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Artikel

Access_open Institutioneel misbruik en geweld uit het verleden

Een vergelijking van twee herstelgerichte responsmodellen in België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden institutioneel misbruik en geweld, responsmodellen, rooms-katholieke kerk, Centrum voor Arbitrage inzake seksueel misbruik, Permanente Arbitragekamer
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen en Martien Schotsmans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, an analysis is made of two response models for different forms of abuse and violence that occurred in the past on children in institutional settings. Two programmes are compared, as they operated during last 10 years in Belgium: on the one hand the Centre of Arbitration for sexual abuse and violence in the Catholic Church at the national level, on the other hand the Commission for Recognition and Mediation for various types of abuse and violence in youth and educational institutions and other organisational contexts in the Flemish Community. Both models are analysed and compared at the conceptual and empirical level from a restorative justice approach, looking at the elements that may reveal a certain form of restorative justice and/or may contain lessons for the further development of restorative justice. The background and origins of both programmes are presented into detail, followed by a comparison with respect to the political options on the basis of their creation, the composition of their boards, their scope of application and their procedures. Some numbers and characteristics of cases dealt with are presented.
    The analysis of both models points at the presence – in varying degrees – of important restorative justice elements as provided in the international literature. However, restorative justice standards are more prominent in the Flemish Commission for Recognition and Mediation as compared to the national Centre of Arbitration for sexual abuse in the Church. Both programmes also demonstrate that restorative action is needed at different, mutually interwoven levels: the personal (micro) level, the institutional (meso) level and the societal (macro) level. At the institutional and societal level the transformative potential of the interventions is very much needed, but also most challenging in terms of the development of effective restorative methods.


Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de KU Leuven. Hij was aangesteld als expert bij de federale parlementaire Bijzondere Commissie in 2010-2011 en fungeerde vier jaar als lid van de Permanente Arbitragekamer inzake seksueel misbruik in de Kerk.

Martien Schotsmans
Martien Schotsmans is advocaat en verzoeningsexpert. Zij was als arbiter betrokken bij twee dossiers inzake seksueel misbruik in de kerk en was tot september 2020 coördinator van de Vlaamse Commissie voor Erkenning en Bemiddeling inzake misbruik en geweld uit het verleden.
Artikel

De maatschappelijke en politieke dimensies van herstelrecht: over het verbreden van de herstelrechtelijke blik

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden populisme, Boutellier, MeToo, Black Lives Matter, klimaatdemonstraties
Auteurs Anneke van Hoek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article states that the social and political context in which restorative justice is situated, needs more attention. The polarized rhetoric of populists with their plea for more state control and repression does not fit with the restorative approach with its emphasis on inclusion and social responsibility of active citizens. The author suggests that the paradigm of ‘positive security’ as coined by Marc Schuilenburg and others could function as a base for an alternative, more constructive and inclusive ‘big story’ on crime and security that is more akin to restorative justice. Aspects of current social protest movements as the MeToo movement, Black Lives Matter and climate demonstrations could be integrated in this ‘big story’, also to prevent that restorative justice is viewed only as a quick fix to soothe symptoms and not address political and social root causes of injustice. In this way, the international restorative justice movement could widen its scope.


Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek is zelfstandig gevestigd criminoloog en medeoprichter van Restorative Justice Nederland en Stichting Radio La Benevolencija.
Artikel

Transmuraal herstelgericht werken

Nieuwe conceptuele landkaart naar succesvol re-integreren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden gedetineerden, re-integratie, herstelgerichte detentie, strength-based benadering
Auteurs Bart Claes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past twenty-five years, a lot of attention is paid to a more victim-aware and restorative justice focused policy in prisons in Belgium and The Netherlands, striving for a restorative culture and climate in the institutions (among prisoners and staff) and for more restorative practices like victim-awareness programs and mediation. The focus is primarily on the prison structure and culture, striving to create a more restorative prison culture and climate in the institutions. In this article we argue for a shift from this system-focused pursuit of ‘estorative detention’ to the restorative reintegration of prisoners at the individual level, and by this supporting their desistance from crime. We present a conceptual framework for restorative reintegration in and outside prison as a strengths-based approach, with attention to the structural and individual elements that supports their desistance from crime.


