op recht en regulering, zowel empirisch als theoretisch.
Praktijk

De ‘governmentality’ van een lokaal prostitutieveld?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Prostitution, Policy, Morality, Governing, Empirical research
Auteurs Eelco van Wijk Msc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many scholars interpreted the lifting of the ban on brothels in 2000 (often called the legalization of prostitution) in The Netherlands, as a sign that selling sex was no longer deemed morally objectionable. Governing prostitution thus became primarily a technical matter of government. A task that, for a large part, was delegated to municipalities. However, nearly two decades later, the debate surrounding prostitution (policy) is still characterized by its moral tone of voice, and we lack insight into the strategies and techniques deployed by local governments. This raises two important questions. First, what actually happens in legalized local prostitution markets? Extant research, focusses too much on (changes in) national policy, and too little on what key actors (such as municipalities) are actually doing in local prostitution markets. Second, what is the role of moral aspects? When local actors are studied, insufficient attention is paid to the influence of moral issues. My PhD research addresses these two questions, by looking at the relationship between moral beliefs surrounding prostitution and the way in which local governments attempt to stabilize or change the modus operandi of a local prostitution market. It develops a theoretical framework combining field theory and Foucauldian governmentality concepts, and tries to shed light on the broader theme of the relation between morality and governing in late modern times.


Eelco van Wijk Msc
Eelco van Wijk is onderzoeker en docent aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschap en politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

“The production of law”: Law in action in the everyday and the juridical consequences of juridification

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden juridification, production of space, law in action, local bye-laws
Auteurs dr. mr. Danielle Chevalier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In an increasingly diversifying society, public space is the quintessential social realm1x Lofland 1998. where members of that diverse society meet each other. Thus space is shared, whilst norms regarding that space are not always shared. Of rivalling norms, some are codified into formal law, in a process Habermas called juridification. Early Habermas regarded juridification a negative process, ‘colonizing the lifeworld’. Later Habermas argued juridification a viable pillar for conviviality in diversity. The shift in Habermas’ perspective invites the question how law works in action. In this article a frame is offered to scrutinize the working of law in action in public space, by applying the conceptual triad of spatial thinker Lefebvre to understand how law is “produced”. It argues that how law is perceived in action is pivotal to understanding how law works in action. Moreover, it discusses the possible ramifications of the perception of law in action for how the legal system as a whole is perceived.

Noten

  • 1 Lofland 1998.


dr. mr. Danielle Chevalier
Danielle Chevalier is a lecturer and research fellow at the University of Amsterdam, affiliated to both the Bonger Institute for Criminology and the Amsterdam School for Social Science Research. Her academic works focuses on the intersection of the legal and the spatial, positioned within the frames of urban sociology, criminology and legal sociology. More specifically she researches legal interventions in the urban realm through qualitative methods, and publishes both on law in action and research methods. Her current project centers on the development of the concept 'emotional ownership of public space'.
Artikel

The precaution controversy: an analysis through the lens of Ulrich Beck and Michel Foucault

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Precautionary principle, risk society, governmentality, risk governance, environmental law
Auteurs Tobias Arnoldussen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the precautionary principle lack of scientific evidence for the existence of a certain (environmental) risk should not be a reason not to take preventative policy measures. The precautionary principle had a stormy career in International environmental law and made its mark on many treaties, including the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). However it remains controversial. Proponents see it as the necessary legal curb to keep the dangerous tendencies of industrial production and technology in check. Opponents regard it with suspicion. They fear it will lead to a decrease in freedom and fear the powers to intervene that it grants the state. In this article the principle is reviewed from the perspectives of Ulrich Beck’s ‘reflexive modernisation’ and Michel Foucault’s notion of governmentality. It is argued that from Beck’s perspective the precautionary principle is the result of a learning process in which mankind gradually comes to adopt a reflexive attitude to the risks modernity has given rise to. It represents the wish to devise more inclusive and democratic policies on risks and environmental hazards. From the perspective of Michel Foucault however, the principle is part and parcel of neo-liberal tendencies of responsibilisation. Risk management and prudency are devolved to the public in an attempt to minimise risk taking, while at the same time optimising production. Moreover, it grants legitimacy to state intervention if the public does not live up to the responsibilities foisted on it. Both perspectives are at odds, but represent different sides of the same coin and might learn from each other concerns.


Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is a socio-legal scholar affiliated with the University of Amsterdam Law School and the PPLE honours college. Next to lecturing on a variety of subjects, he focusses on interdisciplinary legal research into the possibilities of law to deal with contemporary social problems.
Artikel

Social theory and the significance of free will in our system of criminal justice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden free will, determinism, communicative action, legitimacy, social theory
Auteurs Dr. Rob Schwitters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Free will is a key assumption of our system of criminal justice. However, the assumption of a free will is questioned by the rapidly growing empirical findings of the neuro and the brain sciences. These indicate that human behavior is driven by subconscious forces beyond the free will. In this text I aim to indicate how social theory might contribute to this debate. This text is an attempt to demonstrate that social theory does not automatically side with the deterministic attacks on free will. The denial of the free will is to a great extent based on a flawed interpretation of free will, in which it is seen as a capacity of separate individuals. I will suggest that it is the sociological realization that free will is embedded in intersubjective relations that helps to clarify which value is at stake when we deny free will. Free will presumes social practices and social relations that facilitate moral and political discourse. As long as we see human actors as capable to evaluate these practices and contexts in moral and political terms, we cannot deny them a free will. My argumentation will build on the theories of Peter Strawson, Anthony Giddens and Jürgen Habermas.


Dr. Rob Schwitters
Rob Schwitters is Associate Professor of Sociology of Law and connected to the Paul Scholten Centre at the University of Amsterdam. He publishes on tort law, responsibility and liability, the welfare state and compliance.
Boekbespreking

Soft-drugs, morality and law in Late Modernity

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden review-essay, proefschrift Chevallier, blow-verbod, symbolic crusade, culture of control
Auteurs Thaddeus Müller
Auteursinformatie

Thaddeus Müller
Thaddeus Müller is senior onderzoeker bij de Law School, Lancaster University (criminology). Hij is gespecialiseerd in kwalitatieve methoden en zijn belangstelling gaat uit naar de sociale constructie van perspectieven op veiligheid in publieke ruimten, in het bijzonder in multi-culturele buurten. Een ander thema dat zijn belangstelling heeft is de constructie en ontwikkeling van het softdrugs-beleid in Nederland en over de grenzen. Thaddeus Müller heeft ook gepubliceerd over andere thema’s, met name over de marginalisering van etnische jongeren in de laat-moderniteit, vooral in de context van het strafrechtstelsel, academische fraude (gerelateerd aan de organisatie van academische instellingen), met name de Diederik Stapel-zaak en over Rock en Roll, in het bijzonder Lou Reed.

Roel Pieterman
Roel Pieterman is als rechtssocioloog verbonden aan de Erasmus School of Law. Hij houdt zich bezig met onderzoek naar de maatschappelijke omgang met risico’s en potentiële dreigingen. Daarover publiceerde hij recent De voorzorgcultuur (Den Haag: Boom Juridische uitgevers 2008), een themanummer van de Erasmus Law Review over ‘The many facets of precautionary culture’ (2009) en samen met Ira Helsloot en Jaap Hanekamp Risico’s en redelijkheid (Den Haag: Boom Juridische uitgevers 2010).

Maaike Voorhoeve
Maaike Voorhoeve (Amsterdam, 1979) is Humboldt Fellow aan het Forum Transregionale Studien van het Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin en de Philipps Universität Marburg. Ze schreef een proefschrift over de rechtspraktijk van twee vrouwelijke familierechters aan de rechtbank in Tunis (UvA, 2011, gepubliceerd door I.B. Tauris als Gender and Divorce Law in North Africa). Zij voltooide post-docposities aan Harvard University, het Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin en de Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Parijs. Voorhoeves onderzoek concentreert zich op de rechtsantropologische studie van hedendaags Tunesië.

    In the course of it short existence, Socio-legal studies (SLS) in the Anglo-Saxon world has burgeoned into a rich and variegated field. Reviewing it is therefore a challenging task. I begin with some general reflections and an outline of recent developments. Although these indicate an extremely vibrant field, concerns have been expressed for the future. In my discussion of these, I argue that our analysis of SLS needs to be historicised since the emergence of SLS is connected to processes of social modernization and democratization. The erosion of these processes by neo-liberal discourses and policies is the background to a discussion of my own research into the impact of the cuts to civil legal aid in England and Wales. This leads me to conclude that the fundamental dissonance between neo-liberal rationality and social science may portend a difficult future, in particular for empirical work; however, I note too that other developments such as the ongoing juridification of society and new social media may make continued SL engagement irresistible.


