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Naar een afwegingsmodel voor de politie in de omgang met burgers die zelfstandig onderzoek doen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden Participation, citizen, police, investigation, reciprocity
Auteurs Arnout de Vries, Shanna Wemmers, Stan Duijf e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Citizens investigating crimes themselves is a growing trend, because of democratization of information (e.g. social media), tools (e.g. apps) and knowledge (e.g. explanimations on YouTube). More and more citizens do their own research as modern Sherlocks. The police has to handle these trends in line with participant wishes and the law, but does not yet have concrete tools to do so. This article explores how the police participate in contemporary citizen criminal investigations, including the difficulties and benefits experienced. The obtained insights of the presented research serve as guidance, which can help police officers understand how to participate with citizens who have started, or want to start, a criminal investigation. The presented model explains how police can use it to better guide and stimulate, but also stop or protect citizens in their investigative activities. An app with professional guidance was piloted in four police units to participate with citizens that do their own research and learn from expectations and experiences. Citizens need guidance, but more importantly expect a certain degree of reciprocity in collaborating with police in criminal investigations.


Arnout de Vries
Arnout de Vries is werkzaam bij TNO Groningen.

Shanna Wemmers
Shanna Wemmers is werkzaam als scientist innovator bij TNO.

Stan Duijf
Stan Duijf won als masterstudent Science in Policing en in 2019 de scriptieprijs van de Politieacademie.

Victor Kallen
Victor Kallen klinisch psychofysioloog bij TNO Behavioural & Societal Sciences.
Artikel

Veilig uitgaan: tegenstrijdige gevoelens over inzet politie en andere maatregelen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden tegenstrijdigheden, assemblage, angst voor criminaliteit, uitgaansgebieden, veiligheidsbeleving
Auteurs Jelle Brands en Irina van Aalst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Urban nightlife areas are widely renowned for their emotionally charged nature, affording greater opportunities for transgressions of social norms compared to daytime contexts. Yet, the ways nightlife consumers experience safety in the public spaces of nightlife areas has received limited attention in the academic literatures. This article approaches experienced safety in the public spaces of nightlife areas as emerging from encounters between human and non-human (material, social, cultural) elements grounded in time and space. Such elements include the characteristics of the built environment, the design of public space, police presence, lighting and also first and secondhand experiences and popular media discourses more generally. We hypothesized that encounters between such elements necessarily renders some ambiguity in experienced safety, in the sense that the effect of a particular element on experienced safety is always coproduced in the unfolding encounter. By drawing on a series of interviews with Dutch students in Utrecht, various types of ambiguity are shown to exist depending on both the particularities of the situation at hand and based on differences between individual circumstance and life course. Ambiguity is also shown to exist in the sense that mentioned elements may both comfort and alarm participants at the same time. Our findings infer that we should implement ‘safer nightlife’ initiatives that are tailored to particular contexts, situations and publics. The results also suggest that current interventions seeking to stimulate safety in urban nightlife settings might not be as successful in reducing/enhancing (un)safety as (popular) policy and media discourses have suggested.


Jelle Brands
Jelle Brands is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Irina van Aalst
Irina van Aalst is universitair docent aan het departement Sociale Geografie en Planologie van de Faculteit Geowetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Mediale verbeelding en politiecultuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0203 2016
Trefwoorden Police, culture, media
Auteurs Lianne Kleijer-Kool en Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the traditional understanding of police culture as well as in the criticism against the use of the concept of ‘police culture’, not much attention has been paid towards the influence of the representation of police work and crime in the media. Although since the pioneering studies in the sixties and seventies of the last century it has been made clear that police work is not limited to dealing with crime and criminal justice, the mass media for decades have presented a completely different image: one of thrill seeking and hardcore action. Police officers themselves tend to ‘sensationalize’ their work. Police culture is no longer understood as a deterministic coping mechanism, but is rooted in active and constructive participation of police officers. As a consequence we must pay attention to representation of ‘the police’ by the media and ask ourselves how identity work by police officers is influenced by the representation of crime and the police in the (new) media.


Lianne Kleijer-Kool
Lianne Kleijer-Kool is onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Werken in Justitieel Kader en docent Integrale Veiligheidskunde bij Hogeschool Utrecht.

Janine Janssen
Janine Janssen is Lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties bij het expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool en hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de nationale politie.

Wim Huisman
Wim Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: w.huisman@rechten.vu.nl.
Artikel

Analyse van het Zuid-Nederlandse xtc-netwerk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, xtc-netwerk, xtc-handel, crimineel macronetwerk
Auteurs Dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The social network approach is gaining influence among criminologists studying organized crime and terrorism. The theoretical concept, however, still needs further elaboration. To this end, concepts developed within the field of economic sociology could provide a substantial contribution. Economic sociologists have, among other things, focused on the role of social networks with regard to the completion of economic transactions. They regard mutual trust built through personal relations as an essential part of economic transactions, particularly if these imply certain risks for the parties involved. In other words, before transactions materialize, the parties must first be able to establish trustworthy personal relations. Based on these ideas, Spapens introduced in 2006 the theoretical concept of the criminal macro network, being a social network consisting of individuals able and willing to engage in illegal activities. The capital of each member of the criminal network consists, on the one hand, of his links, defined as information relations, within the network. On the other hand, a person’s position is determined by personal knowledge and skills. It is assumed that executing an actual illegal activity – e.g. drug production, trafficking human beings, bank robbery – requires cooperation between a subset of members of the criminal network, the criminal group.An extensive study of xtc production in the south of the Netherlands between 1996 and 2004 revealed the existence of a ‘xtc network’ consisting of individuals interconnected by social relations. The macro network proved to be relatively stable over time. The composition of the criminal groups, however, changed regularly. This was not only explained by shifting business opportunities, but also by the efforts of the police and the Public Prosecution Service leading to convictions and the dismantling of criminal groups. Better knowledge of the functioning of the criminal macro network can provide valuable contributions to criminological understanding of organized crime. These insights are of course also of great practical importance for law enforcement agencies.


Dr. Toine Spapens
Dr. Toine Spapens is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Contactadres: Universiteit van Tilburg, Vakgroep Strafrechtswetenschappen, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg. E-mail: a.c.spapens@uvt.nl.
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