Bart Claes
Bart Claes is houder van het lectoraat Transmuraal Herstelgericht Werken bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool, bestuurslid van het European Forum for Restorative Justice (www.euforumrj.org) en medeoprichter van het Expertisecentrum K I N D, Ouder en Detentie (www.expertisecentrumkind.nl).
Artikel

Access_open Re-integratie van ex-justitiabelen als speerpunt voor een herstelgerichte reclasseringspraktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden re-integratie, herstelgericht werken, reclassering, ex-gedetineerden
Auteurs Peter Nelissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the development of a restorative justice probation practice is discussed from the perspective of the restorative justice principle of the inclusive community and the contribution of probation volunteers to the reintegration of (ex-)offenders through specific restorative justice intervention strategies. It is shown that in penal policy of the past decades the penal welfare-model and the aim of reintegration of ex-offenders has been overshadowed by a more utilitarian, punitive and management logic of criminal justice. As a result, the reintegration and social inclusion of ex-offenders has become a rather neglected area and, in the current liberal-democratic state, offenders face social conditions in which it is very hard to turn their life around. In addition it is suggested that both in mainstream and in restorative justice interventions, achievement of the goal of reintegration is often problematic or absent. Moreover, this lack of opportunities for connection may undermine and reduce the effects of interventions, including those with a restorative justice approach. Probation services that use specific restorative justice intervention strategies guided by both professionals and probation volunteers might contribute to a more active, inclusive role of the community and society in the reintegration of ex-offenders.


Peter Nelissen
Peter Nelissen is criminoloog en werkzaam als onderzoeker/consultant en als docent.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en slachtoffers van bedrijfsgeweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Corporate violence, Health, concepts of participation
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Whether and under which conditions restorative justice can be applied to cases of corporate violence is explored starting from the phenomenon of corporate violence, defined as acts committed by corporations in the course of their regular activities but with harmful consequences for people’s health. Specific characteristics of different types of corporate violence are presented, as well as victims’ needs, experiences and expectations. The applicability of restorative justice, but also the need of its rethinking, is discussed through an analysis of the role of its key actors and the concepts of participation and restoration.


Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar herstelrecht en victimologie aan de KU Leuven.
Artikel

Herstelgericht werken op school

Een kans voor maatschappelijk kwetsbare leerlingen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2017
Auteurs Nicole Vettenburg en Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative justice has evolved from an unknown concept towards a model that is considered world-wide when it comes to changes in the penal and youth justice sector. The restorative model expands towards handling conflicts in other areas, such as neighbourhoods, business, welfare issues, family matters and behavioural problems in schools. This article deals with the latter. Restorative practices are based upon an open and respectful dialogue, which presupposes certain attitudes and capacities. The article looks into possible risks, but especially the chances restorative practices in schools can offer for socially vulnerable youth.


Nicole Vettenburg
Nicole Vettenburg is emeritus professor van de Universiteit Gent.

Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus professor van de KU Leuven, Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie.
Artikel

Over de vraag naar de kwaliteit van de bemiddelaar

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Bemiddelaar, kwaliteit, Rechtskarakter herstelrecht, Strafrechtspleging
Auteurs Leo Van Garsse
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some believe that the credibility of restorative justice can be increased if more attention is given to the quality of the mediator, as well as methods to select people with the right profile or by training. At first glance this seems a legitimate aim: mediation services should offer quality. Reflecting on practical experience and research into mediation between offenders and victims in Flanders, the author problematizes these assumptions. The quest for tangible quality to ensure ‘credibility’ refers to a neo-liberal approach aimed at reducing risks and promoting the client’s satisfaction. In this article the author confronts the apolitical approach of client satisfaction with alternative ideas about (restorative) justice. Ideally, the mediator is critical of established (legal) authorities and professional expertise. Mediation is political in nature, even if the mediator relies on neutrality. The mediator must be aware of his – inevitable – political stance and should be ready to be interrogated on this matter.


