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Artikel

Heel Holland spoort op

Naar een afwegingsmodel voor de politie in de omgang met burgers die zelfstandig onderzoek doen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden Participation, citizen, police, investigation, reciprocity
Auteurs Arnout de Vries, Shanna Wemmers, Stan Duijf e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Citizens investigating crimes themselves is a growing trend, because of democratization of information (e.g. social media), tools (e.g. apps) and knowledge (e.g. explanimations on YouTube). More and more citizens do their own research as modern Sherlocks. The police has to handle these trends in line with participant wishes and the law, but does not yet have concrete tools to do so. This article explores how the police participate in contemporary citizen criminal investigations, including the difficulties and benefits experienced. The obtained insights of the presented research serve as guidance, which can help police officers understand how to participate with citizens who have started, or want to start, a criminal investigation. The presented model explains how police can use it to better guide and stimulate, but also stop or protect citizens in their investigative activities. An app with professional guidance was piloted in four police units to participate with citizens that do their own research and learn from expectations and experiences. Citizens need guidance, but more importantly expect a certain degree of reciprocity in collaborating with police in criminal investigations.


Arnout de Vries
Arnout de Vries is werkzaam bij TNO Groningen.

Shanna Wemmers
Shanna Wemmers is werkzaam als scientist innovator bij TNO.

Stan Duijf
Stan Duijf won als masterstudent Science in Policing en in 2019 de scriptieprijs van de Politieacademie.

Victor Kallen
Victor Kallen klinisch psychofysioloog bij TNO Behavioural & Societal Sciences.

    In former times, citizens themselves were responsible for ensuring and protecting their own safety. Over the years, this responsibility largely shifted to the government, partly due to the establishment of an institutionalized police force. In recent years, citizens have increasingly reestablishing themselves in domain of social security. Citizens are engaged in tasks that are traditionally seen as primarily the responsibility of the police, such as law enforcement, criminal investigation and immediate in case of emergencies.
    Technology can be considered as one of the major driving forces behind this increasing contribution of citizens in the field of security. Technology makes it possible to quickly find and share information and enhances people’s ability to deal with cognitively complex tasks. In a certain way, technology democratizes police work by making the skills and tools available for every citizen.
    In this article we will discuss the value of a specific form of technological support for citizens in their search for missing persons: the missing persons app ‘Sarea’. The Netherlands has a high number of missing persons and in many incidents citizens start searching themselves. Often, this citizen initiatives are uncoordinated. Therefore, an app has been developed by the police to help citizens start and coordinate their own searches for a missing person.


Jerôme Lam
Jerôme Lam is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.

Nicolien Kop
Nicolien Kop is werkzaam bij de Politieacademie.

Celest Houtman
Celest Houtman is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij Politie Nederland, Eenheid Oost-Nederland, Dienst Informatie.
Artikel

Access_open Een einde aan ondermijning

Over de opkomst en werking van een nieuwe veiligheidsstrategie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden ondermijning, speech act, veiligheidsbeleid, drugs
Auteurs Hans Boutellier, Ronald van Steden, Yarin Eski e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Undermining has become a buzz-word in Dutch politics and security governance. On national and local level there is great concern about the disappearing lines between the legal and illegal world, which affects the democratic order and rule of law in the Netherlands. Hence, everything possible should be done in order to combat the creeping threat of undermining. However, what is undermining actually? And why has the concept become so popular now? In this contribution, the authors will consider those and other relevant key questions about the rise and effect of the undermining concept to provide more conceptual clarity. By critically reflecting on undermining as a speech act, that is ‘underminization’ (cf. securitization), and based on empirical research, the authors suggest that there are two discourses at work that hinder the effectivity of the concept: one is specifically focused on the drugs industry with its illegal activities and one broadens the concept into unlawful and undesired developments that interfere with societal stability. The authors conclude that the concept of undermining may mobilize at policy level, yet seems to paralyze at operational level.


Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Ronald van Steden
Ronald van Steden is verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Yarin Eski
Yarin Eski is verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mauro Boelens
Mauro Boelens was verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en nu werkzaam bij TwynstraGudde.
Artikel

De invloed van bedreigingen op de gemeentelijke besluitvorming

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden bedreigingen in de politiek, ongewenste invloed, intensieve procesanalyse
Auteurs Diana Marijnissen en Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution reports on a delimited part of a larger, exploratory study, the main question of which was: How do aldermen perceive threats, what are their behavioral intentions and what is the influence of threats on the process and the outcome of decision-making? This question was answered with the help of Q methodology, semi structured interviews and case studies. This article discusses the results of the case studies and semi structured interviews on the impact of threats on decision-making. In two of the investigated cases (N=3) there are indications that the threats affect the decision-making process. The first case involves risk-avoiding behavior. In the second case there is a stronger conviction and hardening of opinions. There are no indications that threats affect the outcome of the decision-making process. The political administrative system that we have in the Netherlands is able to counteract improper influence. This is due to various elements in the system such as the boldness and the results-focused attitude of civil service (case 1) and the mayor and aldermen (case 2 and 3) and the design of the rules and procedures (case 1, 2 and 3).


Diana Marijnissen
Diana Marijnissen is docent bij de opleiding Bestuurskunde van Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Ondermijning van het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool. Zij promoveerde in 2019 op een onderzoek naar bedreigde wethouders.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en lector Ondermijning bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool. Hij is hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Komt een 112-melding bij de politie

Triage op de politie-meldkamer bij personen met verward gedrag

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Verwarde personen, Triage, Gevaar, passend vervoer, psycholance
Auteurs André Wierdsma, Yvette van Strien, Philip den Hollander e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National thematic projects and local authorities aim to improve shelter and transport facilities for mentally disordered non-offenders. A pilot project in the south-western part of the Netherlands investigated the efficiency of psychiatric expertise in the triage process of the police emergency control room.
    To evaluate incoming emergency telephone calls in terms of the type of mentally disordered behavior, the sort and degree of dangerousness, and the urgency and type of response required.
    Between November 2016 and January 2017 social psychiatric nurses did weekend shifts on the emergency control room. Incoming telephone calls concerning public nuisance or disordered behavior were administered using the triage tool developed by the Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care. Nurses had access to regional information systems and were explicitly allowed to follow up on cases where continuity of care was an issue.
    A total of 155 calls were evaluated producing a representative image of calls concerning mentally disordered behaviour. Results show that this type of emergency calls is not overly frequent, in many cases not extremely urgent (response time target >1 hour: 67%), and about 65% could be followed up by the general practice centre or specialised (psychiatric) healthcare services. More than half (55%) of the emergency calls involved people previously in contact with psychiatric services. Most common types of danger were public disorder (28%) and suicide risk (21%). However, in 29% of cases type of danger was unclear and 14-20% of the triage tool was inconclusive.
    Triage by mental health specialists at the police emergency control room is not efficient because many cases are not very urgent and information quality is often too low to preclude street-triage. Yet screening and follow up of mentally disturbed persons can be improved by close collaboration between control room and psychiatric services.


André Wierdsma
André Wierdsma is universitair docent, afdeling psychiatrie aan het Erasmus MC.

Yvette van Strien
Yvette van Strien is adviseur acute zorg bij Traumacentrum ZuidWest-Nederland.

Philip den Hollander
Philip den Hollander is chef Meldkamer bij de Politie Rotterdam.

