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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht x Jaar 2014 x

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is senior-onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut, vicevoorzitter van het European Forum for Restorative Justice en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is als docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen. www.basvanstokkom.nl.
Artikel

Peacemaking circles

Een onderzoek naar de mogelijke implementatie in Europa

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Peacemaking circles, implementation in Europe, community, inclusion, equality
Auteurs Davy Dhondt en Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this short paper, a summarising report is presented on a two years action-research project (2011-2013) co-funded by the European Union on how to conceive and implement peacemaking circles in a European legal and cultural environment. In a first part of the paper, the background and reasons for implementing peacemaking circles are explained, and attention is given to their added value as compared to the models of victim-offender mediation and conferencing. After a short presentation of the action-research set-up in three countries (Belgium, Germany and Hungary), a selective list of critical issues is discussed as they have been experienced during the project: the selection of files and the preparatory phase of a peacemaking circle, the running of the circle meeting and the meaning of some of its operational principles (the role of the circle keeper, the function of rituals, the talking piece, the decision making process, …). Also the involvement of the community at its different levels - from the community of care to the macro-community - is discussed, as well as how the direct conflict parties experience the presence of these communities. A general conclusion is that a model of peacemaking circles can be implemented in a European context effectively, but developing a methodology on how to involve members of the wider community remains a challenge.


Davy Dhondt
Davy Dhondt is bemiddelaar bij Suggnome, Forum voor herstelrecht en bemiddeling, www.suggnome.be.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Restorative Transformative Learning en Partnergeweld

Van ‘herstellen’ naar ‘herstellend transformeren’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden intimate partner violence, restorative justice, transformative learning, meaning perspectives, restorative transformative learning
Auteurs Dana Weistra en Anthony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many articles have dealt with the question why restorative justice in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) may or may not be appropriate. Seeing however as a punitive approach towards IPV is rapidly losing popularity as an effective way of dealing with this complex type of violence, as well as the outcomes of a recent study by the European Agency for Fundamental Rights (2014) – where 25% of the Dutch women that were surveyed indicated they had experienced violence by an intimate partner – restorative justice may be a promising alternative after all.
    Instead of adding to the debate, the current article focuses on how restorative justice can be constructed to be appropriate for IPV cases, and is explorative in nature. In order to do so, the theory behind transformative learning is combined with restorative justice practices, shifting the focus from ‘restoration’ to ‘restorative transformation’. Such a restorative transformative learning approach focuses on transforming violent meaning perspectives that dictate the use or toleration of violence. Instead of trying to restore the individual back to the state they were in before the violence took place – as ‘restoration’ traditionally implies – the goal of restorative transformative learning is to restore the individual back to a state before a violent meaning perspective was acquired. The transformation of violent meaning perspectives is therefore the prerequisite for restoration.
    The method that is introduced in this article offers a practical framework and guidelines to achieve such a transformation. It answers to the complexity of IPV cases by focusing on the entire family system, while leaving room for individual restoration. In doing so, restorative transformative learning may possibly open the way to the acceptance of restorative justice in the field of IPV.


Dana Weistra
Dana Weistra studeerde in 2014 af aan de Universiteit van Tilburg op het onderwerp restorative justice and intimate partner violence en heeft stage gelopen bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg op het project Mediation naast strafrecht. Momenteel is zij werkzaam als junior onderzoeker en beleidsmedewerker bij Slachtofferhulp Nederland.

Anthony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is hoogleraar Victimologie bij Intervict in Tilburg. Hij is tevens redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Prevalentie van ernstige misdrijven bij slachtoffer-daderbemiddeling

