Zoekresultaat: 27 artikelen

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Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid x Jaar 2014 x
Artikel

National variations in the implementation and enforcement of European food hygiene regulations

Comparing the structure of food controls and regulations between Scotland and the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden food regulation, official controls, EU food law, implementation, enforcement
Auteurs Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the course of time the European Union has increased its powers considerably. Currently, almost all food safety regulations in the member states rest on European law. Despite this common legal base, several differences between member states still exist. This article compares the way Scottish and Dutch authorities deal with a particular item of European food law: the development of national guides to good practice for hygiene and for the application of HACCP principles by the food industry. The results of this investigation are consistent with the conclusion of Falkner et al. that the implementation of EU law in both the Netherlands and the UK depends on domestic issues. The dominant issue in Scotland (and the UK) is the FSA objective to bring consistent food controls and independency from industry which results in the development of governmental guidance. The prevailing issue in the Netherlands is making industry responsible for food safety which helps explain the extensive use of industry guides. This study shows that in order to understand what happens on the ground it is important to look beyond transposition or direct effect and also to investigate the implementation of regulations and to dig deeper than just their transposition.


Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is Associate Professor at the Institute for the Sociology of Law, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. She has published on the regulation of food safety, policy implementation and law enforcement, equal opportunities law, asylum migration and migrant workers. Her recent research projects deal with the development and effects of private regulation of food safety, oversight and official controls in the food industry, and the experiences of large companies with Dutch special courts. She is co-editor of The Changing Landscape of Food Governance (to be published by Edward Elgar, 2015).
Artikel

The government’s roles in transnational forest governance

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden transnational governance, forest certification, legality verification, emerging economies, public-private interaction
Auteurs Liu Jing
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Forest certification schemes and the legality regime are two main methods of transnational forest governance. A recent review of the literature has revealed that the government and forest certification are often intertwined. Based on that review, this contribution argues that governments play divergent roles in forest certification schemes in different aspects of the regulatory process: namely, agenda and standard setting, implementation, monitoring, and enforcement. In most FSC schemes, governments in developed countries play a less active role in most of these aspects than they do in context-based industry-dominated schemes. In the three emerging economies examined – Indonesia, Brazil, and China – the government sometimes plays a more active role in context-based, industry-dominated schemes than it does in developed countries. The rising legality regime might further strengthen the role of the government in forest governance in these emerging economies. Moreover, China may exemplify the fact that forest governance is entering a new phase, because the country not only exports to countries demanding legal verification, but also imports from countries where the risk of illegal logging is high. This illustrates that the role of governments in forest governance is constantly evolving.


Liu Jing
Liu Jing is a postdoctoral researcher in Erasmus University Rotterdam (the Netherlands). She is conducting research on ‘smart mixes in relation to transboundary environmental problems’, especially in the areas of forest, fishery, oil and climate change governance. Her research interests cover regulation and governance, environmental law as well as law and economics.
Artikel

Regulatory governance by contract: the rise of regulatory standards in commercial contracts

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden contracts, transnational regulation, codes of conduct, private standards, supply chain
Auteurs Paul Verbruggen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper a literature review is used to explore the role that commercial contracts concluded between private actors play as instruments of regulatory governance. While such contracts are traditionally seen as a means to facilitate exchange between market participants, it is argued in the literature that commercial contracts are becoming increasingly important vehicles for the implementation and enforcement of safety, social and sustainability standards in transnational supply chains. The paper maps the pervasiveness of this development, its drivers, and the governance challenges that arise from it. While doing so, the paper more generally explores the relationship between regulation and contract law.


Paul Verbruggen
Paul Verbruggen is Assistant Professor of Private Law at the Business and Law Research Centre of Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. He conducted his PhD research at the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, which resulted in the monograph Enforcing Transnational Private Regulation: A Comparative Analysis of Advertising and Food Safety (Edward Elgar, 2014). Paul writes on the design and operation of regulatory frameworks (both public and private), focusing on questions of legitimacy, accountability and enforcement. His research interests concern European private law, regulatory policy, risk regulation and certification.
Artikel

What role is there for the state in contemporary governance?

Insights from the Dutch building sector

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden governance, collaborative governance, governance performance, urban sustainability, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)
Auteurs Jeroen van der Heijden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An emerging body of empirical governance studies highlights that the role of the state in governance has been changing. It has moved away from governing societal problems solely through traditional direct regulatory interventions. State actors are now (also) taking up facilitative and enabling roles in innovative voluntary governance arrangements. This article seeks to gain a better understanding of these facilitating and enabling roles of state actors in real world practice and what (clusters of) roles are needed to obtain successful outcomes from these arrangements. It builds on an empirical study of ten different arrangements in the Dutch sustainable building sector, which are analysed using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) methodology. It finds no evidence that any of the specific (clusters of) role(s) is necessary to achieve positive outcomes from the arrangements studied, but uncovers that when combined, such roles affect the outcomes of arrangements. It concludes by presenting an evidence-based typology of combinations of roles that state actors may wish to take up in seeking positive outcomes from innovative voluntary governance arrangements, or preventing negative outcomes.