Aram van Reijsen
Aram van Reijsen is psychiater acute dienst bij Bavo-Europoort.
Artikel

Wethouders in de frontlijn: een studie naar de perceptie van en de omgang met persoonlijke bedreigingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden threats in politics, coping strategies, undue influence on politics, Q-methodology
Auteurs Diana Marijnissen en Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution reports on a delimited part of a larger, exploratory study, the main question of which was: How do aldermen perceive threats, what are their behavioral intentions and what is the influence of threats on the process and the outcome of decision-making? This question was answered with the help of Q-methodology, semi-structured interviews and case studies. This article discusses the results of the Q-methodology and the semi-structured interviews. The case studies will be reported separately later on. Through the Q-methodology three patterns in perception were found in dealing with threats: ‘combative and decisive’, ‘vulnerable and thoughtful’ and ‘down-to-earth and accepting’. The interviews show that it usually concerns instrumental threats that are deliberately used to influence decision making, which usually take place in the private sphere and vary from verbal aggression to physical violence. Most threats come from individuals, but some come from groups, in some cases there is a relationship with criminals. In the cases reviewed, the consequences in the private sphere are far-reaching, there are indications for the influence on public functioning (from hardening to great caution). There is almost always a report, a fuss in the media can affect the authority of the official.


Diana Marijnissen
Diana Marijnissen is docent bij de Academie Industrie en Informatica en onderzoeker bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en is lector Ondermijning bij Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch. Hij is tevens voorzitter van de redactie van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

De rol van sociale media bij rampen en (mini)crises

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Sociale media, Crises, Crisiscommunicatie, geruchten
Auteurs Menno van Duin, Vina Wijkhuijs en Jan Eberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professionals dealing with crises are more or less forced to a next level of crisis communication and crisis management. This is because of the influence of social media. Messages on Twitter, Facebook and other social media can have a significant impact on the course of developments during a crisis. Sometimes in a positive way, when help is mobilized quickly and people can be informed almost instantly. On other occasions the impact is more negative, when for instance rumors lead to false accusations or threats. In the past several years, crisis management authorities have built up more experience with the use and application of social media and monitoring tools. There are still cases where officials and professionals are taken by surprise because of the shift stream of messages and their impact on public opinion and crisis control. But also lessons have been learned, e.g. in terms of online and offline reactions, cooperation with the public, and rumor control.
    This article gives an overview of research results in literature and summarizes the outcomes of a case study research project.


Menno van Duin
Menno van Duin is lector crisisbeheersing (IFV).

Vina Wijkhuijs
Vina Wijkhuijs is senior onderzoeker Lectoraat Crisisbeheersing (IFV).

Jan Eberg
Jan Eberg is hoofddocent en onderzoeker integrale veiligheid (HU).
Artikel

Gedragsprofiling: het bepalen van kwade bedoelingen en het meten van effectiviteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden gedragsprofiling, afwijkend gedrag, psychologie, effectiviteitsmetingen, beveiligingspersoneel
Auteurs Helma van den Berg, Remco Wijn en Dianne van Hemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Is behavioural profiling a viable alternative to more traditional approaches to profiling, viewed from the perspectives of underlying theoretical assumptions and measures of effectiveness? In this article we describe behaviour profiling in relation to other types of profiling, we review relevant psychological mechanisms that underpin behaviour profiling, and discuss effectiveness of this type of profiling as well as methodological aspects of measuring effectiveness. Behaviour profiling is a method largely used to select potential offenders before the offence is committed by observing and giving meaning to behaviours preceding incidents. Deviant behaviours exhibited by suspects can be either part of a modus operandi related to the offence, the consequence of increased stress, or an atypical response to prodding actions by security officers. Relevant psychological mechanisms to explain ways behaviour profiling works include direct characteristics of deception as well as indirect indicators of deception, such as a criminal being more self-focused and more cognitively engaged. Effectiveness of behaviour profiling is increased by training, including learning more about modi operandi and related behaviours, awareness of biases in general, specific relevant biases, and techniques to correct for these biases.


Helma van den Berg
Helma van den Berg is werkzaam bij TNDO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences. Helma.

Remco Wijn
Remco Wijn is research scientist bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences

Dianne van Hemert
Dianne A. van Hemert is werkzaam bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Veiliger door de buurtwacht?

