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Artikel

Van tellen naar voorspellen - Sturen op risico’s met een voorspellend wiskundig model op basis van historische brandweerdata

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden chimney fires, prediction, spatial statistics, historical data, schoorsteenbranden
Auteurs Martine School, Maurits de Graaf, Marie-Colette van Lieshout e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model for the prediction of chimney fires using data collected by the Twente safety region over the years 2004 up to 2015. The explanatory variables used are the number of inhabitants per areal unit of 500 by 500 metres, the daily mean temperature and an indicator variable for October. Spatially and temporally correlated noise is added to be able to capture latent factors such as human behaviour. The model is validated using the data over the years 2016 and 2017. The model is implemented as a dashboard on a public website and yields as output a hazard map for chimney fires in Twente based on the weather forecast for the coming six days. This way, the dashboard can be used for prevention and planning purposes.


Martine School
Tineke School is als Data Science Consultant werkzaam bij Dat.mobility. m.l.school@outlook.com

Maurits de Graaf
Maurits de Graaf is werkzaam als innovatiemanager bij Thales Nederland B.V., en als associate professor mathematics of operations research bij de Universiteit Twente. m.degraaf@utwente.nl

Marie-Colette van Lieshout
Marie-Colette van Lieshout is als senior onderzoeker werkzaam bij het CWI en als hoogleraar ruimtelijke stochastiek bij de Universiteit Twente. colette@cwi.nl

Emiel Sanders
Emiel Sanders is werkzaam als zelfstandig adviseur informatie gestuurd werken bij Sanders Consulting en Advies. emiel@sandersconsultingadvies.nl

Ron de Wit
Ron de Wit is brandweerofficier en als plaatsvervangend commandant brandweer werkzaam in de Veiligheidsregio Twente. r.dewit@brandweertwente.nl
Artikel

Het contact tussen gedetineerden en interne en externe re-integratieprofessionals in Nederlandse penitentiaire inrichtingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden contact, professionals, gevangenis, re-integratie, casemanagement
Auteurs Amanda Pasma, Esther van Ginneken, Anouk Bosma e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Prisoners often encounter multiple barriers when returning to society, resulting in higher risks of recidivism. To overcome these barriers, prison-based and community-based professionals assist with preparation for release. Prison-based professionals, such as the case manager and mentor, screen and monitor the problems regarding work and income, housing, healthcare, financial debts and valid identification. Community-based professionals, such as municipal officials, parole officers, healthcare professionals and volunteers, can provide additional and specialized help. First, this research discusses the current policy of the Dutch Custodial Institutions Agency (DJI) and the role of different types of professionals. Second, it presents a nationwide picture of the extent to which prisoners report contact with prison-based and community-based professionals, and to what degree prisoners appreciate this contact. The results are specified for various types of regimes and time served and are based on 4308 prisoner surveys of the Dutch Prison Visitation Study (DPVS), part of the Life in Custody Study (LIC-study). It turns out that most prisoners seem to be in close contact with prison-based professionals and that prisoners positively value this contact. However, contact with community-based professionals is limited and prisoners are somewhat dissatisfied about their contact with parole officers and municipal officials. Furthermore, the amount of contact differs across various types of regimes and time served. In particular, individuals who recently entered prison report less contact. To conclude, policy implications will be discussed.


Amanda Pasma
Amanda J. Pasma is PhD-student aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Esther van Ginneken
Esther van Ginneken is Universitair Docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Anouk Bosma
Anouk Bosma was ten tijde van het onderzoek Universitair Docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Hanneke Palmen
Hanneke Palmen is Universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Paul Nieuwbeerta
Paul Nieuwbeerta is Hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.
Artikel

Boulevard Zuid in Rotterdam: een onderzoek naar het vertrouwen van winkeliers in politie en gemeente

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden shopkeepers, procedural justice, the Netherlands, ethnic minorities, performance theory
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg, Laura Messie en Darnell de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, we analyze which aspects of performance theory and the procedural justice-based model are explaining the trust of shopkeepers in the police and local government. Utilizing a survey of 156 shopkeepers and 94 semi-constructed interviews with shopkeepers, which are located at the South Shopping Boulevard in Rotterdam (The Netherlands), the study finds that shopkeepers have a relatively high trust in the police and local government. This is surprising because various attempts in the past 30 years to revive the high street by the government have failed to improve its bad image, as dwindling visitor numbers, poor turnover, limited range of retailers, empty shops and high crime and offence levels show only too plainly. The findings also highlight that ethnic minority respondents have more trust in local government than Dutch shopkeepers. The explanation therefor is sought in the dual frame of reference theory.


Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Laura Messie
Laura Messie, MSc was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Darnell de Vries
Darnell de Vries, MSc was ten tijde van het initiële onderzoek masterstudente aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Waarom melden burgers?

Individuele, sociale en institutionele drijfveren voor meldgedrag in het verleden en toekomstige meldingsbereidheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden reporting behavior, crime, citizen participation, psychological drivers, response efficacy
Auteurs Wendy Schreurs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reports by citizens are a great source of information for the police. Local residents often know well what is going on in their neighborhood and which situations are suspicious. In this study, an online survey was conducted to investigate what drives citizens to report to the police. A wide range of individual, social and institutional drivers were explored. The results show that the more often people have reported anything to the police in the past, the higher their risk perception, self-efficacy, citizen participation and police legitimacy. Furthermore, participants with a higher degree of self-efficacy, response efficacy, trust in the police and police legitimacy appeared to be more willing to report in the future. An open question regarding what motivates people the most to report show that response efficacy (the idea to what extent reporting has an effect on increasing safety and reducing crime) and altruistic values (justice, to help society and punish the perpetrators) were mentioned most frequently.


Wendy Schreurs
Wendy Schreurs is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Datagedreven zicht op ondermijning in woonwijken

Een verkenning van de mogelijkheden om indicatoren te ontwikkelen om zicht te krijgen op ondermijning in woonwijken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Ondermijning, indicatoren, leefbaarheid, georganiseerde criminaliteit, stadsontwikkeling
Auteurs Jonas Stuurman, Emile Kolthoff, Joost van den Tillaart e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution reports about a research in a medium-sized municipality on the possibilities of giving municipalities an instrument to determine at the earliest possible stage which neighborhoods are at (increased) risk of exposure to organized crime and its consequences. We are searching for indicators to measure that exposure to give direction to preventive measures. Our focus is on the erosion of structures and foundations of society as a result of activities of organized crime, eventually resulting in the infringement of the rule of law. It is therefore not about the phenomenon of organized crime itself, but about its effects on society. This requires clarification and measurability of the concept. In this first exploration, we focus on the following five manifestations of the effect of organized crime: The emergence of a subculture: not recognizing government authority; the emergence of takeover of power in the neighborhood; the emergence of vulnerable groups of citizens; the creation of the image: crime pays off; and the emergence of unfair competition.


Jonas Stuurman
Jonas Stuurman is docent bij de opleiding Integrale Veiligheidskunde van Avans Hogeschool te Breda en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Ondermijning van het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en lector Ondermijning bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool. Hij is hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.

Joost van den Tillaart
Joost van den Tillaart is docent bij de opleiding Integrale Veiligheidskunde van Avans Hogeschool te Den Bosch.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool.
Artikel

Veiligheid uit de glazen bol?

Naar verantwoorde toepassingen van big data in het veiligheidscomplex

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3-4 2019
Trefwoorden Big data, Security, good governance
Auteurs Remco Spithoven en Siri Beerends
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The promises of Big Data, predictive policing and artificial intelligence hold a key position in the public debate for quite some time now. Optimists tell that it is possible to predict where criminal events will occur before they take place. This would implicate a major shift towards a crime and insecurity preventive society, feeding on our cultural longing for a secure future. Therefore we give algorithms and deep learning access to more and more aspects of our lives. But how realistic and desirable is the application of Big Data techniques in the area of security?
    In this article we put focus on the research question ‘In which way can Big Data and predictive policing support good governance of security?’, that has led our study. By exploring the central concepts, the processes behind them and their results in the domain of public security, we conclude that there are only rather disappointing results from the application of these techniques: crime and insecurity have not dropped when the police and other organizations turned to Big Data techniques. Instead, many negative side effects occurred. We search for explanations in six central academic critiques on the application of these techniques in the area of security.
    We have found several ways to guaranty principles of good governance in the application of Big Data techniques, but these require a firm paradigm shift on Big Data in general. The heuristics of security professionals should not be overshadowed by technological promises: the professional should always be in the loop, must understand the way predictions come into existence and must be able to correct flaws and bugs of (semi-)automated decisions. We conclude that safeguarding public security must remain human work in which Big Data techniques can assist.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Saxion en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Siri Beerends
Siri Beerends is cultureel socioloog, onderzoeker en schrijver bij SETUP en pro‍movenda aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Access_open Regelovertreding als voorspeller van incidenten in de chemische industrie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Compliance, Accidents, process safety, predicting, safety indicators
Auteurs Ellen Wiering, Arjan Blokland, Marieke Kluin e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both major disasters and smaller incidents at chemical companies impact the environment. Seveso regulations aim to limit the impact of the chemical industry on man and the environment. This leads to the expectation that violation of these rules is predictive of incidents. In the current study, incidents at chemical companies are predicted from the company’s history of rule violation, previously reported incidents and corporate characteristics. Analysis of three years of inspection data and of six years of reported incidents, shows that the company’s branch and previous reported incidents predict the occurrence of an incident. The company’s history of rule violation, however, does not. Future research is needed to examine the different possible explanations for these contra intuitive results.


