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    In former times, citizens themselves were responsible for ensuring and protecting their own safety. Over the years, this responsibility largely shifted to the government, partly due to the establishment of an institutionalized police force. In recent years, citizens have increasingly reestablishing themselves in domain of social security. Citizens are engaged in tasks that are traditionally seen as primarily the responsibility of the police, such as law enforcement, criminal investigation and immediate in case of emergencies.
    Technology can be considered as one of the major driving forces behind this increasing contribution of citizens in the field of security. Technology makes it possible to quickly find and share information and enhances people’s ability to deal with cognitively complex tasks. In a certain way, technology democratizes police work by making the skills and tools available for every citizen.
    In this article we will discuss the value of a specific form of technological support for citizens in their search for missing persons: the missing persons app ‘Sarea’. The Netherlands has a high number of missing persons and in many incidents citizens start searching themselves. Often, this citizen initiatives are uncoordinated. Therefore, an app has been developed by the police to help citizens start and coordinate their own searches for a missing person.


Jerôme Lam
Jerôme Lam is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.

Nicolien Kop
Nicolien Kop is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.

Celest Houtman
Celest Houtman is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij Politie Nederland, Eenheid Oost-Nederland, Dienst Informatie.
Artikel

Psychosociale aspecten van crisismanagement: taken en uitdagingen voor bestuur en beleid

Een analyse van recente casuïstiek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3-4 2019
Trefwoorden Crisisbeheersing, Bevolkingszorg, Psychosociale aspecten, Leiderschap
Auteurs Michel Dückers, Wera van Hoof en Jorien Holsappel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Crises and disasters can seriously affect the health, well-being and functioning of the people involved. From a governance perspective, it is important that public leaders and crisis managers are aware of what the psychosocial dimension of crisis management entails. The objective of the current contribution is to analyse dilemmas and challenges described in evaluations of crises that occurred in the Netherlands between 2012 and 2016. Thirty-six evaluations were analysed against the background of a theoretical framework combining crisis leadership tasks and psychosocial support principles along the crisis life cycle. Public leaders and crisis managers had to deal with classical crisis problems concerning coordination, collaboration and communication. Other recurring themes were linked to social media, and the tension between tasks such as meaning making (social recognition), account giving and learning. Moreover, the analysis illustrates how difficult it is to gain insight into the needs, problems and vulnerabilities of the individuals and groups affected.


Michel Dückers
Michel Dückers is programmaleider rampen en milieudreigingen bij Nivel – Nederlands instituut voor onderzoek van de gezondheidszorg.

Wera van Hoof
Wera van Hoof is beleidsadviseur en -‍onderzoeker bij ARQ Kenniscentrum Impact.

Jorien Holsappel
Jorien Holsappel is senior beleidsadviseur en -onderzoeker bij ARQ Kenniscentrum Impact.
Artikel

Veiligheid uit de glazen bol?

