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Artikel

Ethical guidelines for mediators – the Austrian status quo

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 2-3 2019
Trefwoorden Austria, Code of Conduct, Disciplinary Control, Ethical Guidelines
Auteurs Anne-Karin Grill
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Austrian mediation landscape is quite inhomogeneous, with no universally applicable framework in place to safeguard best practice standards in mediation. Any commitment of mediators to codes of conduct or ethical guidelines occurs on an entirely voluntary basis. Control mechanisms exist in the form of complaint bodies instituted at the level of Austrian mediation associations.


Anne-Karin Grill
Anne-Karin Grill is Attorney-at-Law and partner at Vavrovsky Heine Marth Rechtsanwälte and CEDR Accredited Mediator in Vienna, Austria.
Artikel

UNCITRAL and a New International Legislative Framework on Mediation

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Solving disputes, United Nations, Trade law, Uncitral
Auteurs Judith Knieper en Corinne Montineri
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    More than sixty years after the adoption of the New York Convention, UNCITRAL finalised at its annual session, in July 2018, an instrument akin to the New York Convention in the area of mediation: the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation (‘the Singapore Convention on Mediation’ or ‘the Convention’), which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20 December 2018. In addition, UNCITRAL adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Mediation and International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation, (2018, amending the Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation (2002); ‘the revised Model Law’).
    This contribution gives an overview of these two texts and their drafting process, starting with an overview of the works done by UNCITRAL over the past decades in the field of international mediation.


Judith Knieper
Judith Knieper is legal officer at the International Trade Law Division of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, which also serves as the Secretariat of UNCITRAL.

Corinne Montineri
Corinne Montineri is legal officer at the International Trade Law Division of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, which also serves as the Secretariat of UNCITRAL. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Organization.

Bryan Clark
Bryan Clark is a Professor and former Head of School in the Law School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. He is a socio-legal scholar and commercial lawyer with interests particularly in the fields of mediation and its interaction with the law, courts, civil justice and the workings of judges and lawyers. He has published widely in these fields and presented a wide range of papers at national and international conferences and seminars. He is Chair of the Accreditation and Validation of Relationships Scotland, Academic Committee Member of the English Civil Mediation Council, Board Member of the Asian Mediation Centre and former Board Member of Scottish Mediation.
Artikel

Enforceability of mediation clauses in Belgium and the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Enforceability, Mediation clauses, contracts
Auteurs Ellen van Beukering-Rosmuller en Patrick Van Leynseele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article authors discuss (possible) legal means and methods aimed at making mediation clauses effective and/or enforceable. In particular Belgian and Dutch law are examined. In part attention is also paid to English, French and Italian law. Against the background of recent EU-legislation the validity of mediation clauses is discussed as well, with a focus on consumer related disputes. By reviewing US case law with regard to the duty to participate in good faith in the mediation process, the authors also outline the limits of this concept for the effectiveness of mediation clauses. The central theme of the enforceability of mediation clauses has been looked at both from a procedural as from a financial angle. Substantial differences can be noted between the Belgian and the Dutch approach towards what courts should do when dealing with a dispute in which parties have previously agreed to mediation. Belgian law provides in art. 1725 § 2 Judicial Code that the court, if so requested by the defendant, is in principle obliged to suspend the examination of the case until the mediation has taken place. According to current case law, the situation in the Netherlands is that mediation clauses are in principle not enforceable (Supreme Court 2006). Following the most recent legislative proposal regarding mediation (July 2016) the court should examine whether mediation can still have an added value in case one party refuses to take part in a mediation as provided for in a clause invoked by the other party, prior to (possibly) proposing mediation. Based on the plans repeatedly announced by the Belgian Minister of Justice, it is likely that there will soon be an amendment to the mediation provisions in the Judicial Code that will allow courts to ‘force’ mediation upon the parties, even in the absence of a mediation clause. If this becomes the rule, judges would be well advised to exercise this power with due care. In the authors’ opinion the Dutch approach (as suggested in the most recent legislative proposal) in connection with mediation clauses, consisting in having the court examine whether mediation may (still) have an added value for the parties, could serve as a good guideline for the Belgian judges to use.