Ellen Wiering
Ellen Wiering is als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Arjan Blokland
Arjan Blokland is als bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden en als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Marieke Kluin
Marieke Kluin is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Wim Huisman
Wim Huisman is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Marlijn Peeters
Marlijn Peeters is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Partnerdoding in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Partnerdoding, Epidemiologie, Moord, Nederland
Auteurs Marieke Liem, Inge de Jong en Jade van Maanen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner homicide (IPH) constitutes one of the most prevalent types of homicide. This study aims to assess the nature and prevalence of intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2014. In doing so, we make use of police data, court data, and media articles. Findings show that IPH occurs 29 times per year, resulting in a victimization rate of 0.20 per 100,000, similar to other Western-European countries. Our results further show a decline in IPH in the last years. IPH in the Netherlands mostly occurs in heterosexual relationships, and involves male perpetrators and female victims. Finally, we reflect on possible causes for the decline of this type of homicide.


Marieke Liem
Marieke Liem is Universitair Hoofddocent, verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs, Faculteit Governance & Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.

Inge de Jong
Inge de Jong is thans werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie als adviseur bij de dienst Informatie Management en tijdens het uitvoeren van deze studie student Crisis & Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jade van Maanen
Jade van Maanen isthans werkzaam bij Rijkswaterstaat als technisch projectleider bij de dienst Centrale Informatievoorziening en tijdens het uitvoeren van deze studie student Crisis & Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De geschatte waarde van het preventieprogramma Brandveilig Leven op basis van de contingente waarderingsmethode (CV – Contingent Valuation)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden willingness-to-pay, contingent valuation, impact assessment, community fire safety
Auteurs David Bornebroek, Ron de Wit, Marc van Buiten e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Regional Fire Services collectively aim at preventing fire, casualties and damage. The main activity is informing citizens about fire risks and the appropriate measures they can take. From both a political and social perspective, it is valuable to know what the return of the Community Fire Safety program is. One way to chart the return of the program is a comparison of the cost of, and society’s willingness-to-pay for, the program. To estimate this willingness-to-pay, this article applies the contingent valuation method to a national representative sample of 806 Dutch citizens. The results show that willingness-to-pay of an average Dutch household is estimated to be between € 25.00 and € 35.67 per year provided the Community Fire Safety program improves the fire safety by 10%. At the national level, this amounts to 200 – 270 million euro annually. This value is seven to ten times more than the approximate costs of the current Community Fire Safety program.


David Bornebroek
David Bornebroek is manager/directeur van Twente Safety Campus en Teamleider (Brand) Veilig Leven en projectleider Risk Factory bij Brandweer Twente.

Ron de Wit
Ron de Wit is plaatsvervangend commandant van de Brandweer Twente.

Marc van Buiten
Marc van Buiten is universitair docent aan de faculteit Engeneering Technology aan de Universiteit Twente.