Jeroen van der Heijden
Jeroen van der Heijden is a senior research fellow at the Australian National University and an assistant professor at the University of Amsterdam. His main research interest is governance for urban sustainability and resilience. He has recently brought together his research on this topic, conducted over nearly the last ten years, in his book Governance for Urban Sustainability and Resilience: Responding to Climate Change and the Relevance of the Built Environment (Edward Elgar Publishers, 2014).

Richard Staring
Richard Staring is endowed professor of criminology at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. He has published on irregular migration, human smuggling as well as human trafficking.

    This editorial offers an introduction to the current issue.


Peter Mascini
Peter Mascini is an associate professor of sociology at Erasmus University Rotterdam and he holds a chair in empirical legal studies at the same university. He serves as co-director of the research program Behavioral Approaches to Contract and Tort. His research focuses on the legitimization, implementation, and enforcement of different policy ideas. He often studies the tenability of assumptions underlying policy instruments.

Judith van Erp
Judith van Erp is an associate professor in Criminology at Erasmus School of Law and chair of its research program Monitoring Safety and Security. Her research focuses on monitoring and compliance of business. She co-chairs the Collaborative Research Network on Regulatory Governance at the Law and Society Association and the European Society of Criminology’s working group on Corporate and White Collar Crime.
Artikel

The food label as governance space: free-range eggs and the fallacy of consumer choice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden food label, free-range eggs, animal welfare, regulatory governance
Auteurs Christine Parker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In a neoliberal age governments, NGOs, food producers and retailers all state that the food system can be governed via consumer choice aka voting with your fork. This makes the retail food label an important space for contests between different actors who each seek to govern the food system according to their own interests and priorities. The paper argues that this makes it crucial to ‘backwards map’ the regulatory governance networks behind the governance claims staked on food labels. The paper uses the example of the contested meaning of ‘free-range’ claims on animal products in Australia to propose and illustrate a methodology for this backwards mapping.


Christine Parker
Christine Parker is a Professor of Law at Monash University, Melbourne Australia. She conducts socio-legal research on business regulation enforcement and compliance and lawyer ethics. Her books include The Open Corporation (2002), Explaining Compliance (edited with Vibeke Nielsen, 2011), and Inside Lawyers Ethics (with Adrian Evans, 2014).
Artikel

The need for an integrated comparison of the effectiveness of international sustainable forestry, coffee and cocoa initiatives

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden effectiveness, private sustainability standards, certification, FSC, UTZ Certified
Auteurs Martijn Scheltema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To date the effectiveness of private sustainability standards has been assessed from different angles which attribute different meanings to effectiveness. This contribution compares the effectiveness of two international certification initiatives (i.e. sustainable forestry (Forest Stewardship Council, FSC) and sustainable coffee and cacoa (UTZ Certified)) from three different angles (legal, impact, acceptance/legitimacy/governance). Based on publicly available data, it is shown that FSC scores better on some dimensions of these three angles (e.g. enforcement, cost and price premium, and government acceptance), while UTZ Certified scores better on others (e.g. verifiable evaluation criteria, regular evaluation, innovation). Hence, this analysis shows that a comparative evaluation of both initiatives would have been biased if it would have been based on a single angle approach. There is all the more reason to use such an integrated approach, since the different angles are intertwined. Therefore, it has been established that in order to establish the effectiveness of private certification initiatives an integrated approach is needed which combines different angles. This contribution shows such an approach is feasible.


Martijn Scheltema
Martijn Scheltema is professor at Erasmus University Rotterdam (the Netherlands). He researches the effectiveness of international private regulation in the CSR arena. He is board member of ACCESS Facility (www.accessfacility.org.) Beside this, he is board member of the CSR committee of the International Bar Association and attorney at law/partner with Pels Rijcken & Droogleever Fortuijn (The Hague, the Netherlands).
Artikel

Simulatie onder slachtoffers van schokkende gebeurtenissen

Een pleidooi voor onafhankelijk onderzoek naar de echtheid van psychische klachten in schadevergoedingsprocedures

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden victims, compensation, malingering, detection
Auteurs Maarten Kunst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    High-impact incidents, such as (natural) disasters, severe (traffic) accidents, and exposure to (war) violence, may have severe psychological consequences, both for direct and indirect victims. Such consequences may qualify for financial compensation. However, some victims malinger their psychological status to get compensated for damages they have not suffered. This type of fraudulent behavior costs insurance companies and publicly funded compensation services enormous amounts of money and may eventually make compensation unaffordable. To prevent this from occurring, it is argued that lawyers who need to decide upon victims’ claims for compensation should call in independent experts to evaluate the genuineness of victims’ reported psychological symptoms by administrating a malingering detection test. To enable correct interpretation of the outcome of such a test, the base rate problem is extensively discussed. In short, this problem means that correct test interpretation in individual cases depends on the prevalence of malingering in the population to which a victim belongs. Finally, several counter arguments for the standard assessment of malingering by independent experts are discussed.


