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Artikel

Veiligheid en welzijn van Eritreeërs in het geding?

Onderzoek naar zorgen rondom veiligheid en welzijn van Eritrese vluchtelingen en asielzoekers in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Veiligheid en welzijn Eritreeërs, Integratie, religie en rituelen, Mensenhandel
Auteurs Desiree Horbach en Conny Rijken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rationale behind refugee law is that people who fear persecution in their home country can seek and find a safe haven in another country. The situation in Eritrea with its national service and wide-spread human rights violations is reason why many Eritreans flee their country. A vast number of them want to apply for asylum in European countries. After a risky journey over the African continent where they face risks of kidnappings, trafficking for ransom, and situations of inhuman and degrading treatment, they reach Europe. Some of them continue their journey to the Netherlands. The central question in this article is whether or not their safety and well-being are at stake once they arrive in the Netherlands. Situations of involvement of and intimidation by the Eritrean regime in the Netherlands, diaspora tax that is forcibly collected, involvement of the Orthodox Church and indications of human trafficking have been reported in media and reports, by individuals and organisations. In this article the outcomes of a research on the concerns about the well-being of Eritrean asylum seekers in reception centres among employers of organisations responsible for their safety and well-being are presented and discussed. Data were collected and discussed during four focus group meetings with a total of 33 professionals. The concerns are divided in three groups: 1) Concerns about the capacities and possibilities to integrate in Dutch society, 2) Concerns about religion and rituals, and 3) Concerns about indications of human trafficking. These concerns are further elaborated based on which the conclusion is drawn that more tailored support and assistance is required for successful integration of Eritreans in Dutch society, their empowerment and resilience against threats and challenges in Dutch society.


Desiree Horbach
Desiree Horbach is beleidsadviseur bij de Unit Uitvoeringsprocessen van het Centraal Orgaan opvang asielzoekers. Zij schreef haar bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.

Conny Rijken
Conny Rijken is professor Mensenhandel en Globalisering bij INTERVICT, Tilburg University.
Artikel

‘Een loverboy laat niet los’

Slachtoffers van loverboys in beeld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Loverboys, Revictimization, Youth prostitution, National human trafficking, Youth care
Auteurs Rianne Verwijs, Arnt Mein en Marjolein Goderie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the concept of ‘loverboys’ is discussed and characteristics and needs of victims are described. The term ‘loverboy’ refers to a person who uses a specific method of human trafficking of mostly girls and young women. The methods involve recruitment and grooming of the girl by contacting and seducing her by means of (the promise of) a romantic relationship, with the aim of exploiting the victim sexually and financially or use her as a drug mule or otherwise. The loverboy concept is not a new phenomenon, but the traditional image of a loverboy as a charming young man operating on his own is outmoded. Victims of loverboys form a broad and diverse group, but share certain characteristics that make them vulnerable, such as attachment issues, traumatic (sexual) events in their childhood and, to a lesser extent, intellectual disability. More insight is needed in the underlying mechanisms of repeated victimization − a serious issue with loverboy victims − and how this can be prevented. Regarding loverboy victims as a specific type of national human trafficking or youth prostitution instead of isolating it as a new phenomenon, is a first step in accomplishing this.


Rianne Verwijs
Drs. Rianne Verwijs is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut. E-mail: rverwijs@verwey-jonker.nl

Arnt Mein
Mr. Arnt Mein is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.

Marjolein Goderie
Drs. Marjolein Goderie is als promovenda verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Onschadelijkmaking: een problematische trend in criminaliteitsbestrijding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Incapacitation, Crime-prevention, Control, Punishment,, Disqualification
Auteurs Marius Duker en Marijke Malsch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article attempts to interpret and critically discuss the concept of incapacitation as a motive in the response to crime. Research shows that incapacitation – disabling or hindering people to commit offences – increasingly presents an important motive in the response to crime. This tendency is explored by several researchers in a new book titled Incapacitation: Trends and New Perspectives (Ashgate 2012). This tendency presents itself by the expansion of various modes of and grounds for detention, but also in the increase of other kinds of incapacitative measures, as well as in the fact that also administrative measures outside criminal law increasingly contain incapacitative elements. This tendency towards incapacitation of possible (re-)offenders can also be witnessed in contemporary politics. Examples discussed here are the intensive application of preventive custody, disqualifications, restraining orders accompanied by electronic monitoring, as well as administrative measures aimed at refusing certificates of good conduct or permits for specific commercial activities. It is argued that incapacitation often is not a proportionate and effective approach against crime. It appears to obscure the perspective on possibly more effective attempts to secure future behavior.