Ira Helsloot
Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar Besturen van Veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit.
Artikel

Wethouders in de frontlijn: een studie naar de perceptie van en de omgang met persoonlijke bedreigingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden threats in politics, coping strategies, undue influence on politics, Q-methodology
Auteurs Diana Marijnissen en Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution reports on a delimited part of a larger, exploratory study, the main question of which was: How do aldermen perceive threats, what are their behavioral intentions and what is the influence of threats on the process and the outcome of decision-making? This question was answered with the help of Q-methodology, semi-structured interviews and case studies. This article discusses the results of the Q-methodology and the semi-structured interviews. The case studies will be reported separately later on. Through the Q-methodology three patterns in perception were found in dealing with threats: ‘combative and decisive’, ‘vulnerable and thoughtful’ and ‘down-to-earth and accepting’. The interviews show that it usually concerns instrumental threats that are deliberately used to influence decision making, which usually take place in the private sphere and vary from verbal aggression to physical violence. Most threats come from individuals, but some come from groups, in some cases there is a relationship with criminals. In the cases reviewed, the consequences in the private sphere are far-reaching, there are indications for the influence on public functioning (from hardening to great caution). There is almost always a report, a fuss in the media can affect the authority of the official.


Diana Marijnissen
Diana Marijnissen is docent bij de Academie Industrie en Informatica en onderzoeker bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en is lector Ondermijning bij Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch. Hij is tevens voorzitter van de redactie van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

The Dual-use of Drones

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Drones, Dual use, Responsible design, Ethiek van technologisch innovatie
Auteurs Peter Novitzky, Ben Kokkeler en Peter-Paul Verbeek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drones en drone-gerelateerde cybertechnologieën nemen een vlucht in het veiligheidsdomein in de vorm van toepassingen door het leger, de politie, brandweer, private beveiligingsbedrijven, en ook deurwaarders, agrariërs en burgerinitiatieven. Drones werden in eerste instantie ontwikkeld voor militaire doeleinden. Hun aanpassingsvermogen als universele platforms voor beeldregistratie en goederenvervoer leidt tot hoge verwachtingen rond toepassing in het civiele domein. Dit artikel onderzoekt de ethische aspecten van “dual use” van drones en gerelateerde technologieën. Verschillende dimensies van dual use worden verkend: de technologisch ontwikkeling, maar ook de ontwikkeling van wet- en regelgeving in Amerika en Europa. Voor het Nederlandse veiligheidsdomein is relevant dat dit artikel bijdraagt aan het signaleren van de noodzaak om de ontwikkeling en toepassing van drones in breder perspectief te bezien. Drones en hun toepassingen maken deel uit van de internationale markt van militaire organisaties en van veiligheidsorganisaties in het publieke en private domein. Bovendien maken ze veelal deel uit van geïntegreerde systemen en van wereldwijde platforms voor consumentenelektronica. Dit artikel is een van de resultaten uit het door NWO gefinancierde project 'Responsible Design of Drones and Drone Services: Towards an Ethical and Juridical Tool For Drone Design and Risk Assessment' (Project no. 313-99-318). Het project was gericht op het ontwikkelen van een instrument voor ontwikkeling en gebruik van dronetoepassingen uitgaande van methoden als Responsible Research & Innovation (RRI) en Value Sensitive Design (VSD).


Peter Novitzky
Peter Novitzky is postdoctoral researcher verbonden aan de Wageningen University. Email: peter.novitzky@wur.nl.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid aan Avans Hogeschool. Hij is daarnaast senior consultant bij de Europese Technopolis Group, kantoor Amsterdam, waar hij evaluaties en verkenningen uitvoert rond ehealth en smart cities. Email: bjm.kokkeler@avans.nl.

Peter-Paul Verbeek
Peter Paul Verbeek is hoogleraar Filosofie van mens en techniek aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: p.p.c.c.verbeek@utwente.nl.
Artikel

Persoonlijkheidskenmerken van e-fraudeslachtoffers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Online fraud, Big Five personality traits, Phishing, online marketplace fraud, cybercrime prevention
Auteurs Jildau Borwell, Jurjen Jansen en Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the digitization of society, perpetrators gained new tools to commit crimes. Online fraud, also referred to as e-fraud, is one of the most common types of cybercrime. The present study focusses on two types of e-fraud: phishing and online consumer fraud. Although e-fraud always contains a digital component, the human is the weakest link in such crimes. Perpetrators deceive their victims to acquire sensitive data or to conclude a fraudulent sale, which makes victims unwillingly participate in the offence. However, not every person adheres to such fraudulent schemes. This raises the question what makes some people comply with these schemes and thus become a victim of cybercrime, while others do not. In this study, the differences between personality traits of e-fraud victims and the Dutch population were investigated. Personality traits influence the way people process information and react to situations, which also applies when people are confronted with e-fraud. Data were collected through an online survey, in which 224 e-fraud victims participated. The outcomes of the survey were compared with norm groups representative for the Dutch population. E-fraud victims, compared to the Dutch population, scored higher on extraversion, altruism and conscientiousness, and lower on neuroticism. Based on the findings, recommendations have been made for the development of targeted preventive measures against e-fraud.