Over de veiligheidsbeleving van burgerparticipanten en het belang ervan voor lokaal veiligheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden neighbourhood watch, citizen participation, fear of crime, safety perception, local safety policy
Auteurs Gwen van Eijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the safety perception of citizen participants in neighbourhood watches. Two questions are central: to what extent is it correct to assume that participation increases feelings of safety, and what is the role of measuring safety perceptions in local safety policy? In-depth interviews with 21 participants in The Hague show that participation changes perceptions of safety both positively and negatively, which is related to contacts with other residents, the information they receive about safety and crime problems, and experienced effectiveness in solving problems. Participation seems to result rather in a more nuanced perception of safety. The article ends with a discussion on the value of a detailed insight into the perception of safety for local safety policies.


Gwen van Eijk
Dr. Gwen van Eijk is universitair docent Criminologie, Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden, Postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden E-mail: g.van.eijk@law.leidenuniv.nl
Artikel

Uitbuiting uit zicht?

Getuigenverklaringen van gesmokkelde migranten nader bekeken aan de hand van indicatoren voor mensenhandel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden human trafficking, migrant smuggling, irregular migration, exploitation, illegal employment
Auteurs Joanne van der van der Leun en Anet van van Schijndel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Human trafficking means exploitation; human smuggling is associated with illegal labour and a connection with exploitation is absent. Where a victim of human trafficking can appeal for legal protection, a smuggled migrant (illegally residing or with vulnerable legal status) overall has little rights because of the formal absence of the aspects of exploitation and coercion in human smuggling. In this article, the empirical analysis based on file analysis demonstrates that in several files of cases framed as human smuggling indications are found for exploitation of migrants, although this has not been recognised as such. Theoretically the authors tie this to the trend of crimmigration. Measures designed to combat human trafficking and smuggling are often concentrated on (criminal) law enforcement and criminal punishment, to the detriment of a human rights-based approach. The tension between immigration policy and the combat against human trafficking deserves more attention.


Joanne van der van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. (Joanne) van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. E-mail: j.p.vanderleun@law.leidenuniv.nl

Anet van van Schijndel
A.A.A. (Anet) van Schijndel MSc is onderzoeker bij de Algemene Rekenkamer. E-mail: a.vanschijndel@rekenkamer.nl

Lonneke van Noije
Lonneke van Noije is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker werkzaam bij het SCP en is tevens hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

De strafrechtelijke bescherming van jongeren tegen seksuele contactlegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden teenagers, sexual activities, legal protection, criminal law, discourse analysis
Auteurs Juul Gooren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Teenagers between twelve and eighteen years of age are protected by Dutch criminal law against sexual encounters that can be described as ‘voluntarily’. If teenagers are approached without force or approach a person themselves autonomously they are thus protected against such contact, but they could have played a sexual active role nevertheless. How do the alleged offenders in these criminal cases make contact and how are the punishable interactions possible considering the facilitative role of the victim? This paper will deal with the way the officials of the police and justice departments value sexual contacts with youngsters in a diverse range of settings. The crucial question is how the professionals dealing with the protection of youngsters and at the same time safeguarding the legal rights of offenders come to their juridical deliberation.


Juul Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is docent/onderzoeker aan de Haagse Hogeschool, Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Veiligheid, opleiding Integrale Veiligheid. E-mail: j.c.w.gooren@hhs.nl.
Artikel