Leo Van Garsse
Leo Van Garsse is oud-herstelbemiddelaar en momenteel werkzaam bij het vicariaat Mechelen – Vlaams Brabant als stafmedewerker voor territoriale pastoraal.

Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is universitair docent straf(proces)recht bij de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie van de Universiteit Maastricht en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg. Daarnaast is hij redacteur van dit tijdschrift. Van zijn hand verscheen onder meer Vergeving in het strafrecht via de implementatie van herstelbemiddeling, Wolf Legal Publishers (2015). In 2012 ontving hij de Herman Bianchi herstelrecht-prijs.
Artikel

Diversiteitsbewuste communicatie. Niet culturen, maar mensen ontmoeten elkaar

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden intercultural communication, diversity, TOPOI
Auteurs Edwin Hoffman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intercultural communication is often portrayed as communication between people with a different ethnic or national background. People may interpret differences and misunderstandings arising in communication as especially grand and problematic. Sometimes, people see the reason for a difference in opinion or the conflict to be situated within the other (often national or ethnic) culture. They see themselves and others as a member of a different group, with a different culture and thus claim the differences to be related to the culture and not the individual person (culturalising or culturistic approach). This approach entails certain risks when it is seen as a condition to be able to speak to others and when handled as the sole frame of reference to interpret people’s meaning-making. An alternative approach can be found in a systemic and communication-theory approach, linking it to intersectionality, pluralism, diversity competence and the TOPOI model, as this article explains.


Edwin Hoffman
Edwin Hoffman is werkzaam als zelfstandig adviseur Diversiteit (ook in België) en als externe lesgever aan de Alpen Adria Universiteit te Klagenfurt met de leeropdracht Interkulturelle Kompetenz und Bildung im internationalen Vergleich.
Artikel

Herstelbemiddeling als sociaal werk-praktijk

Bemiddelaars in Vlaanderen aan het woord

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Social work practices
Auteurs Lieve Bradt en Maria Bouverne-De Bie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative justice as well as restorative justice practices have mainly been researched from judicial and criminologist perspectives, whereas social work has been remarkably silent in the restorative justice debate. As a consequence, the role of social work in the restorative justice field remains largely unexplored. In this article we report the findings of two focus groups conducted with mediators working in juvenile and adult mediation practices in Flanders to gain more insight into how mediators perceive their role and to analyse to what extent they refer to the individual and structural dimension of victim-offender mediation.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt is als doctor-assistent verbonden aan de vakgroep sociale agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.

Maria Bouverne-De Bie
Maria Bouverne-De Bie is als hoofddocent verbonden aan de vakgroep sociale agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

De publieke emoties na een misdrijf en het beschavingsproces

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden public emotions, civilisation process, punishment, inclusion, exclusion
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The tendency to revalorise emotions in the response to offending, seems to face a dilemma. On the one hand, experiencing crime and reacting to it inevitably are imbued by emotion. On the other hand, giving way to emotions in responding to crime entails the risks of disproportionate and unequal justice. This article argues that there is a fundamental difference between the emotions promoted to be included in the response to crime and the emotions feared as a risk to overwhelm good and proportionate jurisprudence. The first ones focus on the needs of the immediate stakeholders of the offence and seek their (re-)inclusion. The second type of emotions focuses on the criminal act and seeks to keep the threat it represents under control through punishment and incapacitation. It is a socio-ethical choice to promote the inclusionary approach. Whereas the rehabilitative approach has addressed the needs of the offenders only, the restorative tendency addresses the needs of both the victim and the offenders in a more balanced way. This balance also helps to avoid that respectful responses to crime degrade into norm erosion. The option for revalorising inclusionary emotions in the response to crime through restorative justice is located as a next phase in the civilisation process, described originally by Elias.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Actief burgerschap binnen herstelrecht

