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Artikel

Welke samenleving in het herstelrecht?

Uitdagingen voor burgerschap en samenlevingsopbouw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden burgerschap, samenlevingsopbouw, samenleving als actor, Vreedzame Wijk, Eigen Kracht-conferentie
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the concepts of society and community involvement as they appeared in the articles of the Dutch-Flemish Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht (Journal of Restorative Justice) during last 20 years. It shows how the journal from its very beginning adopted a strong focus on criminal justice reform, although restorative practices within the community occupied a considerable space in the consecutive volumes as well. Studies on restorative justice programmes in Belgium and The Netherlands, such as victim-offender mediation and family-group conferences, revealed a predominant orientation on interpersonal relationships stressing the role of the community of care. In the same sense, also community mediation and other community oriented restorative practices focus on the personal well-being of people and the improvement of personal and social relationships. Hence, both theory and practice face two important challenges in developing restorative justice: (1) which role to give to a larger community and how to operationalize its involvement, and (2) how to deal with underlying causes of crime and social-structural injustices? Referring to European action-research projects and to conceptual models developed outside Europe, a case is made for designing restorative justice methodologies and programmes involving civil society in a more encompassing way and linking micro to macro societal levels. Developing strategic alliances with new social movements could be the way forward.


Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is redacteur van dit tijdschrift en hoofdredacteur van The International Journal on Restorative Justice.
Artikel

Transmuraal herstelgericht werken

Nieuwe conceptuele landkaart naar succesvol re-integreren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden gedetineerden, re-integratie, herstelgerichte detentie, strength-based benadering
Auteurs Bart Claes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past twenty-five years, a lot of attention is paid to a more victim-aware and restorative justice focused policy in prisons in Belgium and The Netherlands, striving for a restorative culture and climate in the institutions (among prisoners and staff) and for more restorative practices like victim-awareness programs and mediation. The focus is primarily on the prison structure and culture, striving to create a more restorative prison culture and climate in the institutions. In this article we argue for a shift from this system-focused pursuit of ‘estorative detention’ to the restorative reintegration of prisoners at the individual level, and by this supporting their desistance from crime. We present a conceptual framework for restorative reintegration in and outside prison as a strengths-based approach, with attention to the structural and individual elements that supports their desistance from crime.


Bart Claes
Bart Claes is houder van het lectoraat Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool, bestuurslid van het European Forum for Restorative Justice (www.euforumrj.org) en medeoprichter van het Expertisecentrum K I N D, Ouder en Detentie (www.expertisecentrumkind.nl).
Artikel

De gunfactor van herstelrecht

Clementie, compassie en de zorg om de dader

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Clementie, Vergeving, recht doen, tweede kans
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the willingness of the victim to judge the offender more mildly after the latter apologized for his wrongdoing and shows that he is involved in behavioral change. A large group of victims wants to help (young) perpetrators and offer them a second chance, even victims who have been treated violently. It is argued that these forms of compassion express a caring attitude, the wish that the offender will be rehabilitated and that a change in behaviour is more important than compensation. This attitude can also be referred to as ‘forbearance’, in terms that a less severe sanction is sufficient. This goodwill factor may well be the most important aspect of ‘doing justice’ in restorative meetings.


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift. Hij is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Tot de thema’s die in zijn onderzoek aan bod komen behoren politie, burgerschap en lokale veiligheidszorg, straftheorie en herstelrecht. www.basvanstokkom.nl
Artikel

Het verontschuldigingsritueel en herstelrecht

Het slachtofferperspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden apology ritual, The victim perspective, Sincerity, Physical aspect of apology, symbolic meaning of apology
Auteurs Inge Vanfraechem, Daniela Bolívar en Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical research on restorative justice shows that offenders can apologise to victims. Because of the ritual component of restorative justice and the possible influence on the justice system, certain questions arise: how do victims perceive these apologies? Is it important for victims that these apologies are sincere? The aim of the article is to discuss these questions through three topics, namely the physical aspect of the ritual, the symbolic meaning for victims and the relation between the offender’s apologies and the victim’s reaction.


Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is consultant (Libra), senior vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerkers KU Leuven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Daniela Bolívar
Daniela Bolívar is assistant professor aan de School of Social Work, Catholic University of Chile. Ze is board member van de International Journal of Restorative Justice en heeft een onderzoeksproject rond bemiddeling en jeugddelinquenten in Chili afgerond.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is professor herstelrecht en victimologie aan de KU Leuven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

éDesistance’ en slachtoffer-daderbemiddeling in Belgié

De cruciale rol van de bemiddelaar

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Desistance, victim-offender mediation, restorative justice, criminal justice
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen en Katrien Lauwaert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents some of the results of a study in which 25 adult men were interviewed who took part in restorative mediation in the French speaking part of Belgium and were desisting from crime. Their narratives were used to find out whether participation in restorative justice influenced positively their journey towards desistance; if so, which factors in restorative mediation supported this change process and how these factors had been helpful. The results suggest that restorative mediation has the potential to contribute to desistance in a humble, but significant way. Core aspects of mediation supported mostly already started desistance processes and they were helpful in a mainly cognitive way. The authors propose to further investigate the specific and helpful ‘presence’ of mediators and to reflect upon the apparent absence in restorative mediation of practical follow-up support towards desistance.


Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Katrien Lauwaert
Katrien Lauwaert is medewerkster bij het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Artikel

Voor wie is herstelrecht?

Een studie naar slachtoffers en (niet-)participatie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden restorative justice, victim participation, victim-offender, mediation, victims’ motivations
Auteurs Daniela Bolívar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The phenomenon of victim participation in restorative justice (RJ) has been studied from two main angles: describing victims’ motivations to take part in RJ and studying the benefits that different groups of victims may obtain when participating in RJ. However, methodological limitations of former studies have impeded to offer conclusive answers to the question ‘for whom is RJ’. This article offers insights into these issues, focusing on the descriptive findings of a mixed-method study carried out in the context of victim-offender mediation (in Spain and Belgium) and assessed before the encounter (if any) took place. Findings suggest that, before mediation, victims’ personal characteristics tend to differ. The factor ‘victim-offender relationship’ also appeared as an important variable. Implications of these findings are discussed.


Daniela Bolívar
Daniela Bolívar was werkzaam aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) en is momenteel verbonden aan Departamento de Psicología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago.
Artikel

Slachtoffers en herstelrecht: ervaringen van (niet-)deelnemers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Victims, participation, restorative justice, Hergo
Auteurs Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes some victim-related research results of both an action research into the Flemish practice of conferencing, as well as the results of a European comparative research on victim-offender mediation. Through these results, we examine what victims think of restorative justice and why they choose (not) to participate. This way, we aim to fill a certain gap in restorative justice literature especially when it comes to non-participating victims (Van Camp & Wemmers, 2016), a group which remains hard to interview.


Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is senior onderzoeker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Over de vraag naar de kwaliteit van de bemiddelaar

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Bemiddelaar, kwaliteit, Rechtskarakter herstelrecht, Strafrechtspleging
Auteurs Leo Van Garsse
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some believe that the credibility of restorative justice can be increased if more attention is given to the quality of the mediator, as well as methods to select people with the right profile or by training. At first glance this seems a legitimate aim: mediation services should offer quality. Reflecting on practical experience and research into mediation between offenders and victims in Flanders, the author problematizes these assumptions. The quest for tangible quality to ensure ‘credibility’ refers to a neo-liberal approach aimed at reducing risks and promoting the client’s satisfaction. In this article the author confronts the apolitical approach of client satisfaction with alternative ideas about (restorative) justice. Ideally, the mediator is critical of established (legal) authorities and professional expertise. Mediation is political in nature, even if the mediator relies on neutrality. The mediator must be aware of his – inevitable – political stance and should be ready to be interrogated on this matter.


