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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht x Jaar 2010 x
Artikel

Welk spoor volgt Nederland?

Een reactie op Hans Dominicus

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden restorative justice, implementation, conditions for
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis en Eric Wiersma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Comparing the developments in the Netherlands with those in Belgium the authors find important differences relating to the questions pertinent to implementation. Experiments have also been done in the Netherlands and their evaluations showed positive results, but there were different models which were not clearly – or not at all – related to the traditional criminal justice process. They all were lacking the formal collaboration with the courts, that was seen in Belgium. There has been no form of central direction and no important influence from the academic world and the various projects have officially been replaced in 2006 by a national policy of implementing ‘victim-offendertalks’. These talks have their merits and are appreciated by victims and offenders, but they do not amount to mediation in a restorative style, since restorative agreements are not allowed to result. Nevertheless, there are a number of indications that restorative justice practices could still become recognized and accepted. Staff of the police, the public prosecutors office and judges are interested and new experiments are beginning. The new development of local ‘veiligheidshuizen’ (‘front offices for safety’) offers a promising setting for interagency co-operation and conferencing with citizens in trouble and conflict. The conferencing-model has gained broad acceptance in the context of juvenile care and may continue to inspire justice personnel. In process now is the foundation of a new restorative justice network, called ‘Restorative Justice Netherlands’.


Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is als onderzoekster verbonden aan het Hilde Verweij –Jonker Instituut te Utrecht.

Eric Wiersma
Eric Wiersma is werkzaam als beleidsconsulent bij Halt Nederland.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en sociaal werk

Een reactie op Maria Bouverne-De Bie & Rudi Roose

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden restorative justice, social work, reintegration, structural problems
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Responding to Bouverne-De Bie and Roose Walgrave stresses the importance of using a narrow definition of restorative justice as a way of doing justice by repairing the harm caused by crime. This narrow definition alone allows for the development of a consistent praxis and theory of restorative justice and for adequate research of its effects. Restorative Justice cannot offer the ´politically critical´ social praxis on the interface between the public and the private world that Bouverne-De Bie and Roose would like to see. But the apparent influence that basic concepts and ideas of restorative justice have on social practices outside the sphere of criminal justice imply that such social practices and restorative justice praxis can work in the same direction by avoiding stigmatization and exclusion and promoting redress and inclusion.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus-hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Artikel

De bruid van Frankenstein

Dwarsboomt mensenrechtenrechtspraak de prille romance van de Belgische strafprocedure met het herstelrecht?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden restorative justice, human rights, criminal procedure, guarantees
Auteurs Joost Huysmans en Frank Verbruggen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors discuss the space that can be found for restorative justice in decisions on human rights issues in the criminal procedure by the European Court of Human Rights, based on par. 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. There is room for restorative justice because the court accepts the waiver of the procedural rights and safeguards by the defendant, provided that he does so completely voluntarily, after being fully informed, and provided that there is no important public interest that stands in the way of out-of-court settlements. The alternative procedure to a full dressed criminal trial should, in addition, live up to such standards that the procedure can be judged fair. Pressures on avoiding unreasonable delay and legal counseling necessary to fully inform the defendant about his options can lead to a formalization of restorative procedures which can be a threat to the merits of restorative justice.


Joost Huysmans
Joost Huysmans is als penalist verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Frank Verbruggen
Frank Verbruggen is als penalist verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en de maatschappelijke (re)integratie van de dader

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden restorative justice, social work, reintegration, structural problems
Auteurs Maria Bouverne-De Bie en Rudi Roose
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Social (re-)integration is such a complex phenomenon that it is not possible to make a direct link between restorative justice and social reintegration of offenders. If one considers restorative justice, not in its utility for maintaining the law but as a praxis of social work, one could get the impression that restorative justice runs the risk of individualizing the social problem of crime by making offenders responsible and of losing sight of the structural dimensions causing or contributing to criminality. The same structural dimensions may appear to be a blockade for effective emancipation of offenders from their often marginal and powerless positions. Considered as a praxis of social work, restorative justice should be able to promote (the awareness of) accountability and the mutual exploration of the many roads that can lead to effective emancipation and reintegration.


Maria Bouverne-De Bie
Maria Bouverne-De Bie is als hoofddocent verbonden aan de vakgroep Sociale, Culturele en Vrijetijdsagogiek van de Universiteit van Gent.

Rudi Roose
Rudi Roose is als wetenschappelijk assistent verbonden aan de vakgroep Sociale, Culturele en Vrijetijdsagogiek van de Universiteit van Gent.
Artikel

Mensenrechtelijk georiënteerd manspersoon zoekt vrouw, liefst herstelrechtelijk georiënteerd

Een reactie op Joost Huysmans en Frank Verbruggen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden restorative justice, human rights, criminal procedure, guarantees
Auteurs Renée Kool
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author responds to Huysmans and Verbruggen by stressing the importance of recognizing that the criminal procedure has aims, which are entirely different from the aims of restorative procedures. If things can be so arranged that the criminal justice system provides for a structural place and use of restorative procedures, these should and could be guided by different rights and safeguards, which fit and reinforce the different aims of restorative justice and promote their justice qualities. Initial legal studies to develop suitable procedural rights and safeguards for restorative justice have been produced and should be elaborated upon.


Renée Kool
Renée Kool is hoofddocent straf(proces)recht, verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Juridische Faculteit, Universiteit Utrecht.