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden seriousness, offenses, mediation, range of cases, outcome
Auteurs Wendy Schreurs, Sven Zebel en Elze Ufkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A debate exists in the literature about the question whether (different forms of) mediated contact between victims and offenders occur and are appropriate only after minor offenses. This contribution therefore examines whether a relationship exists between the seriousness of offenses and the degree to which in practice cases result in mediated contact, in the Dutch context. More specifically, we report the first findings of a study aimed to (a) examine the seriousness of cases that were registered at the foundation Slachtoffer in Beeld (Victim in Focus; responsible for the execution of mediated contacts between victims and offenders in the Netherlands), and (b) compare the seriousness of cases at this foundation that resulted in different forms of mediated contact (including cases in which no contact emerged). To this end, we sampled 200 cases from the data system of Victim in Focus in a random manner; consequently, the seriousness of each of these cases was coded. The mean duration of incarceration sentenced for specific offenses in the Netherlands was used as an (as objective as possible) indication of the seriousness of the offenses in these cases. The results indicated that the cases registered at Victim in Focus do not consist exclusively of minor offenses. A substantial part consists of more serious offenses, especially when this is compared to the prevalence of all (minor and serious) offenses in the Netherlands. In addition, we observed no relationship between the seriousness of cases and the form of mediated contact (or no contact) that emerged at Victim in Focus; mediated contact arose to the same degree for serious compared to minor offenses. The implications of these results for the debate mentioned above are discussed, taking into account the manner in which victim-offender mediation is organized in the Netherlands.


Wendy Schreurs
Wendy Schreurs is afgestudeerd aan de vakgroep Psychologie van Conflict, Risico en Veiligheid aan de Universiteit Twente, op onderzoek naar de ontwikkeling van een ernstmonitor in de context van slachtoffer-daderbemiddeling. Ze werkt nu als PhD student op een project over de inzet van burgers bij politiewerk en interventies om die inzet te verbeteren.

Sven Zebel
Sven Zebel is universitair docent aan de vakgroep Psychologie van Conflict, Risico en Veiligheid van de Universiteit Twente. Hij houdt zich bezig met de psychologische reacties op wangedrag, conflicten en misdrijven, en de impact van interventies die trachten te herstellen en de kans op recidive te verkleinen (e.g. bemiddeling, reclasseringstoezicht, toekomstverbeelding).

Elze Ufkes
Elze Ufkes is universitair docent aan de vakgroep Psychologie van Conflict, Risico en Veiligheid aan de Universiteit Twente. Hij richt zich in zijn onderzoek op hoe groepsprocessen zoals groepslidmaatschap en stereotypering conflictgedrag van mensen beïnvloedt.

Janny Dierx
Janny Dierx is mediator en zelfstandig onderzoeker. Zij coördineert de Stichting Mediation in Strafzaken en is redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Maartje Berger
Maartje Berger is als specialist jeugdstrafrecht werkzaam bij Defence for Children International.

Bente Thé
Bente Thé is directrice van Beterburen, Amsterdam.
Casus

Bewogen dagen in Belfast

Impressies van het achtste congres van het European Forum for Restorative Justice

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2014
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis
Auteursinformatie

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is werkzaam bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut in Utrecht en is bestuurslid van het European Forum for Restorative Justice.
Artikel

Herstelgerichte praktijken, berouw en vergeving in het islamitische strafrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Islamic criminal law, forgiveness, Remorse
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since Islam stands for a total way of life, it also includes a vision on crime and punishment. According to several (Muslim)scholars the Sharia contains not so much a message of revenge and retribution but rather one of compassion, forgiveness and mercy. Much depends on which sections of the holy sources of Islam are read and subsequently how these sections are interpreted. However, fact is that – in the context of quite a number of criminal offences – Islamic criminal law gives room for restorative practices. These practices prove to be more beneficial with regard to the realization of remorse, forgiveness and reconciliation than the regular criminal process. Since restorative practices form an intrinsic part of (pre-modern) Islamic criminal law and since more and more initiatives are being developed nowadays to incorporate such practices in (modern) Western criminal law, it is of fundamental importance to take note of Islamic criminal law. Before focusing in this contribution on the role of restorative practices, remorse and forgiveness in Islamic criminal law, first the position of victims in criminal law under influence of Islam and Christianity will be discussed on the basis of the ideas of the Dutch victimologist Jan van Dijk. Furthermore, attention will be paid to the decline of mysticism in Islam and to the possible consequences and risks thereof – also for the role of restorative practices, remorse and forgiveness in Islamic criminal law.


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is redactielid van TvH.