Marius Duker
Mr. dr. Marius Duker is UHD Straf(proces)recht aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger. E-mail: m.j.a.duker@vu.nl

Marijke Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum voor Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), en tevens raadsheer-plaatsvervanger.
Artikel

Uitbuiting uit zicht?

Getuigenverklaringen van gesmokkelde migranten nader bekeken aan de hand van indicatoren voor mensenhandel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden human trafficking, migrant smuggling, irregular migration, exploitation, illegal employment
Auteurs Joanne van der van der Leun en Anet van van Schijndel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Human trafficking means exploitation; human smuggling is associated with illegal labour and a connection with exploitation is absent. Where a victim of human trafficking can appeal for legal protection, a smuggled migrant (illegally residing or with vulnerable legal status) overall has little rights because of the formal absence of the aspects of exploitation and coercion in human smuggling. In this article, the empirical analysis based on file analysis demonstrates that in several files of cases framed as human smuggling indications are found for exploitation of migrants, although this has not been recognised as such. Theoretically the authors tie this to the trend of crimmigration. Measures designed to combat human trafficking and smuggling are often concentrated on (criminal) law enforcement and criminal punishment, to the detriment of a human rights-based approach. The tension between immigration policy and the combat against human trafficking deserves more attention.


Joanne van der van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. (Joanne) van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. E-mail: j.p.vanderleun@law.leidenuniv.nl

Anet van van Schijndel
A.A.A. (Anet) van Schijndel MSc is onderzoeker bij de Algemene Rekenkamer. E-mail: a.vanschijndel@rekenkamer.nl

Annemarie ten Boom
Drs. A. (Annemarie) ten Boom is onderzoeksbegeleider bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie en ontwikkelde voorheen bij NOC*NSF het beleid tegen seksueel misbruik in de sport. E-mail: a.ten.boom@minvenj.nl

Stefan Bogaerts
Prof. dr. S. (Stefan) Bogaerts is hoogleraar forensische psychologie aan Tilburg School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, forensische psychologie en aan Tilburg Law School, Intervict. Hij is ook verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, Universiteit van Leuven en hoofd onderzoek en behandelinnovatie van FPC de Kijvelanden. E-mail: S.Bogaerts@uvt.nl
Artikel

De strafrechtelijke bescherming van jongeren tegen seksuele contactlegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden teenagers, sexual activities, legal protection, criminal law, discourse analysis
Auteurs Juul Gooren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Teenagers between twelve and eighteen years of age are protected by Dutch criminal law against sexual encounters that can be described as ‘voluntarily’. If teenagers are approached without force or approach a person themselves autonomously they are thus protected against such contact, but they could have played a sexual active role nevertheless. How do the alleged offenders in these criminal cases make contact and how are the punishable interactions possible considering the facilitative role of the victim? This paper will deal with the way the officials of the police and justice departments value sexual contacts with youngsters in a diverse range of settings. The crucial question is how the professionals dealing with the protection of youngsters and at the same time safeguarding the legal rights of offenders come to their juridical deliberation.


Juul Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is docent/onderzoeker aan de Haagse Hogeschool, Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Veiligheid, opleiding Integrale Veiligheid. E-mail: j.c.w.gooren@hhs.nl.
Artikel

Downloaders van kinderporno

Een overzicht van de literatuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Kinderporno, Downloaden, Zedencriminaliteit, Literatuurstudie
Auteurs Anton van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Unlike the physical abusers of children, little is known about downloaders of child pornography. The key questions in this article are: who are the downloaders, what are their backgrounds, why and how they download child pornography, how they behave offline and online and what types of downloaders can be distinguished? A simple answer to these questions is currently impossible to give. There is more, preferably longitudinal, research needed on risk factors for downloading child pornography and the various types of downloaders. Combating the downloaders requires a lot of the police in terms of international cooperation and up to date knowledge and expertise. This also served the treatment practices, which is partly dependent on a properly conducted police investigation.


Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. A.Ph. van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke. E-mail: a.vanwijk@beke.nl.
Nieuws

Kinderen beter beschermd tegen seksueel misbruik

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2006
Trefwoorden minderjarige, strafbaarheid, investering, kind, politie, seksueel misbruik, openbaar ministerie, producent, bezit, downloaden
Auteurs K. Lünnemann, S. Nieborg en M. Goderie

K. Lünnemann

S. Nieborg

M. Goderie
Nieuws

Beschermingsarrangementen: Recht doen vanuit het perspectief van de burger

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2006
Trefwoorden tussenkomst, geweld, rechtsbescherming, slachtoffer, voorwaarde, kind, leerling, overlast, politie, toezicht
Auteurs K. Lünnemann

K. Lünnemann
Artikel

Filteren op internet

De rol van de Nederlandse overheid in het blokkeren van kinderpornografische websites

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden filteren, internet, kinderporno, politie
Auteurs Rutger Leukfeldt, Wouter Stol, Rik Kaspersen e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The distribution of child pornography on the internet is observed as a major social problem. In the Netherlands a lively political-social discussion has emerged concerning the manner in which this can be prevented. The discussion moves between two polarities. On the one hand the dangers of internet censure are emphasised and on the other hand the need for a clamp down in which every measure seems to be justified. The present government wants to combat child pornography and by doing so answer the moral indignation of society. A means that the Dutch government, and on her behalf the police, uses, is blocking websites with child-pornographic content. The possibilities of the Dutch government to filter effectively, however, are restricted. The accuracy of existing filters is low and it is easy to get around filters. In addition, opportunities are restricted by constitutional rights. A filter that stops all websites with child pornography is bound to stop legal internet traffic too. That is at odds with the constitutional rights of freedom of expression and freedom of information gathering. The realisation of a filter that respects fundamental rights and still is able to block child pornography requires a lot of police manpower. This comes at the expense of the tracking down of criminals who produce and distribute child pornography. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the use of the child-pornography filter leads to the purposes for which they are deployed, such as hindering the sale of child pornography or reducing the abuse of children. The police, therefore, is assigned to a task that requires a considerable amount of time, but the benefits of which are unclear.


Rutger Leukfeldt
Rutger Leukfeldt is junior onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van de NHL Hogeschool. E-mail: e.r.leukfeldt@ecma.nhl.nl.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool, bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit Nederland en onderzoeker aan de Politieacademie. E-mail: w.ph.stol@ecma.nhl.nl.

Rik Kaspersen
Rik Kaspersen is emeritus hoogleraar Informatica en Recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: hwkkas@xs4all.nl.

Joyce Kerstens
Joyce Kerstens is docent-onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van de NHL Hogeschool. E-mail: j.kerstens@ecma.nhl.nl.

Arno Lodder
Arno Lodder is universitair hoofddocent van de Afdeling Informatica en Recht, Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: a.r.lodder@rechten.vu.nl.
Artikel

Additioneel seksueel gedrag van kinderpornodownloaders

Onderzoek naar additioneel seksueel gedrag met kinderen in een groep van 38 kinderpornodownloaders met behulp van gecombineerde zelfrapportage en polygrafie (Sexual History Disclosure Polygraph Examinations)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden cybercrime, polygrafie, zelfrapportage, kinderporno, risicoprofiel
Auteurs Jos Buschman en Don Krapohl
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a study on Post-Conviction Polygraphy in the Netherlands. Importantly, it exclusively focuses on cybercrime offenders. The study was designed to systematically address the different child sexual behaviours exhibited by 38 subjects who were in treatment for possessing child abuse images. The results gave indications that post-conviction polygraphy can provide additional data to inform the development of theory in this area and contribute to the treatment, supervision and more effective containment of offending behaviour, and the reduction of future victimization.


Jos Buschman
Jos Buschman is senior diagnosticus aan de Dr. S. van Mesdagkliniek, Groningen. E-mail: j.buschman@fpcvanmesdag.nl.

Don Krapohl
Don Krapohl is president van de American Polygraph Association.
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