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Artikel

Pracademia: a personal account of a mediation clinic and its development

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden mediation clinic, students, practicing, Circle of engagement, Susskind
Auteurs Charlie Irvine
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article tells the story of University of Strathclyde Mediation Clinic through the eyes of its founder. Taking its first case in 2012, by the start of 2021 it will be providing a free mediation service in 16 of Scotland’s 39 sheriff courts, covering more than half the country’s population. Yet it started with no plan, no budget and a few volunteers. The article makes the case that mediation clinics, like mediation itself, call for improvisation, coining the term ‘pracademia’ to describe how such clinics straddle the two worlds of practice and theory.


Charlie Irvine
Charlie Irvine has been working as a mediator since the early 1990s; he developed and runs the Mediation and Conflict Resolution masters programme at University of Strathclyde Law School, Glasgow. He is also Director of Strathclyde Mediation Clinic. His academic work is focused on mediation and justice, in particular the neglected justice reasoning of ordinary people.
Artikel

An Introduction to the Singapore Convention on Mediation – Perspectives from Singapore

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Singapore Convention, Dispute resolution, Uncitral, Enforcement
Auteurs Nadja Alexander en Shouyu Chong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Following a retrospective of the road towards the Convention, incorporating some Singaporean inside views, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the envisaged grounds for refusal of mediated settlements. The authors also highlight various issues around the very concept, and proof, of mediation. These issues are fundamental, as only settlements ensuing from mediation are covered. Another significant aspect is the absence of any provisions pertaining to the status of agreements to mediate, the contract situated at the entry side of mediation.


Nadja Alexander
Nadja Alexander is Professor of Law (Practice) at Singapore Management University School of Law and Director of the Singapore International Dispute Resolution Academy (‘SIDRA’). She may be contacted at nadjaa@smu.edu.sg.

Shouyu Chong
Shouyu Chong is a Researcher at SIDRA, and may be contacted at sychong.2013@smu.edu.sg.
Artikel

Interventions in High-conflict Divorce Cases: The Parenting Examination

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Parenting examination, high-conflict divorce, child custody, child access, forensic expert
Auteurs Esther Kluwer en Cees van Leuven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Parenting examination (in Dutch: ouderschapsonderzoek) is a method that is used in high-conflict divorces in the Netherlands since 2008, whereby the court appoints a forensic expert who uses mediation and coaching techniques to support the parents to find a solution for their dispute. When parents fail to reach agreement, the forensic expert reports to the judge who can use this information to make a decision. This article discusses the results of two studies that have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parenting examination in practice.


Esther Kluwer
Esther Kluwer is professor of Sustainable Relationships and Wellbeing at Radboud University (Nijmegen) and associate professor at the Department of Social Health & Organisational Psychology at Utrecht University.

Cees van Leuven
Cees van Leuven is a judge at the Court of Appeal (‘s-Hertogenbosch) and a lecturer at the Netherlands Training and Study Centre for the Judiciary. He recently published the book ‘Rechter worden, rechter zijn’ (Becoming a judge, being a judge), January 2019.
Artikel

Promoting Conciliation and Mediation in Collective Labour Conflicts in Europe

Celebrating 50 years of Federal Mediation Services in Belgium

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Mediation, conciliation, collective labour conflict, strikes
Auteurs Ana Belén García, Erica Pender, Francisco J. Medina e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On 23 April 2018, the Belgian Ministry of Labour, together with a consortium of 12 European research institutes, held a symposium on the current state of the art and best practices for conciliation and mediation in collective labour conflicts within the European Union, and particularly in Belgium. The symposium was organized for two occasions. First, the 50st anniversary of the Belgium law, providing mediation services by the Ministry of Labour to prevent and mediate in collective labour conflicts. Second, the presentation of the results of an EU (DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion) sponsored project in 12 EU member states.
    The management of collective labour conflicts is in all countries regulated differently. The study shows that also practices of third party intervention differ largely. Most countries differentiate conciliation (a relative informal process of facilitated negotiation), mediation (usually defined as a strong involvement of the third party, who gives recommendations to the parties), and arbitration. Mediators typically are not trained, certified or registered as mediators in most countries. In all countries there is a large potential for conciliation, particularly in early stages of conflict (preventive mediation), as well as in rebuilding of trust after conflict episodes. More details in open access book: Mediation in collective labor conflicts (Springer, 2018).