Jildau Borwell
Jildau Borwell is werkzaam bij de Dienst Regionale Informatieorganisatie (Analyse & Onderzoek), Nationale Politie, Eenheid Noord-Nederland, Groningen. Email: jildau.borwell@politie.nl.

Jurjen Jansen
Jurjen Jansen is werkzaam bij de Faculteit cultuur- en rechtswetenschappen aan de Open Universiteit, Heerlen en bij het Lectoraat cybersafety, NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie, Leeuwarden en Apeldoorn. Email: j.jansen@nhl.nl.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit. Email: wstol@planet.nl.
Artikel

Veilig uitgaan: tegenstrijdige gevoelens over inzet politie en andere maatregelen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden tegenstrijdigheden, assemblage, angst voor criminaliteit, uitgaansgebieden, veiligheidsbeleving
Auteurs Jelle Brands en Irina van Aalst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Urban nightlife areas are widely renowned for their emotionally charged nature, affording greater opportunities for transgressions of social norms compared to daytime contexts. Yet, the ways nightlife consumers experience safety in the public spaces of nightlife areas has received limited attention in the academic literatures. This article approaches experienced safety in the public spaces of nightlife areas as emerging from encounters between human and non-human (material, social, cultural) elements grounded in time and space. Such elements include the characteristics of the built environment, the design of public space, police presence, lighting and also first and secondhand experiences and popular media discourses more generally. We hypothesized that encounters between such elements necessarily renders some ambiguity in experienced safety, in the sense that the effect of a particular element on experienced safety is always coproduced in the unfolding encounter. By drawing on a series of interviews with Dutch students in Utrecht, various types of ambiguity are shown to exist depending on both the particularities of the situation at hand and based on differences between individual circumstance and life course. Ambiguity is also shown to exist in the sense that mentioned elements may both comfort and alarm participants at the same time. Our findings infer that we should implement ‘safer nightlife’ initiatives that are tailored to particular contexts, situations and publics. The results also suggest that current interventions seeking to stimulate safety in urban nightlife settings might not be as successful in reducing/enhancing (un)safety as (popular) policy and media discourses have suggested.


Jelle Brands
Jelle Brands is universitair docent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Irina van Aalst
Irina van Aalst is universitair docent aan het departement Sociale Geografie en Planologie van de Faculteit Geowetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Veiligheid en welzijn van Eritreeërs in het geding?

Onderzoek naar zorgen rondom veiligheid en welzijn van Eritrese vluchtelingen en asielzoekers in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Veiligheid en welzijn Eritreeërs, Integratie, religie en rituelen, Mensenhandel
Auteurs Desiree Horbach en Conny Rijken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rationale behind refugee law is that people who fear persecution in their home country can seek and find a safe haven in another country. The situation in Eritrea with its national service and wide-spread human rights violations is reason why many Eritreans flee their country. A vast number of them want to apply for asylum in European countries. After a risky journey over the African continent where they face risks of kidnappings, trafficking for ransom, and situations of inhuman and degrading treatment, they reach Europe. Some of them continue their journey to the Netherlands. The central question in this article is whether or not their safety and well-being are at stake once they arrive in the Netherlands. Situations of involvement of and intimidation by the Eritrean regime in the Netherlands, diaspora tax that is forcibly collected, involvement of the Orthodox Church and indications of human trafficking have been reported in media and reports, by individuals and organisations. In this article the outcomes of a research on the concerns about the well-being of Eritrean asylum seekers in reception centres among employers of organisations responsible for their safety and well-being are presented and discussed. Data were collected and discussed during four focus group meetings with a total of 33 professionals. The concerns are divided in three groups: 1) Concerns about the capacities and possibilities to integrate in Dutch society, 2) Concerns about religion and rituals, and 3) Concerns about indications of human trafficking. These concerns are further elaborated based on which the conclusion is drawn that more tailored support and assistance is required for successful integration of Eritreans in Dutch society, their empowerment and resilience against threats and challenges in Dutch society.