Naar verantwoorde toepassingen van big data in het veiligheidscomplex

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3-4 2019
Trefwoorden Big data, Security, good governance
Auteurs Remco Spithoven en Siri Beerends
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The promises of Big Data, predictive policing and artificial intelligence hold a key position in the public debate for quite some time now. Optimists tell that it is possible to predict where criminal events will occur before they take place. This would implicate a major shift towards a crime and insecurity preventive society, feeding on our cultural longing for a secure future. Therefore we give algorithms and deep learning access to more and more aspects of our lives. But how realistic and desirable is the application of Big Data techniques in the area of security?
    In this article we put focus on the research question ‘In which way can Big Data and predictive policing support good governance of security?’, that has led our study. By exploring the central concepts, the processes behind them and their results in the domain of public security, we conclude that there are only rather disappointing results from the application of these techniques: crime and insecurity have not dropped when the police and other organizations turned to Big Data techniques. Instead, many negative side effects occurred. We search for explanations in six central academic critiques on the application of these techniques in the area of security.
    We have found several ways to guaranty principles of good governance in the application of Big Data techniques, but these require a firm paradigm shift on Big Data in general. The heuristics of security professionals should not be overshadowed by technological promises: the professional should always be in the loop, must understand the way predictions come into existence and must be able to correct flaws and bugs of (semi-)automated decisions. We conclude that safeguarding public security must remain human work in which Big Data techniques can assist.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Saxion en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Siri Beerends
Siri Beerends is cultureel socioloog, onderzoeker en schrijver bij SETUP en pro‍movenda aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Access_open Het monstertruckdrama in Haaksbergen en het vertrek van burgemeester Gerritsen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden blame games, crisis, resignation, local authority, mayor
Auteurs Sandra L. Resodihardjo, Marloes Meijer en Brendan J. Carroll
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Following a crisis, questions are often raised about how this crisis could have happened and whether someone is to be blamed for the crisis or its bad management. The blame game can become fierce as actors try to avoid, shift or mitigate blame in order to stay in office. In 2014, a festival took place in Haaksbergen where a monster truck drove into the audience, killing three people and injuring many others. Not enough safety measures had been taken to prevent the tragedy. Many actors were to blame for that, including the local authority which had granted the permit. Other actors blamed for the events were the mayor, the monster truck driver, and the organization organizing the festival. In the end, the mayor of Haaksbergen resigned. Instead of becoming more accommodative in his response as his blame levels increased, the mayor continued to be quite defensive, stating that the permit would be granted again – even with today’s knowledge. As one council member stated it, one cannot defend something which cannot be defended.


Sandra L. Resodihardjo
Sandra L. Resodihardjo is werkzaam aan de Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Management Research.

Marloes Meijer
Marloes Meijer is werkzaam aan de Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Management Research.

Brendan J. Carroll
Brendan J. Caroll is werkzaam aan de Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Management Research.
Artikel

Geweld tegen politieambtenaren

Beweegredenen en rationalisering door verdachten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Politie, Geweld tegen politie, Daderperspectief
Auteurs Danaé Stad en Jaap Timmer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper tries to answer the question why defendants use violence against police officers and whether, and if so how, they construct justifications for their own behavior. The study consists of an analysis of the situational aspects of violence against police officers and the characteristics of suspects. In addition, some suspects were interviewed about the incident in which they were involved. They were asked what their perception of the situation was, and what the background of the violence was. They were also asked for their opinion on the image of the police in general, and for their knowledge and perception of the relevant laws and regulations. The conclusion is that the motives for violence against a police officer lie in their belief that all men, police officer or not, are equal and should be treated with respect. Suspects feel treated unfairly and disrespectfully by police officers. Suspects feel that in such cases they are entitled to use force. Suspects are not aware of the differences between their own rights and responsibilities in such a situation and the authority that police officers legally have to use of force in order to perform their legal tasks.


Danaé Stad
Danaé Stad is criminoloog en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Residentiële Jeugdzorg aan de Hogeschool Leiden.

Jaap Timmer
Jaap Timmer is politiesocioloog en universitair hoofddocent Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Normbeelden als alternatief voor politiecultuur: de integere, neutrale en loyale supercop

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0203 2016
Trefwoorden police culture, norm image, integrity, neutrality, loyalty
Auteurs Sinan Çankaya
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that the notion of norm images does more justice to the complexity of the police organization. The notion of ‘police culture’ is heavily criticized for its homogenizing tendencies, monolithic connotations and stereotypical and negative evaluation of police work. Norm images have an analytical value, because (1) the images are contextualized within and connected to the rule of law, (2) the images are sufficiently analytically flexible for a situational and relational interpretation of the cultural processes within the police organization, and (3) the notion theoretically presupposes the resistance strategies of social actors against the norm images. The article illustrates the theoretical value of norm images by focusing on the dominant images of the ‘trustworthy’, ‘neutral’ and ‘loyal’ police officer.


Sinan Çankaya
Sinan Çankaya is universitair docent op de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen & Politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De behoefte aan bescherming van slachtoffers van misdrijven in verschillende slachtoffer-daderrelaties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Protection, victim-offender relationship, victim needs, reasons for reporting
Auteurs Annemarie ten Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An explicit goal in the Dutch victim policy is to offer protection to victims of crime. Based on a EU Directive all member states shall ensure that victims receive a timely and individual assessment, to identify specific protection needs. In this paper the question is: which victims especially do need protection? More specific, it examines whether the victim-offender relationship, controlling for the confounders ‘type of crime’ and ‘gender of the victim’, contributes to the extent in which protection is a reason for reporting crimes to the police. For victims of domestic violence (by partners, ex-partners and (other) family members), the need for protection is an important reason for reporting – not just for women and girls, but also for men and boys. The need for protection is an important reason for reporting for victims by partners, ex-partners and (other) family members of non-violent as well as violent crimes.


