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Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid x Jaar 2011 x
Artikel

Socio-legal Studies in a Transnational World

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jaap Van der Kloet, Betty De Hart en Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The concept of transnationalism refers to border-crossing activities and social relations, such as family relations, migration, international trade and international organisations. It is argued that transnationalism is an important topic in the sociology of law for three reasons: the transnationalisation of law (laws travel across borders), the law under transnationalism (transnational processes affect law) and classic socio-legal themes may gain a new and exciting lease of life when used in a transnational context. Transnationalism touches on the core of the sociology of law: studying the relation between law and society and the social working of law. Socio-legal scholars should look beyond the national borders, include non-state actors in their analysis and take notice of how rules are used in different localities.


Jaap Van der Kloet
Jaap Van der Kloet is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. His PhD research focuses on comparing the social working of transnational private food safety standards between local farmers in the Netherlands and Kenya. He has a Master’s degree in International Development Studies. He worked as junior researcher at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as project leader at the Dutch NGO Fairfood.

Betty De Hart
Betty De Hart is associate professor at the Institute for Sociology of Law and the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen. She gained her PhD in 2003 with a socio-legal study of Dutch nationals with a migrant partner. She has published widely on family law, migration law and nationality law. Her interest is in the meaning of law in everyday life and in gender, ethnicity and diversity issues. In 2008, she received a personal VIDI grant for excellent researchers from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) for the international comparative research programme ‘Transnational Families between Dutch and Islamic Family Law’.

Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is associate professor of sociology of law at the Radboud University Nijmegen. She publishes on the regulation of food safety, policy implementation and law enforcement, experiences of large companies with specialised courts, equal opportunities law, and migration. She is particularly interested in relations between industry and law related to the public interest.
Artikel

Transnational Divorce in Dutch-Moroccan Families

The Semi-Autonomous Social Field of Legal Aid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Iris Sportel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In transnational Dutch-Moroccan divorce cases, spouses can come into contact with two different legal systems. Many different kinds of organisations are involved, offering social and legal advice and aid in these transnational divorces: advising and referring clients, educating spouses and professionals, and influencing policy. In this article these organisations are analysed as participants in a transnational field of legal aid, using Moore’s concept of the semi-autonomous social field. It becomes clear that these organisations share norms on transnational divorce: they frame transnational divorce as a women’s problem, and one of complex, interacting rules and regulations. These norms form the source of rules on how to handle law in transnational Dutch-Moroccan divorce cases.


Iris Sportel
Iris Sportel is a PhD candidate at the Radboud University Nijmegen. She has a BSc in Cultural Anthropology and a BA and MA in Arabic Language and Culture. Since 2008 she has been working on her PhD project ‘Transnational Divorce: between Dutch, Egyptian and Moroccan Law’. She has also done research on a pilot project on tailor-made conflict resolution at the court of Den Bosch and on Islamic saint veneration in Egypt.
Discussie

Facing Up to the ICC’s Crisis of Legitimacy

A Critique of The Reckoning and Its Representation of International Criminal Justice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jeff Handmaker
Auteursinformatie

Jeff Handmaker
Jeff Handmaker is senior lecturer in law, human rights and development at the International Institute of Social Studies (ISS) of Erasmus University Rotterdam and honorary research fellow at the School of Law of the University of the Witwatersrand.
Artikel

Citizenship in Transnational Social Spaces

New Ways to Study Socio-legal Boundaries

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Thomas Faist
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to establish and evaluate the significance of changing socio-legal boundaries and how these are mirrored in citizenship, cross-border formations of the social and citizenship rules must be discussed. The first part of this paper deals with changes in social boundaries across state borders and presents three generations of transnational studies. Based on this, the second part asks how legal boundaries have changed in the case of dual citizenship and supranational social citizenship. Citizenship is a particularly important issue because it sits at the intersection of social and legal boundaries. There is a growing tolerance toward dual citizenship and the evolution of supranational citizenship, one in which migrants enjoy a transnational life that is supported by the implementation of human rights principles in national constitutions, legislation and in European Union court rulings.


Thomas Faist
Thomas Faist is professor in the Department of Sociology, Bielefeld University. His fields of interest are transnational relations, citizenship, development and migration. He held visiting professorships at Brandeis University, Malmö University and the University of Toronto. Thomas Faist serves on the editorial board of The Sociological Quarterly, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Migration Letters, and South Asian Diaspora. He recently co-edited Migration, Development and Transnationalisation: A Critical Stance (Berghahn 2010), Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Theories and Methods (Amsterdam University Press 2010) and The Migration Development Nexus: Transnational Perspectives (Palgrave Macmillan 2011).