Hilary Sommerlad
Hilary Sommerlad is professor of Law and Research Director of the Centre for Professional Legal Education and Research, University of Birmingham, and Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. Dr. Sommerlad’s research interests are access to justice, the cultural practices of the professional workplace and diversity. She is Articles Editor of Legal Ethics, and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Law and Society and the International Journal of the Legal Profession.
Boekbespreking

Voogdijschap of slavernij?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Auteurs Nadia Sonneveld

Nadia Sonneveld
Artikel

Beate Sirota en de gelijkstelling van mannen en vrouwen in artikel 24 van de Japanse Grondwet in 1947

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Japanese Constitution, Japanese Civil code, Women's rights, Beate Sirota
Auteurs Peter van den Berg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Beate Sirota has been described as the ‘heroine of Japanese women’s rights’, because she contributed considerably to the inclusion of a forceful provision on the rights of women in the new Constitution of Japan as a member of the Government Section of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), headed by General Douglas MacArthur. Her role was serendipitous, because at first the Americans were not planning such a thorough revision of the Meiji Constitution (1890). Sirota was not a constitutional scholar, let alone an expert on the rights of women. She was hired only because she had spent her youth in Japan and spoke Japanese fluently. But once she got involved in the drafting of a new Constitution, her intimate knowledge of the position of women in Japanese society proved very useful. She proposed elaborate and detailed provisions on women’s rights in order to counter the expected resistance. This strategy turned out to be successful. Although Sirota was not substantially involved in the implementation of article 24, she returned to the United States in 1947. Since its introduction the provision has been a firm anchor for proponents of the emancipation of women in Japan.


Peter van den Berg
Peter A.J. van den Berg is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de juridische faculteit van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Vakgroep Algemene Rechtswetenschap en Rechtsgeschiedenis). Hij publiceert onder meer over constitutionele geschiedenis, geschiedenis van het staatsburgerschap en codificatiegeschiedenis. In 2007 verscheen van zijn hand The politics of European codification. A history of the unification of law in France, Prussia, the Austrian Monarchy and the Netherlands. Hij is een van de leiders van het door NWO als onderdeel van het programma ‘Omstreden Democratie’ gefinancierde project ‘Contested Constitutions’.

Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is writing his PhD at the Erasmus School of Law at the University of Rotterdam. He concerns himself with the regulation of air pollution and other environmental problems from a social constructivist and discourse analytic perspective.

Peter Mascini
Redactioneel

Introduction

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 03 2008
Auteurs Liesbeth Huppes-Cluysenaer, Robert Knegt en Oliver Lembcke
Auteursinformatie

Liesbeth Huppes-Cluysenaer
Liesbeth Huppes-Cluysenaer teaches philosophical aspects of penal law and constitutional law at the department General Jurisprudence of the University of Amsterdam. PhD (1995) on the relevance of theory of science for jurists. Her research interests are history of epistemology of empirical and normative sciences. Recent publications downloadable: http://home.medewerker.uva.nl/e.a.huppes-cluysenaer/ .

Robert Knegt
Robert Knegt is Research director of the Hugo Sinzheimer Instituut (UvA, Amsterdam). 1979 Law degree/1982 MA Sociology/1986 PhD. His research interests incluse implementation of social security schemes, rules and practices as to dismissal and to other situations of deconstructing socio-economic relations and a historical-sociological approach of labour law as it has developed from the 11th century, with special interest in the formative role of legal concepts in the development of socio-economic/labour relations. Recent publication: The Employment Contract as an Exclusionary Device (Intersentia, 2008).

Oliver Lembcke
Oliver Lembcke is Assistant Professor of political theory at Friedrich- Schiller-University, Jena; secretary general of the Hellmuth Loening Center for Political Science – 1995 MA Political Science, 2002 Mediator, 2004 PhD - Research on political theory and legal theory; history of political ideas; ethics and politics. Recent publications: Hüter der Verfassung. Eine institutionentheoretische Studie zur Autorität des Bundesverfassungs-gerichts. (Tübingen 2007); Des Menschen Würde – entdeckt und erfunden im Humanismus der italienischen Renaissance (Politika, 2008).

André J. Hoekema
André J Hoekema (a.j.hoekema@uva.nl) held a chair in Sociology of Law in the law faculty of the Universiteit van Amsterdam, and now holds a chair in Legal Pluralism. The last 15 years or so he is paying special attention to problems of multi-ethnic states, particularly the legal position of indigenous peoples and of minority communities. At home he studies multicultural tendencies in family law and other legal fields, abroad he addresses legal pluralism and its place within development policies and philosophies, concentrating on matters like land and territorial rights, legal reform, and ways to ‘pluralize’ the state and its legal order, mostly in Latin American and some African countries. Recent publications: J.M. Ubink, A.J. Hoekema, W.J. Assies (eds.), Legalising Land Rights; Local Practices, State Responses and Tenure Security in Africa, Asia and Latin America (Leiden 2009); R.Grillo, R. Ballard, A. Ferrari, A.J.Hoekema, M. Maussen & P.Shaw (eds), Legal practice and cultural diversity, Farnham UK (Aldershot, 2009).
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