Eric Wiersma
Eric Wiersma is werkzaam als beleidsconsulent bij Halt Nederland.
Artikel

De implementatie van dader-slachtofferbemiddeling in België

Zoektocht naar functionele en structurele randvoorwaarden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden restorative justice, implementation, conditions for
Auteurs Hans Dominicus
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Victim-offender-mediation started in Belgium as early as 1993 and nowadays the Belgium landscape shows a variety of restorative practices, including conferencing with juveniles and mediation with adult offenders, on the basis of a number of legal arrangements. Progress can still be made in quantitative terms and qualitatively by harmonizing the various legal instruments that are available. The diversionary mediation that is possible at the level of the public prosecutor differs in a number of ways from the mediation that can be offered in subsequent stages of the criminal procedure. A variety of motives and reasons explain the reception and growth of restorative practices, such as the desire to offer victims a better service and to improve the delivery of justice. The willingness to experiment and to collaborate between protagonists of restorative justice and the agencies of criminal justice, and the strong scientific support from the Catholic University of Leuven, are amongst the key factors that promoted the integration and consolidation of restorative practices in the legal system.


Hans Dominicus
Hans Dominicus is attaché bij het Directoraat-generaal Justitiehuizen van de Federale Overheidsdienst Justitie in België. Hij is adviseur van minister van justitie Stefaan de Clerck.
Praktijk

‘De blauwe plekken moeten liefst nog niet zijn verkleurd’

Strafrechtelijke bemiddeling in Maastricht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2010
Auteurs Janny Dierx
Auteursinformatie

Janny Dierx
Janny Dierx is jurist en werkt momenteel als adviseur, trainer en mediator. Zij schreef een masteronderzoek over mediation bij de Rechtbank van Buenos Aires en het Argentijnse Mediation Instituut van het Openbaar Ministerie San Martin (in 2008 bekroond met de Remo Entelman Prijs).
Artikel

Wettelijke bepalingen voor herstelgerichte afdoeningen

Niet te weinig, niet te veel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden bemiddelingsdiensten, wetgeving, preventie, strafproces
Auteurs Martin Wright
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Legislation affects restorative justice in four ways: existing legislation may allow it, new laws may enable it, laws may limit it, or restorative justice may be the norm. Examples from different countries are given and specific questions about the relationship of restorative justice to the criminal justice system discussed. It is suggested that, broadly speaking, safeguards should be legislated and practice regulated by an independent body. It is concluded that restorative practices, have the potential to transform society’s response to harmful behaviour.


Martin Wright
Martin Wright is senior onderzoeker aan De Montfort Universiteit in Leicester, Engeland.

Renée Kool
Renée Kool is als hoofddocent verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij is tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Theo van Boven
Theo van Boven is emeritus hoogleraar Internationaal recht, Universiteit Maastricht. Voorts heeft Theo van Boven enige aan de Verenigde Naties verbonden functies bekleed, onder andere als directeur van de afdeling Mensenrechten, als speciaal rapporteur inzake het Recht op Reparatie voor Slachtoffers van Ernstige Schendingen van de Rechten van de Mens en als speciaal rapporteur inzake Martelingen.

    The author notes that the growth of restorative justice practices seems to be hampered by the consequences of the effective socialization into the ‘penal equation’ that presents punishment as the necessary consequence of criminal offending. Upbringing in a different conflict-culture may be a fundamental condition for creating more room for restorative justice in the formal sphere of criminal justice. The need for a different socialization is also noted and discussed in the movement for human rights and has resulted in an Action Plan for human rights education of UNESCO in 2005. A satisfactory implementation of this action plan seems to be absent in the Netherlands today and methods of human rights education do not refer at all to the potentials of restorative practices such as peer mediation in schools. On the other hand, authors in restorative justice do not often refer to human rights and how they are promoted. The author claims that it is plausible that making ample room for peer mediation and conferencing in schools can be an effective way, not only to address offending conduct that often implies a breach of basic human rights – the most basic values therein being human dignity and equality – but also to make new generations aware of the meaning of human rights in their daily interactions and the qualities of their own social life.


John Blad
John Blad is als hoofddocent Strafrechtswetenschappen verbonden aan de capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

De maximalistische visie op herstelrecht onder vuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden maximalisme, rechtsorde, slachtoffers, rehabilitatie
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors latest book on Restorative Justice, Self-Interest and Responsible Citizenship has been discussed in this journal in 2009 and the author now responds to the critiques, which came from three jurists and therefore had a predominantly juristic character. Themes discussed are ‘criminal justice and punishment’, ‘restorative justice and the law’, ‘restorative justice, the victim and public interest’, ‘restorative justice and the legal order’ and finally ‘restorative justice and offender rehabilitation’. Walgrave maintains and clarifies the views he developed in the book explaining why it is correct to claim that criminal justice can be identified as fundamentally punitive (although it does not always punish, as one critic has observed) and that it should be possible to elaborate restorative justice into a completely new legal system, offering legal guarantees fitting to what restorative justice is trying to achieve. Legal guarantees as they exist today in criminal procedure cannot be taken as the benchmark for restorative procedures in view of the totally different aims and procedures. Furthermore, it is not true that the victim gets too much power in restorative justice – as one critic stated – because restorative justice is and should be conceived as a system of public law, involving the legal agencies and authorities such as courts in a proper role as guardians of every citizin’s dominion. It is because of the safeguarding of dominion that the victim should have a key-role to play in restorative justice, although not obliged to participate.One critic has mentioned that Walgraves ideas seem to imply that the legal order is only something being imposed upon the citizens ‘top down’, while in many respects one could maintain that the law and the principles of the legal order have been produced ‘bottom-up’ or at least should be the result of democracy. The response is that restorative procedures offer more opportunities for citizens for this democratic participation in producing the norms of the law.Finally some have argued that the rehabilitative interests of the offender should have a more central place in the definition of restorative justice, more or less of the same importance as restoring the harms of the victim. Walgraves experiences with the Belgian model of juvenile protection made him cautious of the risks of doing so, not only in terms of serving the victims needs, but also in terms of the legal protection of the juvenile offender against arbitrary interventions.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
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