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Recht der Werkelijkheid.


Adriaan Bedner
Adriaan Bedner is a senior lecturer at the Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Development of Leiden University. Most of his research has been on law in Indonesia, with a particular focus on access to justice, dispute resolution and the judiciary. He has also done work of a more theoretical and comparative nature, notable on rule of law and access to justice.

Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is a PhD candidate at the department of Sociology of Law of Erasmus University Rotterdam and he teaches courses in philosophy at the Dutch ‘Instituut voor Filosofie’. He also participates in the Erasmus Centre for Law and Society and the Research School Safety & Security in Society, (OMV).
Artikel

Transnational Supermarket Standards in Global Supply Chains

The Emergence and Evolution of GlobalGAP

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jaap Van der Kloet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, West European supermarkets have been playing an active role in the global regulation of food safety. They have developed several transnational food safety standards and compelled suppliers of food products around the world to acquire certification under these standards. Why and how did supermarkets do this? This article explores the emergence and evolution of transnational supermarket standards by analyzing the development of GlobalGAP, one of the most commonly implemented supermarket standards on farms throughout the world. In the literature, the emergence of transnational regulation is often attributed to one or two factors that play an important role at a particular moment in time. The main argument made in this article is that the emergence of transnational supermarket standards is best understood when it is studied as a process. The development of GlobalGAP includes four main characteristics which may be helpful in analyzing the emergence of other transnational private standards.


Jaap Van der Kloet
Jaap Van der Kloet is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. His PhD research focuses on comparing the social working of transnational private food safety standards between local farmers in the Netherlands and Kenya. He has a Master’s degree in International Development Studies. He worked as junior researcher at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as project leader at the Dutch NGO Fairfood.

Jeff Handmaker
Jeff Handmaker is lecturer in law, development and human rights at the International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam and honorary research fellow in the School of Law of the University of the Witwatersrand.

    This paper presents a reflection on the theoretical work on the social working of law of the past two decades. It is argued that early assumptions, that legal models were becoming increasingly globalised, creating an increasingly uniform body of law, have not come true. The global spread of neo-capitalism has not only given rise to de-juridification, it has also engendered juridification in which ever more sectors of social life, from small scale to global, are being colonised by law. This development is initiated from above and below in equal measure, and concerns not only the law of nation states, but also law created by other actors, including religious law of various provenance. The paper argues that great progress has been made in understanding how transnational law is generated and how law is transnationalised, but that the ways in which these processes work when actors actually use this transnationalised law in contexts of legal pluralism are not yet adequately understood. The paper presents a perspective on transnationalisation of law that is grounded in space, a perspective that may aid our understanding of the social working of law in transnational contexts. The first section provides a brief survey of some of the main academic approaches to processes of transnationalisation. The second section addresses the issue of location and considers what happens in settings where actors use transnationalising law. The conclusions discuss the value of transnational space and transnational legal space as concepts for the analysis of transnationalising law.


Keebet von Benda-Beckmann
Keebet von Benda-Beckmann is head of the Project Group Legal Pluralism at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle. She also holds honorary chairs in social anthropology and legal pluralism at the Universities of Leipzig and Halle. She has carried out research on dispute management, social security, natural resources in West Sumatra, the Moluccas, and in the Netherlands. She has been conducting field research on the effects of decentralisation and reforms of local government in West Sumatra since the fall of the Suharto regime. She has widely published on dispute management, resources, social security, and on theoretical issues of legal pluralism.
Artikel

Transnationalism, Legal Pluralism and Types of Conflicts

Contractual Norms Concerning Domestic Workers

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Antoinette Vlieger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Transnationalism and migration are recognised contributors to legal pluralism. Scholars of legal pluralism state that in conflicts, social actors sustain their claims with arguments from coexisting legal systems. They manoeuvre between different legal systems, or contradicting norms within one system, to achieve the most satisfactory decision in a conflict. In doing so, they use norms as discursive tools. Indeed, according to data on domestic workers in Saudi Arabia and the Emirates, this manoeuvring with norms as discursive tools is often recognisable in conflicts between workers and their employers. However, transnational contractual norms and the legal pluralism they create are not merely discursive tools in existing conflicts; they are also regularly the cause of conflicts. Domestic workers conclude agreements with agents in their countries of origin, while employers conclude agreements with different agents in the destination countries. Both parties believe the other party has signed the same contract, while in reality that is not the case. Because of the differences between the two sets of contractual norms, these norms cause conflicts; they are not merely discursive tools. This finding calls for a division between different types of conflicts, which is proposed here for the purpose of socio-legal analysis of conflicts in general and particularly in situations of transnationalism and legal pluralism.