Ana Belén García
Ana Belén García is senior researcher at the University of Seville and KU Leuven, working in the departments of work and organizational psychology. She was coordinator of several EU funded research programs on social dialogue in organisations. The most recent project was on mediation in collective labor conflicts in 12 EU member states. Ana’s interest is on conflict management and mediation in organizations. She was editor of two handbooks in the Springer Series ‘Industrial relations and conflict management’. Ana holds a PhD in Psychology and HRM from the University of Seville and KU Leuven. She is also a registered mediator.

Erica Pender
Erica Pender is a mediator and senior researcher at the University of Seville and KU Leuven in the department of Work and Organizational Psychology. She holds a PhD in Psychology from the University of Seville and KU Leuven focusing on trust and trustworthiness in organizations. After studying psychology at the University of Seville, she obtained her MSc at Maastricht University. She has coordinated two large-scale projects for the European Commission, and was co-editor of two handbooks in the Springer Series ‘Industrial relations and conflict management’.

Francisco J. Medina
Fransisco J. Medina is professor in social and organizational psychology, and Dean of the Faculty of Psychology and Educational sciences, at the University of Seville, Spain. His interests are conflict management, mediation and organizational development. He is engaged for many years in the development of labor mediation in Spain, providing training for mediators. He is also an experienced consultant and mediator. Francisco published both internationally and in Spanish extensively on conflict management and mediation.

Martin Euwema
Martin Euwema is professor in organizational psychology, and chair of the research group Organizational and Occupational Psychology and Professional Learning at KU Leuven, Belgium. He is also co-director of the Leuven Center for Collaborative Management and visiting professor at University of Copenhagen, IESEG-Paris, Sevilla, and Tsinghua (Beijing). He has extensive experience as consultant and mediator for both profit and non-profit organizations. His fields of expertise are conflict management, mediation, leadership, and organizational and team development.

Marc Simon Thomas
Marc A. Simon Thomas is rechtssocioloog/-antropoloog en werkt als universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht, alwaar hij tevens als onderzoeker aan het Montaigne Centrum voor Rechtsstaat en Rechtspleging is verbonden.

Annie de Roo
Annie de Roo is associate professor of ADR and comparative law at Erasmus University Law School in Rotterdam, editor-in-chief of TMD, and vice chair of the exams committee of the Mediators Federation of the Netherlands MFN. She has published extensively on mediation and has inter alia been a Rapporteur three times for the European Commission on the use of mediation in employment disputes.

Rob Jagtenberg
Rob Jagtenberg is senior research fellow at Erasmus University and has published frequently on the relationship between public and private justice. He has been involved in research commissioned by the Worldbank, the Netherlands Council for the Judiciary, and various Dutch Ministries including the MoJ funded national project on court-connected mediation.

Annie de Roo
Annie de Roo is associate professor of ADR and comparative law at Erasmus University Law School in Rotterdam, editor-in-chief of TMD, and vice chair of the exams committee of the Mediators Federation of the Netherlands MFN. She has published extensively on mediation and has inter alia been a Rapporteur three times for the European Commission on the use of mediation in employment disputes.

Rob Jagtenberg
Rob Jagtenberg is senior research fellow at Erasmus University and has published frequently on the relationship between public and private justice. He has been involved in research commissioned by the Worldbank, the Netherlands Council for the Judiciary, and various Dutch Ministries including the MoJ funded national project on court-connected mediation.
Artikel

ADR Clauses and International Perceptions: A Preliminary Report

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden ADR, Dispute resolution clauses, Questionnaire, commercial contracts
Auteurs Maryam Salehijam
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a preliminary analysis of the 622 responses to a questionnaire conducted in the context of Maryam Salehijam’s PhD research which focuses on commercial parties’ agreement to mediate/conciliate. The questionnaire targeted ADR professionals and experts with experience in drafting, inserting, or enforcing dispute resolution clauses that provide for non-binding ADR mechanisms. Some of the key findings include that it is still not very common for commercial contracts to conclude agreements to mediate/conciliate. This begs the question of why the parties and/or their legal advisors do not conclude such agreements as regularly as agreements to arbitrate. Moreover, the questionnaire confirmed that there is widespread practice in contract drafting to copy and paste dispute resolution clauses. This practice is shocking in light of the rising number of cases in which the parties dis­agree regarding the binding nature of their dispute resolution clause.