Desiree Horbach
Desiree Horbach is beleidsadviseur bij de Unit Uitvoeringsprocessen van het Centraal Orgaan opvang asielzoekers. Zij schreef haar bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.

Conny Rijken
Conny Rijken is professor Mensenhandel en Globalisering bij INTERVICT, Tilburg University.

    Like many other European countries the Netherlands experienced a major influx of refugees in the fall of 2015. A majority of the population supported providing shelter to the refugees, but not without worries and anxieties about the effects of that influx, which sometimes lead to limited, local forms of social unrest. A study was started to shed more light on the worries and fears that existed in the population, on the assumptions these were based upon and on whether these worries and fears could lead to social unrest on a larger scale. The study was explorative, based on an eclectic, multi methods approach. The findings show that worries and anxieties were not limited to those who were opposed to the influx of migrants, but existed among supporters as well. The worries and anxieties were of a diverse nature, on topics like security, livability, economics, perceived (in)justice and socio-cultural aspects of life. A clear, credible answer or policy from the government was missed. When compared to the findings of earlier studies on the influx of migrants, some worries and anxieties seemed closely connected to what might be expected, in other cases a distinct ‘disconnect’ was found. These could be understood however when distorting mechanisms were taken into consideration that have been described in studies of more general security perceptions. As the worries and anxieties on the influx of refugees resonated other existing worries, anxieties and fears in society, a ‘cocktail of concerns’ was created that, given the right trigger, could have led to social unrest on a larger scale.


Marnix Eysink Smeets
Marnix Eysink Smeets is Lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en Hoofd Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid van Hogeschool Inholland.

Anoek Boot
Anoek Boot was tot april 2017 onderzoeker bij de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid van Hogeschool Inholland Rotterdam.
Artikel

Internetbankieren: veiligheidspercepties van gebruikers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Risicoperceptie, Online bankfraude, Slachtofferschap, Informatiebeveiliging
Auteurs Jurjen Jansen, Nicolien Kop en Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In today’s society, full use is made of online banking. This makes safety and security of online banking an important issue. Two significant threats to users of online banking in The Netherlands are phishing and malware attacks. In this study, an end-user perspective is adopted to study customers’ perceptions regarding safety and security of online banking. A unique feature to this study is that we explore – besides other predictor variables – the relationship between online banking fraud victimization and risk perception. We have made a distinction between three types of victimization: 1) self-experienced victimization, 2) victimization of acquaintances, such as family and friends, and 3) having heard of stories in the media about online banking fraud victimization. Based on a secondary analysis of data from 1200 Dutch users of online banking, collected through an online survey, we conclude that participants perceive their risk of online banking fraud to be small. In general, participants have little experience with victimization, both themselves (2.3%) and in social settings (29.6%). Three quarters of the respondents (75.6%) are aware of victimization of online banking fraud by means of media coverage. Direct and indirect victimization, however, have almost no influence on risk perception regarding online banking fraud. Risk perception is mainly determined by perceived vulnerability, that is, the estimated probability of becoming a victim of online banking fraud. Furthermore, perceived severity or impact of online banking fraud and the degree of trust in online banking contribute to some extent to risk perception. In total, 64.0% of variance in risk perception was explained by the predictors perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, locus of control, trust in online banking, (in)direct experiences with victimization (self, acquaintances and media) and demographic variables (gender, age, educational level and work status). The results of this study may help to improve communication about risks regarding online banking.


Jurjen Jansen
Jurjen Jansen is promovendus aan de Faculteit Cultuur- & Rechtswetenschappen van de Open Universiteit, Onderzoeker aan het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.

Nicolien Kop
Nicolien Kop is lector Criminaliteitsbeheersing & Recherchekunde aan de Politieacademie.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit, lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

De twitterende wijkagent en het veiligheidsgevoel van de burger

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Twitter, police, safety perceptions, communication, social media
Auteurs Imke Smulders, Wilbert Spooren en Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article reports on a conceptual model that provides insight into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizens’ safety perceptions. The model has been tested using data from a relatively large-scale survey study and these results are supporting the model. Furthermore, a small impact of Twitter use has been found on feelings of safety and judgments about the police. To confirm these findings, further research on a larger scale is necessary. To find out more about the exact positive and negative effects of Twitter use by community policing officers, a more experimental design is required.