    Since 2005, Dutch victims of serious crime have the right to make an oral statement in court (‘spreekrecht’). In the past decade, the Dutch criminal justice system has accommodated this right to make an oral statement with regard to the consequences of the crime; no major problems have occurred. Indeed, only a minority of the victims consumes this right (ca. 230 cases annually), the majority prefers to lodge a written statement. Nevertheless, the Dutch legislature is of the opinion that the right to make an oral statement should be extended and has lodged a draft-proposal recently. The aim is to provide crime victims a right to put forward an advice to the judge at the trial session, such an advice relating to the full scheme of judicial decision-making (truth, legal qualification, punishment). Such a provision resembles a Victim Statement of Opinion, used in the American scheme of justice, and even exceeds this. The draft has been met with criticism, only the Dutch Victim Support is in favor. One of the objections heard is the one dimensional focus underlying the draft: by focusing on a specific group of victims – those who have suffered from serious crimes – the legislature neglects the heterogeneous nature of victims’ needs.


Renée Kool
Renée Kool is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan Ucall en het Montaigne-Instituut, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Utrecht en redacteur van dit blad.
Artikel

Herstelbemiddeling als sociaal werk-praktijk

Bemiddelaars in Vlaanderen aan het woord

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Social work practices
Auteurs Lieve Bradt en Maria Bouverne-De Bie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative justice as well as restorative justice practices have mainly been researched from judicial and criminologist perspectives, whereas social work has been remarkably silent in the restorative justice debate. As a consequence, the role of social work in the restorative justice field remains largely unexplored. In this article we report the findings of two focus groups conducted with mediators working in juvenile and adult mediation practices in Flanders to gain more insight into how mediators perceive their role and to analyse to what extent they refer to the individual and structural dimension of victim-offender mediation.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt is als doctor-assistent verbonden aan de vakgroep sociale agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.

Maria Bouverne-De Bie
Maria Bouverne-De Bie is als hoofddocent verbonden aan de vakgroep sociale agogiek van de Universiteit Gent.

Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek is een zelfstandig gevestigd criminoloog met ruim 25 jaar ervaring als onderzoeker en (project)manager. Zij is medeoprichter van Radio La Benevolencija en van Restorative Justice Nederland. Vanuit La Benevolencija coördineert zij momenteel het Rwanda Peace Education Programme en vanuit Restorative Justice Nederland is ze projectleider van het project Restorative Justice in Europe: Safeguarding Victims & Empowering Professionals.

Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek is een zelfstandig gevestigd criminoloog met ruim 25 jaar ervaring als onderzoeker en (project)manager. Zij is medeoprichter van Radio La Benevolencija en van Restorative Justice Nederland. Vanuit La Benevolencija coördineert zij momenteel het Rwanda Peace Education Programme en vanuit Restorative Justice Nederland is ze projectleider van het project Restorative Justice in Europe: Safeguarding Victims & Empowering Professionals.

Pieter Verbeeck
Pieter Verbeeck is stafmedewerker van vzw Suggnomè.
Artikel

Een remix van het strafproces? Een hiphop-theorie van het herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden hip-hop, herstelrecht, culturele criminologie, populaire cultuur, commodificatie
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hip-hop and restorative justice may seem odd bedfellows, but according to Antony Pemberton they have more in common than many would assume. In the first place hip-hop shares a common history, at least with restorative justice's modern incarnations, spanning four decades, to become a similarly global phenomenon. Much of the social ecology shaping RJ is similar to hiphop. In addition hiphop's criticism of criminal justice almost goes without saying. Almost no source offers similar scathing critique of criminal justice and penal institutions as rap lyrics. Pemberton concludes that rituals in hip-hop are connected with the need to deal with conflict. The way respect and disrespect can coincide in rap-battles might offer insights in the way similar dialectics can be navigated within restorative justice processes. The extent to which this is possible is necessarily limited. Pemberton finds that hip-hop – with the exception of graffiti- does not seem currently to criticize the key neo-liberal values of the American Zeitgeist. The much maligned chasm between the old-school and the new school can be situated in this observation. Where hip-hop, as a social movement, used to deploy the depiction of injustice as a means to underline the necessity of social change, the current motto appears to be rich or die tryin”. The life of the thug and the gangsta is depicted as the epitome of the American Dream. Here Pemberton sees grounds for a cautionary warning for restorative justice, which is nurtured by a similar neo-liberal undercurrent in a number of jurisdictions.