Leo Van Garsse
Leo Van Garsse is oud-herstelbemiddelaar en momenteel werkzaam bij het vicariaat Mechelen – Vlaams Brabant als stafmedewerker voor territoriale pastoraal.
Artikel

Advocatuur in strafrecht en herstelrecht

Een verkenning van de verschillen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden raadsman, herstelprocesrecht, Strafprocesrecht, advocaten, mediation
Auteurs John Blad
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author first describes the deontological axioma for the role of the defense counsel in the domain of criminal procedure. Since here the most serious charges are brought against a suspect, who may have all his life-perspectives to lose by severe punishments, the duty of the legal counsel is to be as one-sided in the defense of his clients views and interests as possible and as allowed by professional ethics. He is the guardian of the legitimate interests of the suspect in the context of a legal battle in or out of court about the legal truth of what is said to have happened. In view of the ideals of restorative justice (illustrated by references to Nils Christies Conflicts as property) a new set of rules and customs should be developed that can function as a framework of ‘restorative procedural law’. In the context of restorative justice legal counsel of both the suspect and the victim should be expected and able to function much more as ‘restorative coaches’, seeking co-operation and deliberation between all stakeholders. But, should clients – suspects and victims alike – decide against such an approach and want ‘their day in court’ this should also be possible and be realised. The independent courts should always remain the ultimate refuge for those seeking justice.


John Blad
John Blad is redacteur van dit tijdschrift, auteur en consulent op het gebied van herstelrecht. Naast andere publicaties schreef hij samen met David Cornwell en Martin Wright Civilising Criminal Justice, Waterside Press (2013). In 2015 viel hem de Herman Bianchi herstelrecht-prijs ten deel.

Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is universitair docent straf(proces)recht bij de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie van de Universiteit Maastricht en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg. Daarnaast is hij redacteur van dit tijdschrift. Van zijn hand verscheen onder meer Vergeving in het strafrecht via de implementatie van herstelbemiddeling, Wolf Legal Publishers (2015). In 2012 ontving hij de Herman Bianchi herstelrecht-prijs.
Artikel

Vrijwilligheid, vertrouwelijkheid en onpartijdigheid

Opvattingen van deelnemers aan herstelbemiddeling in Vlaanderen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Herstelbemiddeling, werkingsprincipes, onpartijdigheid, vrijwilligheid, vertrouwelijkheid
Auteurs Vicky De Mesmaecker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article considers the fundamental restorative justice principles of voluntary participation, the impartiality of the facilitator and the confidentiality of the restorative process from the point of view of participants to victim-offender mediation in Flanders, Belgium. These principles have remained relatively theoretical; little is known about how they are perceived by the participants to restorative practices. Results of our study show that whereas victims and offenders unequivocally support the principles of voluntariness and impartiality, the principle of confidentiality causes dissatisfaction and frustration when they believe it hinders the judge trying the case in court from establishing the truth about the facts.


Vicky De Mesmaecker
Vicky De Mesmaecker behaalde een doctoraat en master in de Criminologische Wetenschappen en een master in de Internationale Betrekkingen en Conflictbeheersing aan de KU Leuven (België). Zij werkte als doctoraal en postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) van de KU Leuven en als Visiting Researcher aan Yale Law School in de Verenigde Staten en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving in Nederland. Zij werkt momenteel als Senior Qualitative Researcher bij GfK Belgium.
Artikel

Slachtoffer- en herstelgericht werken in Justitiële Jeugdinrichtingen: nieuwe data, groeimodel en advies

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Europese Slachtofferrichtlijn, slachtoffergericht werken,, herstelgericht werken, justitiële jeugdinrichtingen
Auteurs Anneke van Hoek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides data about qualitative and quantitative research that was executed in juvenile detention centres in The Netherlands in the framework of the EU-funded Restorative Justice in Europe project. The results of a survey amongst 75 staff members are presented. Special attention is paid to the restorative handling of internal conflicts and crimes within the detention centre. Restorative Justice Nederland, executing this research, also developed a self-assessment tool for prisons, the Organisational Maturity Grid Restorative Practices, that can be used to assess how ‘mature’ restorative practices are within an organisation. Based on this maturity grid and the data of the research advice is provided on how restorative practices within juvenile detention centres can be brought to the next level.


Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek (1962) is zelfstandig gevestigd criminoloog en medeoprichter van Stichting Restorative Justice Nederland. Zij was vanuit deze stichting de afgelopen twee jaar projectleider van het Nederlandse deel van het transnationale project Restorative Justice in Europe: safeguarding victims & empowering professionals.
Artikel

Het Herstelfonds in penitentiaire inrichtingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Herstelfonds, gevangenis, bemiddeling, schadevergoeding
Auteurs An Marchal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents the backgrounds of a particular restorative practice in Flanders: the Restitution Fund. This fund is meant to give a symbolic instrument into the hands of persons in custody, to send a message to the victim: they will do volunteer work in society (mostly: charity work). Victim offender mediation starts up and at the end of the project the victim will receive an amount of money. Although this project is an excellent example of a restorative justice practice, there is still a long way to go to get it embedded in a longer term policy framework.


An Marchal
An Marchal is coördinator bij Suggnomè, Forum voor herstelrecht en bemiddeling te Leuven.
Artikel

Herstelbemiddeling als sociaal werk-praktijk

Bemiddelaars in Vlaanderen aan het woord

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Social work practices
Auteurs Lieve Bradt en Maria Bouverne-De Bie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative justice as well as restorative justice practices have mainly been researched from judicial and criminologist perspectives, whereas social work has been remarkably silent in the restorative justice debate. As a consequence, the role of social work in the restorative justice field remains largely unexplored. In this article we report the findings of two focus groups conducted with mediators working in juvenile and adult mediation practices in Flanders to gain more insight into how mediators perceive their role and to analyse to what extent they refer to the individual and structural dimension of victim-offender mediation.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt is als doctor-assistent verbonden aan de vakgroep sociale agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.

Maria Bouverne-De Bie
Maria Bouverne-De Bie is als hoofddocent verbonden aan de vakgroep sociale agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Cirkels voor Ondersteuning, Samenwerking en Aanspreekbaarheid

Hoe vrijwilligers bijdragen aan preventie van zedenrecidive en herstel van binding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden volunteering, rehabilitation, Restorative justice, Family bonds, Sex offenders
Auteurs Mechtild Höing en Audrey Alards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    COSA (Circles of Support and Accountability) have been fully implemented and accepted in the Dutch probation organization. In COSA projects, volunteers support a former sex offender during his rehabilitation, supervised by professionals. Projects offer national coverage and until now, 42 sex offenders have been supported. International effect studies and Dutch research into effective processes offer a scientific framework, offering the theoretical and empirical underpinnings for a COSA intervention model. The normative basis of COSA is found in its specific place in restorative justice. Primarily, COSA strives for restoration of relationships within a moral and responsible community and restoration of the offender. Restoration of family bonds is an option, but needs to be well coordinated with professionals.


Mechtild Höing
Mechtild Höing is werkzaam aan de Avans Hogeschool en is docent-onderzoeker bij Expertisecentrum Veiligheid; zij onderzoekt COSA sinds 2009.

Audrey Alards
Audrey Alards is werkzaam bij Reclassering Nederland; als cirkelcoördinator is zij sinds 2009 werkzaam voor COSA.
Artikel

Conferencing internationaal: vaker toegepast dan gedacht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden Conferencing, Internationale toepassing
Auteurs Estelle Zinsstag en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Conferencing is a restorative justice practice which has started developing quite consistently since the 1990s, in majority in Anglophone countries such as New Zealand, Australia, the USA, Canada or the UK and in particular with consistently promising results for juvenile justice in Northern Ireland. Some continental European, Latin American and African countries are also starting to introduce this alternative to traditional criminal justice, especially in the case of juvenile justice, with some equally promising results. This article presents up-to-date information about the state of conferencing in the world and discusses some of the major conclusions that have come out of a European research project and book.


Estelle Zinsstag
Estelle Zinsstag is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en coördineert een EC Daphne project rond seksueel geweld en herstelrecht. Ze is managing editor van Restorative Justice: An International Journal.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is senior onderzoeker aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor Criminologie (België) en manager van een Europees FP7 project rond herstelrecht en interculturele conflicten.