Annemarie ten Boom
Annemarie ten Boom is projectbegeleider bij het WODC, het onderzoekscentrum van het Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Zij werkt aan een proefschrift over het verband tussen de slachtoffer-daderrelatie en de behoeften van slachtoffers met betrekking tot justitie. Zij is als buitenpromovendus aan INTERVICT verbonden.
Artikel

Een eenvoudige diefstal of toch een mishandeling?

Verschillen in type delict tussen zelfrapportage door slachtoffers en registratiesystemen bij instanties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Slachtoffers, Registratie misdrijf, slachtofferrapportage, Delictcategorie
Auteurs Maartje Timmermans, Joost van den Tillaart en Annemarie ten Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    From a secondary analysis of data from a survey of victims of crime, commissioned by the WODC, it appears that more than occasionally the registration of the type of offence by the police, the Public Prosecution Service and Victim Support Netherlands does not match the victim’s own reporting of the offence. In this article, the differences between victims’ reports and registrations regarding the nature of the victimization are exposed and the background of the differences is explored. Some offences seem to have an increased chance of being classed by victims in offence categories which differ from those of the registrations.
    Based on the secondary analysis, the authors conclude that it is important for the interpretation of future research among victims to identify the registered offence and explicitly verify this with the respondent. It is also good to consider what registration data is useful in samples to be able to identify differences between the registrations and the victims’ reports later. A practical implication of the discrepancy in the nature of victimization is that bottlenecks may occur in the connection between the support needs of victims and the supply.


Maartje Timmermans
Maartje Timmermans is senior onderzoeker bij Regioplan.

Joost van den Tillaart
Joost van den Tillaart is senior onderzoeker bij Regioplan.

Annemarie ten Boom
Annemarie ten Boom is projectbegeleider bij het WODC, het onderzoekscentrum van het Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Zij werkt aan een proefschrift over het verband tussen de slachtoffer-daderrelatie en de behoeften van slachtoffers met betrekking tot justitie. Zij is als buitenpromovendus aan INTERVICT verbonden.
Artikel

Vessel protection, van zorgplicht naar zelfverdediging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Security, Piracy, public vs. private responsibilities, policy making, paradigm changes
Auteurs Henk Warnar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article demonstrates the influence of intellectual debate in policy paradigm changes. In response to piracy around the Horn of Africa, Dutch naval forces have participated in NATO and EU counter piracy operations since 2008. Although successful, also self protection measures by the merchant ships are required to provide security to individual ships. Since 2008 Dutch ship owners have advocated to amend legislation to allow private armed security teams (PAST) for individual protection, similar to policies by most foreign countries. Because of sensitivities concerning the private use of arms, policymakers, politicians, stakeholders and advisors have circumvented the issue. Instead of addressing the question of self defense, the paradigm of state monopoly for violence and the state’s obligation to provide security, made individual protection by embarked military teams to develop as a governmental service at levels that turned out to be unachievable for the armed forces. This policy caused several types of friction. Currently, the only acceptable solution seems to be to allow PAST and legislation is being prepared accordingly. A successful paradigm change however can only be achieved if an adequate new paradigm is constructed by intellectual debate. (Hall, Visser & Hemerijck) So far this debate has been too limited in scope. Debate has been state centric and focused on legal views and regulation. To resolve friction, additional analysis of differing roles by the state and individual entrepreneurs is required. Such analysis argues that the state severely reduces individual protection and politicians decide on the fundamental question of self defense by ships at the high seas.


Henk Warnar
Henk Warnar is senior adviseur bij het Ministerie van Defensie.