Imke Smulders
Imke Smulders is als promovenda/onderzoeker verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool. Ook is zij docent taal- en communicatievaardigheden aan de Juridische Hogeschool Avans-Fon‍tys. i.smulders@fontys.nl

Wilbert Spooren
Wilbert Spooren is hoogleraar Taalbeheersing van het Nederlands en verbonden aan het Centre for Language Studies (CLS) van de Faculteit der Letteren van de Radboud Universiteit. w.spooren@let.ru.nl

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit, en doet onderzoek bij Avans University en de VU Amsterdam. emile.kolthoff@ou.nl
Artikel

Tussen praat en daad: politiecultuur en politieoptreden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0203 2016
Trefwoorden police culture, police behavior, Sensemaking, Ethnography
Auteurs Wouter Landman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In police practice and science, police culture is often seen as having a significant influence on the behavior of police officers. With his article Police (canteen) subculture, Waddington challenged this perspective in 1999. He argued that the expressive talk in the canteen is an area of action that is separated from the behavior on the street. This led to a discussion in the police literature about how to interpret the relation between police culture and police behavior. In this article this discussion is enriched with new empirical research. This research resulted in 22 patterns that police officers use to make sense of their environment in order to act in that environment. A distinction is made in three environments: organization (canteen), street (surveillance) and situation (encounter with citizens). The distinction in different environments for sensemaking helps to re-interpret the relation between police culture and police behavior and shows that police culture and police behavior are related in rather complex ways. Police culture influences the behavior on the streets through the cultural knowledge they share in the canteen, and which they use to make sense of concrete situations in which they have to act. At the same time, the point made by Waddington seems also true. The patterns of interaction between police officers have also a function in affirming their worldview and beliefs, regardless of their behavior on the streets. His perspective is just to one dimensional. A multidimensional view on the relation between police culture and police behavior is preferable if we want to understand the relation between police culture and police behavior.


Wouter Landman
Wouter Landman is onderzoeker bij Twynstra Gudde.
Artikel

Verbeelding en veiligheid

De film Project X en de rellen in Haren (2012)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Film, public imagination, public safety, Riots, Youth
Auteurs Heidi de Mare
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On September 21th 2012, a sweet sixteen party in Haren (a Dutch village), announced on Facebook as PROJECT X Haren, turned into a riot in which youngsters clashed with the police. The blame was put on the film Project X (2012) that would have inspired adolescents to become aggressive and violent. However, like other adolescent comedies, this movie offers an insight in the adolescent state of mind, the role of humor and their lack of risk assessments. Much violence is (harmless) slapstick-like, boundaries are exceeded (sex, alcohol, drugs) and transgression is often directed against parents, teachers and the police. What is tested in the adolescent imagination is the public order. Film functions as a symbolic rite of passage, with carnivalesque inversions. Reacting in Haren on this adolescent state of mind with an administrative prohibition (‘there is no party’) confirmed the juvenile joke. Acting as if it is not a party but a huge disaster (by enlarging police forces) contributed to make the riot a reality that the youngsters themselves never imagined. The commission of inquiry recommends taking serious film and other forms of public imagination, because they contribute to our understanding of reality, especially concerning the perceptions of societal actors.


Heidi de Mare
Heidi de Mare is directeur van Stichting IVMV, instituut voor maatschappelijke verbeelding, www.ivmv.nl.
Artikel

De epidemiologie van kinderdoding in Nederland, 2009-2014

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Child homicide, Filicide, The Netherlands, Epidemiology, Copycat
Auteurs Marieke Liem en Stephanie Haarhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Child homicide is a phenomenon that not infrequently leads to shock and societal unrest. However, the precise nature and scope of child homicide in the Netherlands remains unknown. This article attempts to fill the gap in our current knowledge by reporting descriptive research on child homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2014. Further, this article aims to assess if media attention regarding child homicide brings about a so-called copycat-effect. By means of descriptive statistics, case, victim and perpetrator characteristics of 74 cases of filicide are assessed.


Marieke Liem
Marieke Liem is universitair docent en senior onderzoeker voor het Violence Research Initiative, bij Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism, verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Stephanie Haarhuis
Stephanie Haarhuis is in 2015 afgestudeerd in de forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
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