Leo van Garsse
Leo van Garsse is werkzaam als assistent aan de Ugent, Vakgroep Sociale Agogiek. Tevens is hij als vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC).
Artikel

Het belang van de institutionele context: slachtofferervaringen met bemiddeling vergeleken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden mediation, victims, institutional context, victim satisfaction, diversity
Auteurs Daniela Bolivar, Ivo Aertsen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The diversity of institutional contexts within which restorative justice has been implemented worldwide has raised the question whether this aspect may have an influence on the experience of victims of crime. Some are of the opinion that certain institutional settings (such as probation) could relegate victims, once more, to a secondary place. This article discusses the results of a two-year research project (2011-2012) that addresses this question. One single questionnaire was administrated in three different countries (Netherlands, Austria and Finland) whose mediation programmes differ in terms of the institutional setting in which mediation is implemented. Our findings suggest that the institutional context does not matter for victims’ levels of satisfaction, but it does in terms of victims’ expectations and experiences.


Daniela Bolivar
Daniela Bolivar is onderzoeker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) op een Europees project rond seksueel geweld en herstelrecht.

Ivo Aertsen
Prof. Dr. Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.

Inge Vanfraechem
Dr. Inge Vanfraechem is onderzoeker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) op een Europees FP7-project rond herstelrecht en interculturele conflicten, en is tevens redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Discussie

Victimalisering van het strafproces

Een herstelrechtelijk commentaar

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden slachtofferrechten, procespartij, strafproces, herstelrecht
Auteurs John Blad
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author discusses the proposals done by Richard Korver, a Dutch victim-solicitor, with regard to the legal position of the victim in the Dutch penal procedure. They amount to making the victim a fully equipped party to the procedure with – as it were – the same arms as the offender and his solicitor has. These proposals include an autonomous right to appeal against the verdict in first instance, a right to make a victim statement of opinion, the right to rebuke the bench, and the right to be heard in almost every procedural and substantial decision of any authority in the penal process and in the execution of punishment. The authors comment is that these proposals, when realized, will imply an intensification of the polarized legal debate in the penal procedure, with more risks of secondary victimization. The problem is not that the defendant will oppose two prosecutors, but that the victim will find the public prosecutor not on his side when the latter does his job as he should: serving the interests of justice. The inquisitorial procedure does allow for participation of victims, but only in so far as this participation can serve the interests of establishing the truth of the matter and determining proportionate and equal punishment. Meanwhile the risk of instrumentalising the victim and his needs in interests in punitive strategies exists. Restorative practices offer a much better context for an assertive victim to defend his interests and satisfy his needs, staying out of a debate in which the measure of punishment functions as the yardstick of his suffering. Regular civil law procedures could be the second option and criminal procedures should be relegated again to their rightful place as ultima ratio.


John Blad
John Blad is hoofddocent strafrechtswetenschappen aan de Erasmus Law School Rotterdam, hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift en visiting fellow aan de Renmin University en de China University of Politics and Law, Beijing.

    Against the background of a discussion of classical and modern concepts of punishment, the first implying the imposition of suffering as essence and the second encompassing all varieties of sanctions implying restrictions but not necessarily some form of suffering the author rejects the suggestion of the second concept, that punishment should be defined without any reference to imposing suffering. There are conceptual advantages to sticking to the classical definition of punishment, such as the fact that it is clearly differentiated from the concept of measurements, which are sanctions imposed without any demand of ‘guilt’ on the side of a perpetrator. Also there are good reasons to maintain the element of (imposition of ) ‘intended pain’ in the concept of punishment, but it is this element – the intentional imposition of pain and suffering – that makes the author reject the activity of punishing as unethical. Non-violent sanctions are conceivable and feasible and should on ethical grounds be preferred. This is explored with reference to the work of Tähtinen. In close connection with this idea the author argues that we should redefine criminal justice (in the Dutch language: ‘strafrecht’ meaning the right to punish and laws regarding punishment) to mean that it is the discipline that responds to crimes and offences, without any defining reference to punishment (‘misdaadrecht’, meaning the laws regarding ((responding to)) crime).


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is universitair docent straf(proces)recht aan de Universiteit Maastricht en redacteur van dit tijdschrift. Hij is tevens medeoprichter van de stichting Mens en Strafrecht (www.mens.nl).
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