Antony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is werkzaam aan het International Victimology Institute van Tilburg University.
Artikel

Het esoterische mensbeeld in Die Zauberflote van Mozart

Wat straf- en herstelrecht daarvan kunnen leren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden esoterische wijsheid, levensloopbenadering, desistance, Die Zauberflöte, Mozart
Auteurs Jacques Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The focus of this contribution is on the esoteric view on mankind as depicted in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute. Within this context, the stages of development of the conscience and soul that a man can go through will receive additional attention. This development can also be influenced by external factors. According to esotericists, the purpose or destination of man is that he comes into contact with his divine nature, but also that he identifies himself with this nature and that he will live in accordance with it. Such a life can be characterized by wisdom and love and therefore by virtue (charity), which is the opposite of sin or mis-doing. Before the identified development of man can be visualized based on The Magic Flute, this opera firstly needs to be embedded in the tradition of the freemasonry (‘Royal Art’) and other, older initiation schools. It is therefore important to recognize that the esoteric view on mankind has historical roots and that, only in recent centuries, this view has been marginalized, due to the rise of the scientific view on mankind. Finally, the question is posed what criminal law and restorative justice can learn from the esoteric view on mankind. In response to this question, a starting point will be presented of the development of a spiritual life-cycle approach, which complements the existing life-cycle approach and the related desistance theories within contemporary criminology. Furthermore, the concept of interconnectedness, which plays an important role in the context of the esoteric views on mankind, will be connected to a restorative crime approach, which provides restorative justice with spiritual legitimization.


Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Redactioneel

Artistieke interventies, identiteitsverandering en herstel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2014
Auteurs Jacques Claessen, Hilleke Crum, Antony Pemberton e.a.
Auteursinformatie

Jacques Claessen
Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Universiteit Maastricht. Daarnaast is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg, kerngroeplid van Stichting MENS (www.mensenstrafrecht.nl) en redactielid van dit tijdschrift. In zijn metajuridische publicaties probeert hij vaak verbanden te leggen tussen religie/mystiek, moraal en straf-/herstelrecht.

Hilleke Crum
Hilleke Crum is regiomanager Noord-Holland voor de Eigen Kracht Centrale.

Antony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is werkzaam aan het International Victimology Institute van Tilburg University.

Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is medewerker bij de sectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Vlieland als ons eigen Siberië

Over de (on)mogelijkheden van resocialisatie voor ex-delinquenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden resocialisering, ontkerstening, ex-delinquenten, christelijke deugden, Dostojevski
Auteurs Jaap Goedegebuure
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In a recent novel that received much public revulsion, Flemish writer Kristien Hemmerechts identifies with Michelle Martin, ex-wife and accomplice of the notorious criminal Marc Dutroux. To a certain extent her book is a plea for rehabilitation and re-socialization of Martin. By the wider public this ‘humanization’ is experienced as unacceptable. Nowadays re-acceptation of ex-convicts has become increasingly problematic. It seems the public would prefer to banish many ex-offenders to a desert island or a distant country. This development shows that the ethic of forgiveness has lost social influence. In this essay Hemmerechts' position is compared to that of Dostoevsky, especially with his novel Crime and Punishment in which the Gospel message of humility, charity and compassion reverberates.


Jaap Goedegebuure
Jaap Goedegebuure was van 2005 tot 2012 hoogleraar moderne Nederlandse letterkunde aan de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder vervulde hij leeropdrachten aan de universiteiten van Berlijn, Tilburg en Nijmegen. Hij publiceert regelmatig over de literatuur van de negentiende en twintigste eeuw. Zijn laatste publicatie in boekvorm is Nederlandse schrijvers en religie 1960-2010.

    Column


Anne Martien van der Does
Anne Martien van der Does is senior rechter bij de Rechtbank Amsterdam en coördinator voor de rechtspraak van de pilots Mediation naast strafrecht.

    In this contribution the author reviews Probleemoplossend strafrecht en het ideaal van responsieve rechtspraak by Suzan Verberk.


John Blad
John Blad is hoofddocent strafrechtswetenschappen aan de Erasmus Law School Rotterdam, hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift.
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