    On 1 January 2009, the Dutch Temporary Restraining Order Act (Wth) entered into force. This act allows mayors to impose a ten-day restraining order (which may be extended to 28 days) on (potential) perpetrators of domestic violence, which prohibits these perpetrators from entering their own house and contacting their partner and/or children. During the restraining order everyone involved (evicted persons, those who stay behind and children) is offered a range of support and intervention measures. The law requires that within five years after its entry into force the Dutch parliament is informed of the effectiveness. To this end, a study was conducted between September 2011 and August 2013. The aim of this impact assessment is to gain insight in the effectiveness of the restraining order and the support services that are connected to it. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental study with an intervention group (restraining orders) and a control group (similar situations in which no restraining order was imposed). The study shows that the restraining order is associated with less incidence of new domestic violence. After imposing a restraining order new domestic violence occurs less frequently, and in case it does occur, fewer incidents occur than in (comparable) situations where no restraining order was imposed. The main explanation for the correlation found between the restraining order and the lower incidence of new domestic violence seems to lie in the support that is offered after the imposition of a restraining order. Moreover, the support seems to be more effective in the more serious cases than in the lighter cases. The degree in which antecedents of the evicted person are present and whether or not the evicted person is criminally prosecuted are not related to a lower degree of repeated domestic violence.


Maartje Timmermans
Maartje Timmermans is onderzoeker bij Regioplan.

Katrien de Vaan
Katrien de Vaan is onderzoeker bij Regioplan.
Artikel

De preventieve inzet van het tijdelijk huisverbod bij dreigend huiselijk geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden domestic violence, temporary restraining order, domestic violence risk, prevention, assessment
Auteurs Leontien M. van der Knaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On January 1, 2009 the Temporary Restraining Order Act entered into force allowing mayors to impose a ten-day restraining order on potential perpetrators of domestic violence. This restraining order, which may be extended to 28 days, prohibits the perpetrator from entering his or her house as well as from contacting the persons staying behind in the home (partner, children, or other members of the household). In order to impose a temporary restraining order, risk factors relating to the perpetrator, the incident, and the family have to be assessed using a domestic violence risk assessment tool (RiHG).The immediate cause to introduce the Act was to enable mayors to take action in situations that, before, would not have given police just cause to intervene because no offences had (yet) been committed. However, evaluations show that temporary restraining orders are mainly imposed in conjunction with criminal proceedings. Yet, researchers suggest that the temporary restraining order may be imposed as a truly preventive measure in a large amount of situations that until now have not been considered (for instance, situations that have not escalated into physical violence). This article examines whether such preventive restraining orders exist within a sample of imposed orders and if so, what characteristics they share.Results show that truly preventive restraining orders are extremely rare. Closer inspection of cases that according to the available risk assessment were not notably violent showed that most of these cases could not be regarded as cases of truly preventive restraining orders. The discussion of the article focuses on the implications of these results for the suggestion that a large number of situations could be suitable for imposing a preventive restraining order.


Leontien M. van der Knaap
Dr. L.M. (Leontien) M. van der Knaap is universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van Tilburg University. E-mail: l.mvdrknaap@uvt.nl
Artikel

Veiligheid

Een almaar uitdijend concept

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden problem definition, safety, security, queen’s speeches
Auteurs Sandra Resodihardjo en Anne Kors-Walraven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A number of authors claim that the Dutch government is using the words safety and security more often and more broadly. In this article we show that this is partly true. By studying the usage of the word safety in the Dutch queen’s speeches, we see that especially from 1999 onwards the speeches do contain more references to safety and security issues. Moreover, more and more topics are defined as a safety and security issue. However, this same study shows that a decline in the use of the words safety and security can be discerned from 2006 onwards. Ideas to understand these fluctuations are presented at the end of the article.