Maryam Salehijam
Maryam Salehijam is a PhD Researcher at the University of Ghent (Transnational Law Centre), LL.M. International Laws (Maastricht University) and LL.B. European Law (Maastricht University).
Artikel

Dispute resolution and conflict management in Germany

Evolution of a decade

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Germany, European Mediation Directive, German Mediation Law, Institute of Conflict Management, commercial dispute resolution
Auteurs Stefanie Hartog en Michael Hammes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Despite the positive development of the European Mediation Directive and its translation in the German Mediation Law, in 2014 only 1.5% of the cases in court proceedings at the lower German courts were referred to court mandated conciliation or mediation proceedings. Against this background and in the context of a broader ten years research project, PricewaterhouseCoopers and the Institute of Conflict Management at the European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) initiated a series of studies in 2005. This series was recently concluded with the fifth study conducted end of 2015 and published in October 2016. In addition to assessing the overall corporate landscape in Germany with regard to commercial dispute resolution, the study also considered the future developments and the required changes for further advancing this field.


Stefanie Hartog
Stefanie Hartog is a Senior Consultant of PricewaterhouseCooper’s Forensic Services practice based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Michael Hammes
Michael Hammes is a Director of PricewaterhouseCooper’s Forensic Services practice based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Michael has extensive experience in dispute resolution. He frequently acts as a party-appointed or tribunal appointed expert in arbitration or court proceedings or as an expert arbitrator.
Artikel

40 jaar Europa en mediation

Beschouwing naar aanleiding van het eindverslag van de Europese Commissie inzake toepassing van de Mediationrichtlijn in de lidstaten

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Mediation Directive, Geschiedenis ADR, Verslag Europese Commissie, Mediationrichtlijn
Auteurs Annie de Roo en Rob Jagtenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Taking the recent European Commission’s Report on the application of Mediation Directive 2008/52/EC as a starting point, the authors set out to reconstruct the pattern of ADR/mediation activities undertaken by the EU and the Council of Europe over the past 40 years. The authors conclude that the European initiatives have been conducive to a broadening and deepening of the ADR debate. Remarkable shifts can be observed in the emphasis placed by the European agencies during this period, notably a shift from emancipatory to efficiency-based arguments. The inherent coupling of private mediation and public adjudication entails risks however for each of these distinct conflict resolution strategies. The authors call for advanced research designs to generate the data needed for a genuine evidence-based policy in this domain.


Annie de Roo
Annie de Roo is hoofdredacteur van TMD, hoofddocent aan de Erasmus Universiteit en vicevoorzitter van de examencommissie Stichting Kwaliteit Mediators. Zij heeft diverse malen als key expert voor de Europese Commissie meegewerkt aan projecten,met name op het gebied van arbeidsrechtelijke mediation.

Rob Jagtenberg
Rob Jagtenberg is onder andere verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit en is TMD redactielid. Hij trad enkele malen op als rapporteur-generaal voor de Raad van Europa op het gebied van ADR/mediation.

    This research aims to explore empirically (method: questionnaire) the usefulness of mediation as a technique of external conflict management in the event of a family business transfer. More specifically, the research intents to verify if the conditions of application, the consequences and the benefits of mediation as described in general literature apply to the context of a family business (transfer), since Prince underlined 25 years ago that research is required to develop: ‘a system of intervention that employs the concepts, techniques, and logic of mediation that apply to the unique aspects of family business’. Results of the own research showed that mediation was an adequate technique of external conflict management in the context of a family business transfer and that it was more successful than consulting, defined as other techniques of external conflict management, in the researched cases. Furthermore, the research found indications that mediation is an adequate technique beyond the researched cases.


Tim De Greef
Tim De Greef is vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerker faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid KU Leuven campus Brussel en als advocaat-stagiair werkzaam bij het advocatenkantoor Tiberghien.

Stefaan Voet
Stefaan Voet is associate professor aan de KU Leuven en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

When it takes thousands to tango

Over de buitengerechtelijke collectieve afwikkeling van massaschade in Nederland en België

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden mass damage claims, collective settlement, high profile mediation, shadow of the settlement, 2013 European Commission Recommendation on settling mass damage claims (informal mechanisms)
Auteurs Rob Jagtenberg en Stefaan Voet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors compare Belgian and Dutch (draft) regulation of mass damage claims, and notably the prominent place reserved for the collective amicable settlement of such claims. Though collective action for the recovery of damage is still not possible in the Netherlands, Dutch law does provide for the possibility of the court endorsing collectively agreed settlements, since 2005. One of most notorious settlements, i.e. the Dexia case, is discussed, illustrating how individual victims may retain their standing to sue in court, although in such cases the courts show a tendency to cling to the terms of the collective settlement just the same (‘reflex effect or shadow of the settlement’). Mediation in brokering such high profile settlements does not necessarily follow the vested principles of mediation in ‘regular’ one to one disputes.