Een inventarisatie van participatievormen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Citizenship, Participation, Mediators, Activism
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Seemingly a difficult concept, participation in restorative justice can be understood better once the notion is broadened and operationalized. Therefore a proposal will be made here to first broaden the meaning of participation beyond participation of stakeholders and ‘community’ in the process as it is generally understood in restorative justice literature, and second break down the concept of participation into five different levels: (1) involvement of the stakeholders and the ‘community’ in the restorative process; (2) participation of citizens as volunteer mediators/facilitators in the process; (3) self-referrals from citizens; (4) voluntary participation of experts in restorative justice organisations; (5) promotion from ex-victims of crime and ex-offenders. Based on this approach, in the end, the author opens up the discussion on the meaning of active citizenship for restorative justice in continental Europe. Before discussing how the broadening of the concept of participation is concretely envisioned, the author argues on the importance of prioritizing the notion of citizenship instead of ‘community’ in the continental European restorative justice discourse.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali verricht promotieonderzoek aan het Instituut voor Criminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit van Leuven.
Artikel

Een empirische blik op herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Criminalteitspreventie, empirisch onderzoek, Daderperspectief, Slachtofferperspectief
Auteurs Anniek Gielen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors summarize the empirical findings with regard to restorative justice and crime prevention as presented in the report of the European project on the matter at hand. With regard to the offender, they studied empirical research on the reduction of recidivism. Data refer to characteristics of the offender, the view of the offender with regard to the restorative process, characteristics of the communication processes and the type of offence as influencing factors. Results in general seem to be quite positive, although there are some cases when recidivism is worse in comparison to the traditional justice process. Crawford indicates how preventative effects for the victims can be taken into account – the researchers refer to the different effects depending on the type of crime and characteristics of the victim; satisfaction, re-victimisation and post-traumatic symptoms; and the prevention of revenge. With regard to the societal preventative effects, research on restorative justice seems to be restricted to the theoretical level: empirical research in this regard is lacking.


Anniek Gielen
Anniek Gielen was verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U. Leuven, als project officer voor het Europese project Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention. Ze werkt thans als begeleider van mensen met autisme.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U. Leuven, als projectcoördinator van het Europese project Victims and Restorative Justice, onder promotorschap van het European Forum for Restorative Justice. Ze was copromotor van het Europese project Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventie

Van conceptueel kader naar praktische uitdaging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden criminaliteitspreventie, conceptueel kader
Auteurs Adam Crawford
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On the basis of current definitions and approaches of restorative justice and crime prevention, and making use of a two-dimensional typology of crime prevention, this article develops a conceptual framework and seeks to offer points of connections and departure at the theoretical level between restorative justice practices and different models of offender-oriented, victim-oriented and community-oriented prevention. In order to face some of the present limitations of restorative justice, in particular the missing link to causes of crime at the societal-structural level, the author widens the perspective of restorative justice to the broader notion of ‘community justice’. The challenge for restorative justice is, then, to integrate polycentric problem-solving approaches into its operational models.


Adam Crawford
Adam Crawford is professor Criminology and Criminal Justice en directeur van het Centre for Criminal Justice Studies aan de universiteit van Leeds. Hij is eveneens hoofdredacteur van het wetenschappelijke tijdschrift Criminology and Criminal Justice.
Artikel

De bruid van Frankenstein

Dwarsboomt mensenrechtenrechtspraak de prille romance van de Belgische strafprocedure met het herstelrecht?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden restorative justice, human rights, criminal procedure, guarantees
Auteurs Joost Huysmans en Frank Verbruggen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors discuss the space that can be found for restorative justice in decisions on human rights issues in the criminal procedure by the European Court of Human Rights, based on par. 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. There is room for restorative justice because the court accepts the waiver of the procedural rights and safeguards by the defendant, provided that he does so completely voluntarily, after being fully informed, and provided that there is no important public interest that stands in the way of out-of-court settlements. The alternative procedure to a full dressed criminal trial should, in addition, live up to such standards that the procedure can be judged fair. Pressures on avoiding unreasonable delay and legal counseling necessary to fully inform the defendant about his options can lead to a formalization of restorative procedures which can be a threat to the merits of restorative justice.