Ellen van Beukering-Rosmuller
Ellen J.M. van Beukering-Rosmuller is Universitair Docent Burgerlijk Procesrecht, Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Patrick Van Leynseele
Patrick H. Van Leynseele is lid van de balies van Brussel en New York en partner in het Brussels advocatenkantoor DALDEWOLF, een referentie inzake ADR. Met als achtergrond het ondernemingsrecht werkt hij als litigator en arbiter in internationale zaken. Hij schreef verschillende artikels inzake mediation en Med-Arb in vooraanstaande juridische tijdschriften.

    Colombia has been a territory with some social and political difficulties which have affected several dynamics of the community as well as the legal security in almost all levels of the Colombian society. The alternative dispute resolution mechanisms arise as a response for all the gaps that such circumstances produce in the country and as useful tools to solve numerous disputes in different fields. The Chamber of Commerce of Bogotá, through its Arbitration and Conciliation Center founded in 1983, is making a permanent bet to support the Colombian citizens’ coexistence in the schools, in the neighbourhoods, in the companies that provide jobs as well as benefits to the city and to the whole country. Clever strategies have been developed through the years with three purposes: change the culture about the alternative dispute resolution methods, provide confidence in using them and change the way the people manage their conflicts.


Rafael Bernal Gutiérrez
Rafael Bernal Gutiérrez is director of the Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the Chamber of Commerce of Bogotá. His expertise in ADR counts more than 30 years. He has participated in the construction of legal frameworks for ADR in different countries all across Latin America. He is lecturer in ADR topics in Colombia and as well internationally.
Artikel

The Use of Mediation in Tax Disputes – UK Position

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden mediation, Tax disputes, HMRC, international arena
Auteurs Peter Nias en Nigel Popplewell
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article looks at the background to the use of mediation as a tool for resolving tax disputes between the UK tax authorities (HMRC) and UK taxpayers. It explains HMRC's litigation and settlement strategy which comprises the broad structure within which HMRC must operate to resolve such disputes. It then looks at specific guidance published by HMRC dealing with ADR and mediation in particular. The operational elements of this guidance, and the authors practical experience of them are then described, as are their views, with the limitations of the process. Finally the authors look at the application of ADR in the international arena.


Peter Nias
Peter Nias is a barrister and CEDR accredited mediator. He is a member of Pump Court Tax Chambers in their ADR Unit, a member of CEDR’s Tax Panel of mediators and has collaborated with CEDR to create the Tax Disputes Resolution Hub. Until 2012 he was a partner and solicitor in the law firm of McDermott Will & Emery UK LLP, where he was head of the Tax Practice and its Tax Dispute Resolution Group. Since qualifying in 2010 as an CEDR Accredited Mediator, Peter has been focussing his time advising clients on mediation and premediation strategies for resolving tax disputes. He has been working with HMRC’s Dispute Resolution Unit in developing a collaborative dispute resolution (CDR) Programme for complementing their Litigation and Settlement Strategy.

Nigel Popplewell
Nigel Popplewell is a partner in law firm, Burges Salmon LLP. He is a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Taxation, a CEDR Accredited Mediator, and deals with all aspects of UK tax, and disputes with UK tax authorities.
Artikel

Consumer Dispute Resolution (CDR) in Europe

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Consumer Dispute Resolution, CDR, national cultures, CDR-models
Auteurs Naomi Creutzfeldt en Christopher Hodges
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper is a combination of the ‘Oxford study 2012’ (C. Hodges, I. Benöhr & N. Creutzfeldt-Banda, Consumer ADR in Europe, Oxford: Hart Publishing 2012) and subsequent publications about consumer dispute resolution in Europe. Recent EU legislation aims to establish a EU-wide framework for consumer alternative dispute resolution (CADR or CDR) schemes and a platform for online dispute resolution (ODR). This forces member states to revisit their existing CDR models and in some cases, to modernize their structures. Many member states face challenges of reform of existing systems by the directives implementation date of 2015. This paper will provide an overview of CDR, the development of current legislation and discuss some national examples. The paper concludes with comments about implementation of the directive and potential future direction.


Naomi Creutzfeldt
Naomi Creutzfeldt is ESRC Research Fellow at the Center for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford.

Christopher Hodges
Christopher Hodges is Head of the CMS/Swiss Re Research Programme on Civil Justice Systems, Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford; Erasmus Professor of the Fundamentals of Private Law, Erasmus University, Rotterdam; Honorary Professor of the China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing; Guest Professor of Wuhan University, Wuhan; Life Member of Wolfson College, Oxford; Solicitor of the Senior Courts of England & Wales. Research funding is received from the international law firm CMS, the European Justice Forum and Swiss Reinsurance Company Limited.