Sandra Resodihardjo
Dr. S.L. (Sandra) Resodihardjo is werkzaam als universitair docent bij het Institute for Management Research (opleiding Bestuurskunde), Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen. E-mail: s.resodihardjo@fm.ru.nl

Anne Kors-Walraven
A.M. (Anne) Kors-Walraven, MSc is afgestudeerd aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Over objectieve en subjectieve onveiligheid

En de (on)zin van het rationaliteitdebat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden fear of crime, fear victimization paradox, rationality debate
Auteurs Stefaan Pleysier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on ‘fear of crime’ research. Departing from the classic distinction between crime and victimization as objective threats, on the one hand, and fear of crime as a subjective and emotional interpretation of that threat, on the other hand, the research tradition is confronted with the so-called fear victimization paradox. This paradox emerges from the observation that fear of crime is greater among women and elderly people, while these groups actually are less at risk of becoming a crime victim. It has immersed the research tradition in a dominant debate on the rationality of the fear of crime, with two opposing paradigms: rationalist and symbolic.Whilst both the paradox and the different paradigms in the debate offer a view at the core of fear of crime research, and illustrate how similar empirical observations can lead to differing explanations, and policy implications for that matter, we argue that the fear victimization paradox and the rationality debate surrounding this paradox, has occupied the bulk of research on fear of crime with what is essentially a nonsensical and redundant debate.


Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. (Stefaan) Pleysier is docent Jeugdcriminologie en Methoden van onderzoek aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de K.U.Leuven, en verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) waar hij co-coördinator is van de onderzoekslijn Jeugdcriminologie. E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

Integrale veiligheidszorg en de burgemeester

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden integraal, burgemeester, veiligheidsbeleid, religie
Auteurs Ruth Prins en Lex Cachet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Changing public safety problems as well as an increasing societal demand for public safety made way for new policy approaches. During the 1990s, the so called ‘integral safety approach’ was introduced in the Netherlands. This approach manifested itself mainly on the municipal level where the mayor is being held responsible for managing public safety and order. The central question raised in this article is: what are the consequences of an integral approach to public safety problems for the mayor when managing local order and public safety? We will demonstrate that ‘integrality’ is no clear cut concept. Careful inspection of the concept learns that it has multiple meanings. Of these various meanings, especially the ambition to address public safety problems by means of ‘new alliances’ characterized the actual implementation of integral policies. However, working together within these new alliances uniting various more or less independent actors from both the public and private sector, seemed to be hampered by a lack of coordination and control. In that sense, the introduction of the integral approach had consequences for steering and control of public safety policies. These consequences have to be addressed, especially by the mayor who is accountable for local order and safety. The mayor had attributed to him – first in practice, soon by law as well – the role of director of public safety policy on the municipal level. However, as we will demonstrate in this article, the mayor lacks an important trait needed for effective directorship: decisive powers. Therefore the mayor is not able to realize effective cooperation between partners within the new alliances of the integral approach to public safety problems. As a potential solution, we will describe the characteristics of a ‘model of anticipation’ granting the mayor a certain level of decisive powers to be used as an ultimum remedium.


Ruth Prins
Ruth Prins MSc is promovendus Burgemeester en Veiligheid, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Contactadres: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Burg. Oudlaan 50 (kamer M7-06), Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam. Tel. 010-4088714, e-mail: prins@fsw.eur.nl

Lex Cachet
Dr. Lex Cachet is Universitair Hoofddocent Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Opleiding Bestuurskunde. E-mail: cachet@fsw.eur.nl
Artikel

Gemeentelijke regie in de veiligheidszorg

Schets van relevante factoren en een wetsvoorstel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden gemeente, regie, wetsvoorstel, lokaal veiligheidsbeleid
Auteurs Jan Terpstra en Mirjam Krommendijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the local governance of public safety many different organizations are involved. These organizations cooperate in local networks or partnerships to manage problems related to crime and disorder. In the Netherlands the local government should coordinate the cooperation between these organizations and their activities. Research shows that in practice this coordination has many serious shortcomings.
    Therefore the Dutch government proposed a new Act to promote the local government’s capacities to coordinate these networks and local policies of public safety (Wet op de gemeentelijke regierol lokale integrale veiligheid). At this moment this proposal has not yet been submitted to the Dutch Parliament.
    This Act will create new obligations and powers for the local government. According to this Act every four years local councils will have to establish a public safety policy plan based on an analysis of local problems of crime and disorder. Local governments should make formal agreements with the local partner agencies about their activities. Additionally the Act will provide local governments with the power to enforce these cooperation and contributions and to sanction it.
    Research shows that many of the problems that arise in the coordination of these networks and partnerships result from the local governments themselves. Often the governmental support and commitment to local safety issues are insufficient, the local administration is highly fragmented, the coordination is often poorly implemented and local administration often have a bureaucratic culture that is hard to reconcile with the need to react quickly to urgent local problems.
    Considering these problems the authors argue that this proposed Act is not an adequate solution for the problems that arise in the coordination of local safety policies and partnerships.


Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Criminologisch Instituut van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid. E-mail: j.terpstra@jur.ru.nl.

Mirjam Krommendijk
Drs. Mirjam Krommendijk is werkzaam als onderzoeker aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Criminologisch Instituut van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid. E-mail: m.krommendijk@jur.ru.nl.
Artikel

Lokaal veiligheidsbeleid in Nederland en België: op zoek naar verschil

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden lokaal veiligheidsbeleid, politie, gemeente, Nederland en België
Auteurs Lex Cachet en Ruth Prins
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public safety has always been a core task for local, municipal authorities. However, until rather recently only the police has been actively involved in addressing local problems of public safety and maintaining order instead. Local public safety policy – as a responsibility for local authorities together with many other partners – is a relatively new phenomenon.This article compares the main developments and trends in local public safety policy in the Netherlands and Belgium. Special attention is paid to the role and position of the local, municipal authorities. What strikes most, are the strong similarities between the two countries. National governments played an important and catalyzing role in the development of public safety policy in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium. After many years and not without a lot of trouble, the monopoly of the police on designing and implementing policy for addressing public safety and order came to an end in both countries. Which, amongst other effects, presented the local authorities with new challenges.


Lex Cachet
Dr. Lex Cachet is universitair hoofddocent Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Opleiding Bestuurskunde. E-mail: cachet@fsw.eur.nl.

Ruth Prins
Ruth Prins MSc is promovendus Burgemeester en Veiligheid, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Opleiding Bestuurskunde. E-mail: prins@fsw.eur.nl.
Boekbespreking

Wouter Stol, Jos Rijpma, Carel Tielenburg, Henk Veenhuysen & Tanja Abbas (red.) (2006) <i>Basisboek integrale veiligheid.</i> Bussum: Coutinho

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2007
Trefwoorden auteur, onderwijs, risico, student, aansprakelijkheid, bouw, internet, levering, apparaat, bedreiging
Auteurs J.S. Timmer

J.S. Timmer
Artikel

Het beoordelen van risico’s: een subjectieve zaak

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Risicoperceptie, Heuristieken, Risicocommunicatie
Auteurs Jop Groeneweg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In measuring safety a difference appears to exist between ‘objectively measured safety’ and the subjective perception by the public. Objectively spoken the level of criminality in a neighbourhood may have gone down, but that doesn’t necessary mean that the people living there ‘feel equally safer’. Psychology gives a number of explanations for this phenomenon. For example, the knowledge, the differences in thinking styles and communication about safety with citizens play an important role. This should not be seen as a case of non-rational thinking, but rather of systematic irrationality. These people are not ‘dumb’, they have (sometimes hard-wired) ways of handling information about complex issues like safety that require them to take ‘mental shortcuts’ (heuristics) in order to estimate the risks they are exposed to. This paper will focus on some of the psychological laws that guide our risk perception and surprisingly enough, the ‘objective risk’ seems to be of relatively little importance if compared with other, more subjective factors. Many of the factors relate to the nature of information citizens are exposed to: a risk that this described in easy to imagine way leads to a different evaluation of that risk compared with a less conspicuous presentation. Also the level of expertise of the ‘receiving end’ must be taken into account. Lay-people have different ways to look at risks compared with experts in a certain domain. The discussion on how to improve safety is probably best served with a continuing debate between ‘rational, objective’ and ‘systematic irrational, subjective’ mental models, while recognising their respective strengths and weaknesses. These findings may assist policy makers in particular in the formulation of policy that, in addition to the security objective as such, also improves the perception of safety.


Jop Groeneweg
Jop Groeneweg is Projectleider Menselijk falen bij de Werkgroep Veiligheid, Universiteit Leiden, Postbus 9555, 2300 RB Leiden. E-mail: groeneweg@fsw.leidenuniv.nl.
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