Antoinette Vlieger
Antoinette Vlieger is a researcher and lecturer at the Law School of the University of Amsterdam. For the last five years she has been researching conflicts between domestic workers and their employers in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Her PhD thesis on this topic is to be published in fall 2011. Thereafter she hopes to do research on the question of why there is little labour protection on the Arabian Peninsula, combining this with hands-on human rights work in the Middle East.

    For a common market, a common patent and a common patent litigation seem self-evident. Although efforts to introduce these common market institutions in Europe started early in the history of the Economic Community, they remained unsuccessful. The reconstruction of this legal history is focused on two theoretical issues.The first concerns the question of power and influence in the EU, in particular the configuration of stakeholders responsible for the non-decision making on this policy issue. The basic mechanism underlying the lack of success of this dossier appears to be a balance of power between the two opposing groups of stakeholders (France and European institutions vs. Germany, UK, supported by their patenting industry and legal experts). This suggests that transnational rule making, proceeding under similar conditions, is likely to have a long (if not unsuccessful) ‘issue career’.The second theoretical issue concerns the agenda-setting mechanisms of recent decades. All initiatives on international or transnational patent policy have mainly been the product of ‘high politics’, although the input of patent legal experts (representatives of ‘low politics’) has increased considerably in recent decades. Further, this history would seem to defy simple schemes of agenda setting. There is no simple sequence of issue initiation, specification, expansion and entrance. At best, it is a series of such sequences.


Alex Jettinghoff
Alex Jettinghoff is a researcher at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen. His main research interests are: business contracting and litigation, the role of lawyers in legal change, war and legal transformation, and the practices of intellectual property.
Discussie

Dik of dun?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden European Court of Human Rights, constitutional questions, fundamental principles of justice, judicial activism
Auteurs Thierry Baudet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In a footnote on the last page of her article, Janneke Gerards writes: ‘Here I will leave to one side the debate on the involvement of the ECHR with questions that are not really constitutional.’ But it is precisely the involvement of the ECHR with questions that are ‘not really constitutional’ – and therefore not really fundamental – that the debate is about. It is regrettable that those who are indignant about my critique of the course that the ECHR is currently taking hardly – if ever – respond to my arguments against such an expansive course. The fact that the Court is now facing a pile of waiting cases rapidly approaching 200,000, as well as problems of legitimacy after taking a stand in undeniably political cases such as prisoners’ voting rights, limits to the freedom of speech, as well as its hinting that it would disapprove of a ban on the burqa, all undermine and impede what the ECHR was originally set up for: to be an effective, swift and authoritative voice in the protection of ‘fundamental principles of justice’. By indulging in meddlesomeness and political correctness, the ECHR is digging its own grave.


Thierry Baudet
Thierry Baudet studeerde geschiedenis en rechten aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en zit thans in de eindfase van zijn promotieonderzoek in de rechtsfilosofie aan de Universiteit Leiden. Tevens schrijft hij een tweewekelijkse column voor NRC Handelsblad.
Praktijk

Meervoudige en enkelvoudige rechtspraak: eender of anders?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden adjudication, single judge, collegial court, judicial decision making
Auteurs Reyer Baas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Adjudication by single judge or by a panel of judges: what difference does it make? Until the eighties, panels consisting of three judges predominantly presided on judicial cases in the Netherlands . As a result of arrears in settling cases, it was decided that one judge should administer justice should in first instance and in principle. However, little is known about the substantial differences between adjudication by single judge courts and panels, particularly when it comes to the quality of decision making. In his PhD research, Reyer Baas examines the substantial differences and similarities between these types of adjudication. The main method applied in this research is paired comparison between judgements in civil cases that are very similar in terms of content. Some of the examined cases are handled by one judge, other cases are considered by a panel of judges. Judges are surveyed and interviewed about their experiences with and opinions on adjudication in chambers consisting of one or three judges; (single judge and panels) court sessions and hearings in chambers are observed; and figures are gathered that show the extent to which judgements given by one judge and by three judges are reversed on appeal.