Rob Jagtenberg
Rob Jagtenberg is docent aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en lid van de redactie van TMD.

Stefaan Voet
Stefaan Voet is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het FWO Vlaanderen, verbonden aan het Instituut voor Procesrecht van de Universiteit Gent en lid van de redactie van TMD.
Casus

‘We’d better take a lawyer for that!’

On what companies expect of their external lawyers in conflict management

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2014
Auteurs Dr. Jo B. Aschenbrenner, LL.M.
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Jo B. Aschenbrenner, LL.M.
Dr. Jo B. Aschenbrenner, LL.M. is mediator and lawyer in Hamburg, vice director at the Bucerius Center on the Legal Profession (www.bucerius-clp.de) and Of Counsel at Hanefeld Rechtsanwälte (www.hanefeld-legal.com).

    ADR in Kenya is traceable to the pre-colonial era. Before colonial rule, African communities applied traditional justice systems in the resolution of disputes. Some of these traditional justice systems are what are formally called ADR. It is through the imposition of formal justice systems by the British that certain ADR mechanisms were recognised in Kenya. In recent times, ADR is one of the commonly used avenues in accessing justice in Kenya. ADR in Kenya is growing at an unprecedented rate courtesy of its recognition in law, inaccessibility of courts and tribunals, backlog of cases and increased commercial activities requiring the use of ADR processes. Consequently, there are efforts by government and the private sector aimed at promoting ADR in Kenya. These efforts suggest that the future of ADR in Kenya is promising. In this article, the authors discuss the growth, development and practice of ADR in Kenya highlighting some of the likely challenges and opportunities in its use.


Francis Kariuki
Francis Kariuki is a Lecturer at Strathmore University Law School.

Linet Muthoni
Linet Muthoni is the Executive Officer of the Strathmore Dispute Resolution Centre.

    Colombia has been a territory with some social and political difficulties which have affected several dynamics of the community as well as the legal security in almost all levels of the Colombian society. The alternative dispute resolution mechanisms arise as a response for all the gaps that such circumstances produce in the country and as useful tools to solve numerous disputes in different fields. The Chamber of Commerce of Bogotá, through its Arbitration and Conciliation Center founded in 1983, is making a permanent bet to support the Colombian citizens’ coexistence in the schools, in the neighbourhoods, in the companies that provide jobs as well as benefits to the city and to the whole country. Clever strategies have been developed through the years with three purposes: change the culture about the alternative dispute resolution methods, provide confidence in using them and change the way the people manage their conflicts.


Rafael Bernal Gutiérrez
Rafael Bernal Gutiérrez is director of the Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the Chamber of Commerce of Bogotá. His expertise in ADR counts more than 30 years. He has participated in the construction of legal frameworks for ADR in different countries all across Latin America. He is lecturer in ADR topics in Colombia and as well internationally.
Artikel

The Use of Mediation in Tax Disputes – UK Position

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden mediation, Tax disputes, HMRC, international arena
Auteurs Peter Nias en Nigel Popplewell
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article looks at the background to the use of mediation as a tool for resolving tax disputes between the UK tax authorities (HMRC) and UK taxpayers. It explains HMRC's litigation and settlement strategy which comprises the broad structure within which HMRC must operate to resolve such disputes. It then looks at specific guidance published by HMRC dealing with ADR and mediation in particular. The operational elements of this guidance, and the authors practical experience of them are then described, as are their views, with the limitations of the process. Finally the authors look at the application of ADR in the international arena.


Peter Nias
Peter Nias is a barrister and CEDR accredited mediator. He is a member of Pump Court Tax Chambers in their ADR Unit, a member of CEDR’s Tax Panel of mediators and has collaborated with CEDR to create the Tax Disputes Resolution Hub. Until 2012 he was a partner and solicitor in the law firm of McDermott Will & Emery UK LLP, where he was head of the Tax Practice and its Tax Dispute Resolution Group. Since qualifying in 2010 as an CEDR Accredited Mediator, Peter has been focussing his time advising clients on mediation and premediation strategies for resolving tax disputes. He has been working with HMRC’s Dispute Resolution Unit in developing a collaborative dispute resolution (CDR) Programme for complementing their Litigation and Settlement Strategy.