    Providing access to justice is a major challenge for any judicial system. Canada has gone to great lengths to meet this challenge over the past thirty years, in part by developing alternative dispute resolution methods. Unfortunately, results have been mixed. Canadian society is currently preparing to renew its vision of access to justice and the contribution of dispute resolution methods in meeting that challenge. What lessons can we learn from Canada’s experience? What are the new directions and initiatives for access to justice? Our paper suggests that the Canadian experience can make two contributions to the access to justice debate. First, we suggest that the notion is evolving in the legal community from an institutional perspective to a contextual vision of access to justice. Second, we point out an evolution of alternative or appropriate dispute resolution methods toward a participatory justice movement. Our paper proposes a new Canadian perspective on access to justice and dispute resolution methods.


Jean-François Roberge
Jean-François Roberge is Professor, Director of the Dispute Prevention and Resolution Program, Faculty of Law, Université de Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada).
Artikel

Mediation training in Russia

Past experience and latest legislative innovations

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden mediator training, mediation standards, legal reforms in Russia, russian mediation law
Auteurs Vadim Abolonin en Ksenia Sergeeva
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The goal of this article is to examine key problems of training standards for mediators in Russia and to identify possible solutions that may address these issues. In considering the question of mediation training in the context of mediation development in Russia, one can distinguish two periods: (1) before the enactment of the Law on mediation, or the period of private initiatives, and (2) after this Law entered into force, which can be entitled as the period of governmental regulation.During the first period, there were no special legal regulations and thus, private institutions had been offering their own diverse and numerous mediation training programs. The situation has changed due to the active force of the Federal Law on mediation by implementing provisions that require creation of a special unified training program for professional mediators and approval by the Government of the Russian Federation. This program was adopted on 14 February 2011. The approach of the Russian legislature to the establishment of a consistent educational standard for Russian mediators can be considered as the implementation of the woldwide shift toward standards unification. However, the Law itself contains some contradictions, and also contains a number of provisions that cast serious doubts upon the success of this effort.


Vadim Abolonin
Vadim Abolonin, PhD (Russia), LL.M. (Hanover, Lisbon), is Associate Professor of Civil Procedure, Ural State Law Academy (Yekaterinburg, Russia), German Chancellor Fellow (Alexander von Humboldt Foundation), Guest Researcher at the Institute of East European Law, Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel (Germany) and Executive Director of the Interregional Chamber of Mediation (Russia).

Ksenia Sergeeva
Ksenia Sergeeva is a PhD candidate (Ural State Law Academy), Master of Jurisprudence (Russian School of Private Law) and Master in Law Economics and Finance candidate (International University College of Turin).
Artikel

Case study: the international CSR conflict and mediation

Supply-chain responsibility: western customers and the Indian textile industry

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden corporate social responsibility, international CSR conflicts, supply-chain responsibility, CSR
Auteurs Tineke Lambooy
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2008, Ruud Lubbers led a mediation process to resolve the conflicts which had arisen between two Dutch campaigning organisations, various Indian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and labour unions, two Dutch internet providers, an Indian clothing producer and a Dutch jeans brand. The mediation took place at the request of the disagreeing parties and the Dutch and Indian governments. The conflict related to corporate social responsibility (CSR) standards followed by the textile companies.In this contribution the effects of campaigning and litigating in issues concerning CSR will be examined. Limiting the analysis to CSR conflicts in the textile industry, the author will reflect on these new types of international conflicts in a globalising world and will share her view on appropriate ways to avoid them or, ultimately, to (re)mediate them if necessary.This contribution informs the reader about the events in India and the Netherlands which led to the escalation of the conflict. It provides an overview of the conflict resolution procedures and elaborates on the outcome of the ‘Lubbers Mediation’. The applicable legal and soft law labour standards are compared as well as the parties’ communication strategies. Lastly, this case is contrasted with other CSR conflicts in the textile industry, revealing a hidden conflict.


Tineke Lambooy
Tineke Lambooy is a Senior Researcher at Nyenrode Business University (Nyenrode) in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and she lectures in Legal Aspects of Globalisation-CSR, and Mergers & Acquisitions at Utrecht University, the Netherlands. She is completing a PhD on the Legal Aspects of CSR. Ms Lambooy assisted Mr Lubbers as a mediator in the conflict discussed in this contribution. E-mail: T.Lambooy@nyenrode.nl or T.E.Lambooy@uu.nl.
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