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Handhavingsonderzoek in vier decennia Recht der Werkelijkheid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Marc Hertogh
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Because of the sharp contrast between the law-in-the-books and the law-in-action regulatory enforcement has always been a popular subject in socio-legal research. This paper looks back at forty years of Dutch research on regulatory enforcement, using several key publications in this journal from each decade. First, it is argued that these Dutch studies reveal three general themes: this research can be seen as a time machine that takes us back to some of the most important social and political events of the past decades, these studies emphasize the crucial role of individual enforcement officials, and in everyday enforcement state law only plays a limited role. Next, this review also discusses some of the strengths and weaknesses of Dutch research. Most studies on regulatory enforcement are more interested in the role of the state than in the role of citizens and businesses. As a result, research focuses more on issues of effectiveness and less on questions of legitimacy. Finally, empirical research is seen as more important than theory development. Based on this overview, the author introduces a new research agenda for future research on regulatory enforcement.


Marc Hertogh
Marc Hertogh is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Hij was eerder redactiesecretaris en redactielid van Recht der Werkelijkheid en is sinds 2020 voorzitter van de redactieraad.
Artikel

De Nederlandse wetgever en andere normenstelsels: op zoek naar het recht der werkelijkheid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden multilevel lawmaking, Dutch legislator, private regulation, coherence of law
Auteurs Jan Smits
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It is well known that the role of the national legislator in setting legally relevant norms is rapidly changing under the influence of increasing Europeanization, globalization and privatization. Today the national legislator is only one of the relevant norm-setters. This contribution considers the role that the Dutch legislator sees for itself in this emerging multilevel legal order. To this end, six themes of fundamental importance in a multilevel order are explored: (1) the question of when government regulation is to be preferred over private regulation; (2) the question of at which level of government (national, European, sub-national or supranational) a topic is preferably dealt with; (3) the role of the national legislator in realizing the cognoscibility and coherence of law; (4) the preferred way of implementing EU directives; (5) the question of whether the national legislator must refer to codes of conduct, certification and norms of standards bodies, and if so how; (6) the question of whether the national legislator must position its own national law on the international ‘law market.’


Jan Smits
Jan Smits is hoogleraar Europees Privaatrecht aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Opting-in in de relaxbranche, een legitieme oplossing?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden prostitution, lifting of the ban on brothels, opting-in, labour rights, deliberative governance, legitimacy
Auteurs Elise Ketelaars
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2000 the Netherlands has lifted the ban on brothels. By legalizing sex work the Dutch government aimed to increase the opportunities to regulate this sector and to improve the social position of sex workers. This article examines to what extent the application of a particular fiscal regulation known as ‘opting-in’ to certain branches of the Dutch prostitution industry is legitimate from a socio legal perspective. It takes into account both the efficacy of the regulation with an eye on achieving the goals which were formulated in 2000 and the experiences of sex workers with this fiscal construction. Aubert’s theory regarding the influence of social factors on the observance of regulations is used to explain the discrepancy between the high degree of acceptance of the regulation amongst sex workers and the limited effectiveness with regard to the improvement of their labour rights.


Elise Ketelaars
Elise Ketelaars is een masterstudent Legal Research aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Haar onderzoek richt zich op mensenrechten en gender.
Artikel

Loyaliteit binnen de rechterlijke macht

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden judiciary, loyalty, judges, new public management, socialisation
Auteurs Nina Holvast en Nienke Doornbos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Judges in the Netherlands have recently expressed their concerns in the media over the organization of the judiciary and the pressure to deliver output. At the same time, they consider themselves highly loyal to their work. In this article we explore this seeming contradiction by studying the developments in the selection, training and organisation of the judiciary and considering the consequences that these developments could have on the loyalty of judges. In doing so, a distinction is made between loyalty to the profession, to the organisation and to colleagues. We follow Hirschman's theory on Exit, Voice and Loyalty and determine that the act of judges expressing their concerns (instead of exiting the judiciary) is essentially a sign of their loyalty. However, we reason that this displays more loyalty to the profession than to the organisation. Due to changes in the selection and training of judges, more candidates who were formerly employed in other settings, e.g. in advocacy, will enter the profession. With their socialisation taking place in a more business-like setting, where values such as efficiency and productivity are significant, it is expected that they will be more willing to accept the new public management values which are criticized by the present generation of judges.


Nina Holvast
Nina Holvast is promovenda bij het Paul Scholten Centrum van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij schrijft een rechtssociologisch proefschrift naar de rol van juridische ondersteuning in het rechterlijk besluitvormingsproces. Over dit onderwerp verschijnt binnenkort: ‘Considering the consequences of increased reliance on judicial assistants: a study on Dutch courts’ in International Journal of the Legal Profession.

Nienke Doornbos
Nienke Doornbos is universitair docent en onderzoeker bij de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij doceert de minor Rechtswetenschappelijk onderzoek en het vak Recht en menselijk gedrag. Haar onderzoek richt zich onder meer op organisatorische kanten van rechterlijke besluitvorming en op toezicht en tuchtrecht binnen de advocatuur.
Artikel

Hugo Sinzheimer en de collectieve arbeidsovereenkomst

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Labour relations, collective agreement, Sinzheimer
Auteurs Robert Knegt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The German lawyer / labour law professor Hugo Sinzheimer (1875-1945) has, in the first two decades of the twentieth century, contributed significantly to the legal recognition of the ‘collective labour agreement’. The imperative character of CLA provisions, now widely accepted all over the world, required a paradigmatic turn in the dominant private law perspective on labour relations. The paper tries to specify what made him able and prone to do this, both by reconstructing the legal and political discussion in Germany and the Netherlands and by relating elements of the process to social-scientific theories of institutional and intellectual innovation. I argue that his combination of commitments in various fields (legal practice, science, politics) allowed him to span the gap between the fields of labour relations and state law and to contribute to the constitutionalisation of labour relations.


Robert Knegt
Robert Knegt is als directeur onderzoek verbonden aan het Hugo Sinzheimer Instituut, centrum voor onderzoek van ‘arbeid en recht’ aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij doet daar onderzoek naar de praktijk van arbeidsrechtelijke regelingen (ontslagrecht, flexwerk, arbeidstijden) en werkt aan een bij uitstek interdisciplinair project over ‘langetermijnontwikkelingen in de regulering van arbeid’. In 2008 verscheen The employment contract as an exclusionary device (Antwerp-Oxford-Portland: Intersentia).
Artikel

Zorg, privaatrecht en publiekrecht: van ondersteuning naar handhaving, en terug

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden duty of care, regulation, liability law
Auteurs Eric Tjong Tjin Tai
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The relation between law and care has changed dramatically. Until recently this relation could be characterised as distant, supportive and respectful. This relation has undergone a paradigm shift. More and more and in many areas the notion of care is used by the lawmaker, to impose duties of care combined with enforcement. This implies a change from private law to administrative law. This development is undesirable, because it raises false expectations and, in the end, works counterproductive.


Eric Tjong Tjin Tai
Eric Tjong Tjin Tai is hoogleraar privaatrecht aan Tilburg University. Hij is gepromoveerd op een juridisch-filosofisch onderzoek naar zorgplichten en zorgethiek. Zijn huidige onderzoek richt zich onder meer op het recht inzake dienstverlening, en de rol van het privaatrecht in de (markt)maatschappij, met bijzondere aandacht voor de betekenis van individuele verantwoordelijkheid en autonomie.
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