Reyer Baas
Reyer Baas is als promovendus verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Zijn promotieonderzoek gaat over verschillen en overeenkomsten in de afdoening van zaken door een enkelvoudige en meervoudige kamer. In het verleden heeft hij gepubliceerd over jeugdrecht. Hij studeerde internationaal en Europees recht en politicologie in Nijmegen en Parijs.
Boekbespreking

Veroordeeld in den vreemde

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden review, Eveline De Wree, transport of prisoners
Auteurs Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Joanne van der Leun
Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Boekbespreking

Verplichte kost voor hardcore juristen?!

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden review, Marc Hertogh, Heleen Weyers, judicial sociology
Auteurs Hans den Tonkelaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Hans den Tonkelaar
Hans den Tonkelaar is vicepresident van de Rechtbank Arnhem en hoogleraar rechtspraak aan de rechtenfaculteit van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Discussie

De waarde van een Europees mensenrechtenhof

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden European Court of Human Rights, judicial review, fundamental rights, supranational protection of human rights
Auteurs Janneke Gerards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the last few months, the European Court of Human Rights has been heavily criticised in the Dutch media and by Dutch politicians. Although the criticism is mainly directed at the perceived overextension of the Court’s fundamental rights protection, it also concentrates on fundamental issues such as the interference with national sovereignty that is affected by supranational adjudication and the anti-democratic character of supranational judicial review. In this contribution to the debate, it is argued that the present criticism of the Court is largely misconceived. Although the Court and its case law should certainly not be accepted uncritically, the arguments on which the criticism is based either lack nuance or disregard the Court’s specific function as a protector of fundamental rights. To provide a better basis for sensible and relevant criticism of how the Court functions, this contribution therefore aims to revisit the main roles of the European Convention on Human Rights and of international human rights protection, as well as the classic debate on judicial review.


Janneke Gerards
Janneke Gerards is als onderzoekshoogleraar fundamentele rechten verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Deze bijdrage is een uitwerking van de bijdrage die zij leverde aan een debatbijeenkomst over de rol van het EHRM die op 12 mei 2011 plaatsvond aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Redactioneel

Vertrouwen in de rechtsstaat

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden constitutional state
Auteurs Bert Niemeijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Faith in the constitutional state


Bert Niemeijer
Bert Niemeijer is werkzaam als coördinator strategieontwikkeling bij de Directie Strategie van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie en daarnaast als bijzonder hoogleraar rechtssociologie bij de juridische faculteit van de Vrije Universiteit. Hiervoor was hij werkzaam, als afdelingshoofd en plaatsvervangend directeur, bij het WODC en daarvoor als rechtssocioloog bij verschillende universiteiten. Recent was hij met Nick Huls redacteur van het themanummer van RdW over Zorg en Recht (2010). Hij publiceerde vooral op het terrein van geschilbeslechting en de werking van wetgeving.
Boekbespreking

Restricties ten tijde van versoepeling

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden review, Cathelijne Pool, migration, Poland
Auteurs Ilse van Liempt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Ilse van Liempt
Ilse van Liempt is als postdoc onderzoeker verbonden aan het Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU) van de faculteit Geowetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Heleen Weyers
Heleen Weyers is universitair docent bij de vakgroep Rechtstheorie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. In haar onderzoek richt ze zich op de totstandkoming en effectiviteit van wetgeving. Qua onderwerpen gaat het daarbij met name om onderzoek naar euthanasieregelgeving, rookverboden en legitimiteitsvraagstukken. Onlangs publiceerde zij samen met Marc Hertogh Recht van Onderop. Antwoorden uit de rechtssociologie (Nijmegen: Ars Aequi Libri), een boek dat een actueel overzicht geeft van de hedendaagse Nederlandse rechtssociologie.
Boekbespreking

De strijd van de aanklager van het Joegoslavië-tribunaal

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden review, F. de Vlaming, Yugoslavia Tribunal, prosecutor
Auteurs Reyer Baas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Reyer Baas
Reyer Baas is als promovendus verbonden aan het onderzoeksprogramma Rechtspleging van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Eerder publiceerde hij over jeugdzittingen. Hij studeerde rechten en politicologie in Nijmegen en Parijs.
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