Nigel Popplewell
Nigel Popplewell is a partner in law firm, Burges Salmon LLP. He is a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Taxation, a CEDR Accredited Mediator, and deals with all aspects of UK tax, and disputes with UK tax authorities.
Artikel

Consumer Dispute Resolution (CDR) in Europe

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Consumer Dispute Resolution, CDR, national cultures, CDR-models
Auteurs Naomi Creutzfeldt en Christopher Hodges
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper is a combination of the ‘Oxford study 2012’ (C. Hodges, I. Benöhr & N. Creutzfeldt-Banda, Consumer ADR in Europe, Oxford: Hart Publishing 2012) and subsequent publications about consumer dispute resolution in Europe. Recent EU legislation aims to establish a EU-wide framework for consumer alternative dispute resolution (CADR or CDR) schemes and a platform for online dispute resolution (ODR). This forces member states to revisit their existing CDR models and in some cases, to modernize their structures. Many member states face challenges of reform of existing systems by the directives implementation date of 2015. This paper will provide an overview of CDR, the development of current legislation and discuss some national examples. The paper concludes with comments about implementation of the directive and potential future direction.


Naomi Creutzfeldt
Naomi Creutzfeldt is ESRC Research Fellow at the Center for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford.

Christopher Hodges
Christopher Hodges is Head of the CMS/Swiss Re Research Programme on Civil Justice Systems, Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford; Erasmus Professor of the Fundamentals of Private Law, Erasmus University, Rotterdam; Honorary Professor of the China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing; Guest Professor of Wuhan University, Wuhan; Life Member of Wolfson College, Oxford; Solicitor of the Senior Courts of England & Wales. Research funding is received from the international law firm CMS, the European Justice Forum and Swiss Reinsurance Company Limited.
Artikel

Dispute Management as a Means of Value Based Corporate Governance

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Viadrina Component Model, CMRM model, Conflict Spider, Dispute Management
Auteurs Cornelia Schmidt en Michael Hammes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Disputes are part of a company’s daily business reality, involving a broad range of internal and external stakeholders. As disputes may have significant consequences in terms of costs and damages, it is crucial that disputes are managed in a ‘wise’ manner. In this context, PwC and the Institute of Conflict Management at the European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) initiated a broader ten years research project. The fourth and most recent survey was published in October 2013 and examines the question of how dispute management can be established as a means of value based corporate governance. The survey describes how disputes can be successfully managed by employing a professional framework and associated tools.


Cornelia Schmidt
Cornelia Schmidt is a Consultant in PricewaterhouseCooper’s Forensic Services practice based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Cornelia advises clients on fraud and dispute related issues. She has been extensively involved in the recent survey.

Michael Hammes
Michael Hammes is a Director of PricewaterhouseCooper’s Forensic Services practice based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Michael has extensive experience in dispute resolution. He frequently acts as a party-appointed or tribunal appointed expert in arbitration or court proceedings or as an expert arbitrator.

    Giuseppe De Palo and Romina Canessa give a description of the recent publication of a study conducted for the European Parliament on Mediation, ‘Rebooting the Mediation Directive: Assessing the Limited Impact of its Implementation and Proposing Measures to Increase the Number of Mediations in the EU’, has contributed to the ongoing debate about effective mediation policy. The Study concluded that despite an increase in mediation awareness and the proven benefits it can have, mediation still remains largely unused as a method of dispute resolution.


Giuseppe De Palo
Giuseppe De Palo is a mediator and President of ADR Center in Rome. He is also Professor of ADR Law & Practice at Hamline University School of Law in St. Paul, Minn. He has written extensively about ADR and, in January 2014, presented to the Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament the research study ‘Rebooting the Mediation Directive: Assessing the Limited Impact of its Implementation and Proposing Measures to Increase the Number of Mediations in the EU’, of which he was the coordinator.

Romina Canessa
Romina Canessa is a co-author of ‘Rebooting the Mediation Directive: Assessing the Limited Impact of its Implementation and Proposing Measures to Increase the Number of Mediations in the EU’. She holds a Juris Doctor Degree in Law from Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law and Bachelor of Science Degree in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University.
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