Forensisch-medische expertise voor slachtoffers van huiselijk geweld

Hoe werken politie en forensische artsen samen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden huiselijk geweld, forensische geneeskunde, medische verklaringen, letselverklaring
Auteurs Tina Dorn, Manon Ceelen, Olga Boeij e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, police can request a physical examination of victims of domestic violence. These examinations can be either carried out by the physician who has treated the victim, or, alternatively, by a forensic physician. From a medico-legal point of view, an examination by a forensic physician has several advantages, as forensic physicians are independent and trained in examining victims of violence and reporting to the police. The aim of the current study was to (1) describe the structure of forensic services for victims of domestic violence in the Netherlands, (2) establish with whom the police request physical examinations of victims (forensic physician vs. physicians who have treated the victim), (3) explore the underlying reasons for the choice made and (4) elaborate how the current cooperation of police and forensic physicians can be improved in favour of victims of domestic violence. For this purpose, interviews were carried out with police professionals and forensic physicians throughout the country. The results demonstrated that victims can access forensic services almost exclusively on referral by the police. Furthermore, the police in most cases request physical examinations from physicians who have treated the victim and not from forensic physicians. Reasons for referring victims to treating physicians instead of forensic physicians are costs and lack of information on forensic services. Reports provided by treating physicians are criticized by the police for being illegible, incomprehensible, and lacking information on aspects which are of importance for the legal procedure. In short, the legal position of victims could be strengthened by requesting physical examinations from forensic physicians instead from treating physicians. A major obstacle to change is a lack of funding. Furthermore, forensic services for victims of domestic violence in the Netherlands could be improved if victims could access forensic services without referral of the police.


Tina Dorn
Dr. Tina Dorn is onderzoeker, afdeling Epidemiologie, Documentatie en Gezondheidsbevordering, GGD Amsterdam. Contactadres: GGD Amsterdam, afd. EDG, Postbus 2200, 1000 CE Amsterdam. Tel. 020-5555911. E-mail: tdorn@ggd.amsterdam.nl.

Manon Ceelen
Dr. Manon Ceelen is onderzoeker, afdeling Epidemiologie, Documentatie en Gezondheidsbevordering, GGD Amsterdam.

Olga Boeij
Dr. Olga Boeij is onderzoeker, afdeling Epidemiologie, Documentatie en Gezondheidsbevordering, GGD Amsterdam.

Kees Das
Dr. Kees Das is hoofd afdeling Forensische Geneeskunde, GGD Amsterdam.

Mariëtte Christophe
Mariëtte Christophe is programmaleider, Landelijk Programmabureau Huiselijk Geweld en de Politietaak.
Boekbespreking

Werkgroep Extramurale Gedragsinterventies (2007) <i>Gedragstrainingen voor reclasseringscliënten.</i> Ministerie van Justitie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2007
Trefwoorden reclassering, gedetineerde, recidive, ministerie van justitie, transparantie, delinquent, toezicht, tussenkomst, aanbeveling, aansprakelijkheid
Auteurs A. Menger

A. Menger
Boekbespreking

H.B. Ferwerda, I.M.G.G. van Leiden, N.A.M. Arts & A.R. Hauber (2006) Halt: Het Alternatief? De effecten van Halt beschreven, Den Haag: Boom Juridische uitgevers / WODC (Onderzoek & Beleid, deel 244)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2006
Trefwoorden recidive, HALT-afdoening, auteur, politie, strafbaar feit, tussenkomst, ouders, aanhouding, arts, frequentie
Auteurs G.B. Rovers

G.B. Rovers
Discussie

De Schipholbrand: te weinig instructie of te veel?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2006
Trefwoorden medewerker, aansprakelijkheid, personeel, risico, aanbeveling, slachtoffer, bouw, fout, gevangenis, model
Auteurs G. van Reekum

G. van Reekum
Artikel

Cameratoezicht in de openbare ruimte. Weten mensen wel dat er camera's zijn, en voelen zij zich er veiliger door?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2006
Trefwoorden openbare ruimte, gebruiker, delinquent, voorwaarde, kleinhandelsbedrijf, frequentie, kenbaarheid, noodzakelijkheid, risico, slachtoffer
Auteurs A. van Eijk, G. Kanning, A. Molenaar e.a.

A. van Eijk

G. Kanning

A. Molenaar

M. Strijbos

W. Bernasco
Nieuws

Kinderen beter beschermd tegen seksueel misbruik

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2006
Trefwoorden minderjarige, strafbaarheid, investering, kind, politie, seksueel misbruik, openbaar ministerie, producent, bezit, downloaden
Auteurs K. Lünnemann, S. Nieborg en M. Goderie

K. Lünnemann

S. Nieborg

M. Goderie
Interface Showing Amount
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