Maarten Kunst
Maarten Kunst is werkzaam als universitair hoofddocent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden. In 2010 is hij in Tilburg gepromoveerd op de psychosociale gevolgen van slachtofferschap van interpersoonlijk geweld. Daarvoor was hij werkzaam als jurist bezwaar en beroep bij het Uitvoeringsinstituut werknemersverzekeringen. Hij studeerde Nederlands recht en psychologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Boekbespreking

Preventie of paranoia?

Een parodie op het ‘voorzorgsdenken’

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2014
Auteurs Jan Popma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Recht der Werkelijkheid.


Jan Popma
Jan Popma studeerde sociologie en wijsbegeerte aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam, en is thans senior onderzoeker arbeidsomstandighedenwetgeving aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Daarnaast is hij coördinerend docent van de minor Arbeid, Risico en Regulering. Onderdeel van de minor is onder meer het vak Nieuwe risico’s en regulering, dat gaat over de vraag wat de betekenis is van het voorzorgsbeginsel in het arbeidsrecht. Popma publiceerde ook onderzoek over de risico’s van onder meer mobiele telefoons (2009), nanomaterialen (2010) en technostress (2012).
Praktijk

Understanding knowledge sharing between judges

A quantitative analysis

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden knowledge exchange, knowledge sharing behavior, knowledge management system, judicial knowledge
Auteurs Sandra Taal PhD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the last two decades, there has been a growing interest in the development and implementation of knowledge management systems. In the judicial context, these knowledge management systems are designed to support judges in the decision-making process by providing them with the knowledge that they need in order to deal with doubts or uncertainties in complex cases. However, less attention has been given to the related process of knowledge sharing between judges. In order to optimally benefit from the knowledge available in the organization, this process should be better understood and acted upon. The aim of this research project is to gain a better insight into the interactive process of knowledge sharing between judges. To this end, a research model has been developed which will be quantitatively tested on the basis of survey responses from judges.


Sandra Taal PhD
PhD Candidate
Artikel

Scripts, de voertuigen van kennis

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden knowledge of law, scripts, medical treatment at the end of life, findings of empirical research
Auteurs Heleen Weyers en Donald van Tol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents the results of a study into the knowledge of doctors regarding three kinds medical treatment regulation at the end of life, the so-called KOPPEL study. One of the findings of this study is that most doctors know the law that regulates ending life at request (euthanasia) and guideline for palliative sedation quite well. However, hardly any of them know Book 7, Section 450.3 of the Dutch Civil Code, the section that regulates written treatment refusals. Apart from the description of the findings, we elaborate on three reasons that Aubert distinguishes for knowledge of the law: the period the regulation exists, the congruence between habits and norms of the law, and experience with the law. We conclude that Aubert’s factors do indeed explain the differences in knowledge of the doctors. In the discussion we come to the conclusion that sociology of law should not only pay attention to ‘what knowledge of the law is’ (Griffiths, Van Tol) and ‘which factors influence this knowledge’ (Aubert) but also to ‘how knowledge of law can be ascertained’. In our opinion the idea of scripts, as introduced by Schank and Abelson, can be of great help in this respect.


Heleen Weyers
Heleen Weyers is universitair docent bij de Vakgroep Rechtstheorie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Zij geeft onderwijs in rechtssociologie, politieke theorie en wetsevaluatie. In haar onderzoek richt zij zich op de totstandkoming van recht, de sociale werking van recht en de relatie tussen beide. Qua onderwerpen gaat het daarbij onder andere om de regulering van het medisch handelen aan het einde van het leven en het rookverbod in de horeca.