Joost Huysmans
Joost Huysmans is als penalist verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Frank Verbruggen
Frank Verbruggen is als penalist verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Artikel

Herstelrecht in Nederland: een slachtofferperspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden restorative justice, paradigma, tailoring, victims
Auteurs Marc Groenhuijsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author advises the protagonists of restorative justice to become less paradigmatic and more pragmatic in their approach of criminal justice and victims needs and interests. The offer of a restorative procedure is not suitable for all victims, nor for all thinkable moments after the event of a crime. Tailoring is needed to make each victim the best offer, and the utility of restorative justice is important, but limited. The author believes that much of the restorative justice literature is aiming at proving the superiority of restorative justice practices above any other type of intervention or service, and he feels that this is partly why restorative justice has not been well received in the Netherlands. A piecemeal implementation of mediation and conferencing in the sphere of criminal justice might be served by being less paradigmatic.


Marc Groenhuijsen
Marc Groenhuijsen is hoogleraar straf(proces)recht, verbonden aan de Universiteit Tilburg en Intervict.
Artikel

Het herstelrechtelijk ongeloof in het concept bestraffing

Een verkenning op basis van het ‘last resort’-principe

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden bestraffing, abolitionisme, last resort, criminele gedragingen, leedtoevoeging
Auteurs Vicky De Mesmaecker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Discussions in the movement of restorative justice about the fundamental question, whether its interventions are alternatives to punishment or alternative punishments, have become repetitive and seem to be in a dead end. The author reviews the arguments against the background of the ‘last resort’ principle in Husak’s work. Husak distinguishes between last resort in terms of sentencing and last resort in terms of criminalization. Since the restorative justice movement does not fundamentally reject the primary criminalisations, but accepts the definitions of certain forms of conduct as crime, it merely strives to offer alternatives to punishments that would otherwise be imposed. If protagonists of restorative justice want to avoid this, they should consider an abolitionist option to strive for decriminalization.


Vicky De Mesmaecker
Vicky De Mesmaecker is werkzaam aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U.Leuven.
Casus

Lima Declaration on Restorative Juvenile Justice

Declaratie en actiepunten wereldcongres jeugdherstelrecht, Lima, 4-7 november 2009

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis
Auteursinformatie

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is onderzoeker aan de Open Universiteit en schrijft een proefschrift over jeugdherstelrecht en kinderrechten. Zij is tevens verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut, waar zij bijdraagt aan maatschappelijk onderzoek, en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Een blik op herstelbemiddeling vanuit een sociaal werk-perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden sociaal werk, herstelbemiddeling, emancipatie, responsabilisering
Auteurs Lieve Bradt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author reports on the doctorate research that she presented in 2009. Restorative practices have not often been researched as a praxis of social work, on the interface between giving help and administering justice. The author situates restorative mediation as a form of social work on the threshold between the private and the public, a threshold that she considers to be of a social nature.Restorative mediation as social work should contribute to values such as human dignity and social justice. The author observed and studied restorative mediation in adult on the one hand and juvenile criminal cases on the other (in Flanders, Belgium) and found that these practices differ widely.Although in both kind of practices responsibility and restoration are central concepts, their meanings differ fundamentally: in youth cases the offer of restorative mediation departs from a critical pedagogy oriented at emancipation, holding on to protective arrangements at the same time. Societal developments changed the image of youngsters from victims of society into risks for society and this may have implied that social problems around criminality are now also by mediation transformed into individual problems for which juveniles should be held accountable.In adult criminal cases the approach was initially much more on civic responsibility for the harm done to victims and since mediation was only offered in serious cases the courts always had their say too.Reflecting upon her research the author questions whether dominant social norms can be and still are challenged in the praxis of mediation. Restorative mediation has become incorporated into the existing institutional arrangements relevant to juveniles and adults: with juvenile cases the logic of prevention seems to become dominant. The practices seem to become exercises in taking responsibility within the traditional normative framework. On the threshold between the private and the public restorative practices, with their self-image of being a more humane form of law enforcement, run the risk of becoming blind for the potential effect of criminalization of their clients.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt is als sociaal-agoog verbonden aan de Universiteit van Gent. Zij is in 2009 gepromoveerd op haar proefschrift met de titel Victim-offender mediation as social work practice. A comparison between mediation for Young and adult offenders in Flanders.
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