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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid x Jaar 2009 x
Artikel

Burgers over beveiligers

Een kwantitatief onderzoek naar percepties, verwachtingen en oordelen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden beveiligers, burgers, beveiliging
Auteurs Ronald van Steden, Maddy Roelofs en Mahesh Nalla
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The employment of private security guards has increased in many European countries in recent decades and the Netherlands is no exception. However, despite large increases in the growth of the private security industry, little is known about how the public perceives agents of private policing and their role in crime prevention and enhancing the public’s sense of safety. In this paper we examine public perceptions of private security personnel. More specifically, we examine citizens’ perceptions and expectations toward the nature of security guards’ work and their relationships with public police, as well as citizens’ level of satisfaction with private security services. Findings suggest that overall Dutch citizens have mixed opinions of security guards. Nonetheless, contrary to what is often assumed about the public image of private security, findings also suggest that respondents are sometimes surprisingly positive in their reactions.


Ronald van Steden
Ronald van Steden is werkzaam bij de onderzoeksgroep Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. Postadres: De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam. E-mail: r.van.steden@fsw.vu.nl.

Maddy Roelofs
Maddy Roelofs in onderzoeker bij de Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek van de gemeente Amsterdam. Postadres: Postbus 658, 1000 AR Amsterdam. E-mail: m.roelofs@os.amsterdam.nl.

Mahesh Nalla
Mahesh Nalla is hoogleraar in Criminal Justice Studies aan Michigan State University, U.S.A. Postadres: School of Criminal Justice, 560 Baker Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1118. E-mail: nalla@msu.edu.
Artikel

Analyse van het Zuid-Nederlandse xtc-netwerk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, xtc-netwerk, xtc-handel, crimineel macronetwerk
Auteurs Dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The social network approach is gaining influence among criminologists studying organized crime and terrorism. The theoretical concept, however, still needs further elaboration. To this end, concepts developed within the field of economic sociology could provide a substantial contribution. Economic sociologists have, among other things, focused on the role of social networks with regard to the completion of economic transactions. They regard mutual trust built through personal relations as an essential part of economic transactions, particularly if these imply certain risks for the parties involved. In other words, before transactions materialize, the parties must first be able to establish trustworthy personal relations. Based on these ideas, Spapens introduced in 2006 the theoretical concept of the criminal macro network, being a social network consisting of individuals able and willing to engage in illegal activities. The capital of each member of the criminal network consists, on the one hand, of his links, defined as information relations, within the network. On the other hand, a person’s position is determined by personal knowledge and skills. It is assumed that executing an actual illegal activity – e.g. drug production, trafficking human beings, bank robbery – requires cooperation between a subset of members of the criminal network, the criminal group.An extensive study of xtc production in the south of the Netherlands between 1996 and 2004 revealed the existence of a ‘xtc network’ consisting of individuals interconnected by social relations. The macro network proved to be relatively stable over time. The composition of the criminal groups, however, changed regularly. This was not only explained by shifting business opportunities, but also by the efforts of the police and the Public Prosecution Service leading to convictions and the dismantling of criminal groups. Better knowledge of the functioning of the criminal macro network can provide valuable contributions to criminological understanding of organized crime. These insights are of course also of great practical importance for law enforcement agencies.


Dr. Toine Spapens
Dr. Toine Spapens is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Contactadres: Universiteit van Tilburg, Vakgroep Strafrechtswetenschappen, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg. E-mail: a.c.spapens@uvt.nl.
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