Donald van Tol
Donald van Tol is werkzaam als docent bij de Afdeling Huisartsgeneeskunde, UMC Groningen en bij de afdeling Sociologie van de faculteit Gedrags- en Maatschappij Wetenschappen aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Hij verzorgd onderwijs in medische ethiek, medische sociologie, arts-patiënt communicatie en medische professionaliteit. In onderzoek en publicaties gaat zijn aandacht uit naar (de regulering van) medisch handelen rond het levenseinde en naar vraagstukken rondom medicalisering. Van Tol is tevens ethicus-lid van een van de vijf Regionale Toetsingscommissies Euthanasie in Nederland.
Boekbespreking

Ervaringen uit de collegezaal

Een verslag van de discussie over rechtssociologisch onderwijs in Nederland

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Sociology of law, Socio-legal education, Educational practices
Auteurs Reyer Baas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    When Dutch-speaking sociologists of law meet, actual research is heavily discussed. Education, unfortunately, is rarely a topic of discussion. In 2014 sociologists of law gathered to exchange experiences in and ideas on education. This article gives an account of the discussion.
    The sociologists of law proved to be united on a number of fundamental questions. They concluded that it is useful to have students do research and to connect education in sociology of law with legal courses. This helps in realizing the ultimate goal: to have students achieve a greater understanding of the law by means of socio-legal insights. However, opinions diverged on the question of whether present educational practices in sociology of law are sufficiently renewing and attractive to students. Keep on reading to find out about other educational perspectives, challenges and solutions.


Reyer Baas
Reyer Baas is promovendus Rechtspleging aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en docent Grondslagen van het recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Redactioneel

Is that all there is?

Over recht in de coulissen

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2014
Auteurs Robert Knegt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This editorial offers an introduction to the current issue.


Robert Knegt
Robert Knegt is als directeur onderzoek verbonden aan het Hugo Sinzheimer Instituut, centrum voor onderzoek van ‘arbeid en recht’ aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij doet daar onderzoek naar de praktijk van arbeidsrechtelijke regelingen (ontslagrecht, flexwerk, arbeidstijden) en werkt aan een bij uitstek interdisciplinair project over ‘langetermijnontwikkelingen in de regulering van arbeid’. In 2008 verscheen The employment contract as an exclusionary device (Antwerp/Oxford/Portland: Intersentia).

Elaine Mak
Elaine Mak is bijzonder hoogleraar Empirische studie van het publiekrecht, i.h.b. van rechtsstatelijke instituties, vanwege het Erasmus Trustfonds in de Erasmus School of Law (Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam). Haar onderzoeksinteresses liggen op het gebied van het rechtsvergelijkende staatsrecht, de rechtstheorie en de juridische beroepsethiek. Elaine heeft als gastonderzoeker verbleven in Berlijn, Cambridge, Washington, DC en Florence. Zij heeft een monografie gepubliceerd over Judicial Decision-Making in a Globalised World (Hart Publishing 2013) en artikelen in onder meer Cambridge Law Journal en European Law Journal.
Discussie

Het tanende gezag van de toga

Essay De lijdende rechter

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Auteurs Christien Brinkgreve
Auteursinformatie

Christien Brinkgreve
Christien Brinkgreve is hoogleraar sociale wetenschappen aan de UU, ze schreef talrijke boeken en artikelen in wetenschappelijke en literaire tijdschriften had tien jaar lang een column op de achterpagina van NRC Handelsblad. ‘Het verlangen naar gezag’ is een van haar laatste boeken (2012).
Discussie

Mooie woorden zijn nog geen mooie daden

Een kritische reflectie op het verband tussen legitimiteit en nalevingsgedrag

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Auteurs Ben van Velthoven en Bo Terpstra
Auteursinformatie

Ben van Velthoven
Ben van Velthoven is universitair hoofddocent rechtseconomie aan de Universiteit Leiden. Zijn onderzoek richt zich op aansprakelijkheidsvraagstukken, geschilbeslechting en rechtshandhaving.

Bo Terpstra
Bo Terpstra is als wetenschappelijk docent verbonden aan de Juridische Faculteit van de Universiteit Leiden.

Yedan Li
Yedan Li is a PhD research fellow at the University of Amsterdam faculty of law since December 2011. As a social-legal researcher, she has been working with Chinese courts, labor bureaus and mediation centers. Her research interests include: alternative dispute resolution (ADR), court studies, judicial reform and labor dispute resolution processes in China.

Marc Hertogh
Marc Hertogh is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Centrale thema's in zijn onderzoek zijn de maatschappelijke effecten van wetgeving, de maatschappelijke beleving van recht en rechtsstaat, en de legitimiteit van het overheidsoptreden.

Bert Schudde
Bert Schudde studeerde sociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij Pro Facto. Hij heeft brede onderzoekservaring in toegepast beleids- en evaluatieonderzoek, grootschalig surveyonderzoek en kwantitatieve analyse.

Heinrich Winter
Heinrich Winter is hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Daarnaast is hij directeur van Pro Facto, bureau voor bestuurskundig en juridisch onderzoek, onderwijs en advies.

Kim van der Kraats
Kim van der Kraats is kantonrechter bij de afdeling civiel recht van de Rechtbank Midden-Nederland.
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