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Artikel

Komt een 112-melding bij de politie

Triage op de politie-meldkamer bij personen met verward gedrag

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Verwarde personen, Triage, Gevaar, passend vervoer, psycholance
Auteurs André Wierdsma, Yvette van Strien, Philip den Hollander e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National thematic projects and local authorities aim to improve shelter and transport facilities for mentally disordered non-offenders. A pilot project in the south-western part of the Netherlands investigated the efficiency of psychiatric expertise in the triage process of the police emergency control room.
    To evaluate incoming emergency telephone calls in terms of the type of mentally disordered behavior, the sort and degree of dangerousness, and the urgency and type of response required.
    Between November 2016 and January 2017 social psychiatric nurses did weekend shifts on the emergency control room. Incoming telephone calls concerning public nuisance or disordered behavior were administered using the triage tool developed by the Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care. Nurses had access to regional information systems and were explicitly allowed to follow up on cases where continuity of care was an issue.
    A total of 155 calls were evaluated producing a representative image of calls concerning mentally disordered behaviour. Results show that this type of emergency calls is not overly frequent, in many cases not extremely urgent (response time target >1 hour: 67%), and about 65% could be followed up by the general practice centre or specialised (psychiatric) healthcare services. More than half (55%) of the emergency calls involved people previously in contact with psychiatric services. Most common types of danger were public disorder (28%) and suicide risk (21%). However, in 29% of cases type of danger was unclear and 14-20% of the triage tool was inconclusive.
    Triage by mental health specialists at the police emergency control room is not efficient because many cases are not very urgent and information quality is often too low to preclude street-triage. Yet screening and follow up of mentally disturbed persons can be improved by close collaboration between control room and psychiatric services.


André Wierdsma
André Wierdsma is universitair docent, afdeling psychiatrie aan het Erasmus MC.

Yvette van Strien
Yvette van Strien is adviseur acute zorg bij Traumacentrum ZuidWest-Nederland.

Philip den Hollander
Philip den Hollander is chef Meldkamer bij de Politie Rotterdam.

Aram van Reijsen
Aram van Reijsen is psychiater acute dienst bij Bavo-Europoort.
Artikel

De geschatte waarde van het preventieprogramma Brandveilig Leven op basis van de contingente waarderingsmethode (CV – Contingent Valuation)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden willingness-to-pay, contingent valuation, impact assessment, community fire safety
Auteurs David Bornebroek, Ron de Wit, Marc van Buiten e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Regional Fire Services collectively aim at preventing fire, casualties and damage. The main activity is informing citizens about fire risks and the appropriate measures they can take. From both a political and social perspective, it is valuable to know what the return of the Community Fire Safety program is. One way to chart the return of the program is a comparison of the cost of, and society’s willingness-to-pay for, the program. To estimate this willingness-to-pay, this article applies the contingent valuation method to a national representative sample of 806 Dutch citizens. The results show that willingness-to-pay of an average Dutch household is estimated to be between € 25.00 and € 35.67 per year provided the Community Fire Safety program improves the fire safety by 10%. At the national level, this amounts to 200 – 270 million euro annually. This value is seven to ten times more than the approximate costs of the current Community Fire Safety program.


David Bornebroek
David Bornebroek is manager/directeur van Twente Safety Campus en Teamleider (Brand) Veilig Leven en projectleider Risk Factory bij Brandweer Twente.

Ron de Wit
Ron de Wit is plaatsvervangend commandant van de Brandweer Twente.

Marc van Buiten
Marc van Buiten is universitair docent aan de faculteit Engeneering Technology aan de Universiteit Twente.

Ira Helsloot
Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar Besturen van Veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit.
Artikel

Access_open Het monstertruckdrama in Haaksbergen en het vertrek van burgemeester Gerritsen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden blame games, crisis, resignation, local authority, mayor
Auteurs Sandra L. Resodihardjo, Marloes Meijer en Brendan J. Carroll
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Following a crisis, questions are often raised about how this crisis could have happened and whether someone is to be blamed for the crisis or its bad management. The blame game can become fierce as actors try to avoid, shift or mitigate blame in order to stay in office. In 2014, a festival took place in Haaksbergen where a monster truck drove into the audience, killing three people and injuring many others. Not enough safety measures had been taken to prevent the tragedy. Many actors were to blame for that, including the local authority which had granted the permit. Other actors blamed for the events were the mayor, the monster truck driver, and the organization organizing the festival. In the end, the mayor of Haaksbergen resigned. Instead of becoming more accommodative in his response as his blame levels increased, the mayor continued to be quite defensive, stating that the permit would be granted again – even with today’s knowledge. As one council member stated it, one cannot defend something which cannot be defended.


Sandra L. Resodihardjo
Sandra L. Resodihardjo is werkzaam aan de Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Management Research.

Marloes Meijer
Marloes Meijer is werkzaam aan de Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Management Research.

Brendan J. Carroll
Brendan J. Caroll is werkzaam aan de Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Management Research.
Artikel

Wethouders in de frontlijn: een studie naar de perceptie van en de omgang met persoonlijke bedreigingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden threats in politics, coping strategies, undue influence on politics, Q-methodology
Auteurs Diana Marijnissen en Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution reports on a delimited part of a larger, exploratory study, the main question of which was: How do aldermen perceive threats, what are their behavioral intentions and what is the influence of threats on the process and the outcome of decision-making? This question was answered with the help of Q-methodology, semi-structured interviews and case studies. This article discusses the results of the Q-methodology and the semi-structured interviews. The case studies will be reported separately later on. Through the Q-methodology three patterns in perception were found in dealing with threats: ‘combative and decisive’, ‘vulnerable and thoughtful’ and ‘down-to-earth and accepting’. The interviews show that it usually concerns instrumental threats that are deliberately used to influence decision making, which usually take place in the private sphere and vary from verbal aggression to physical violence. Most threats come from individuals, but some come from groups, in some cases there is a relationship with criminals. In the cases reviewed, the consequences in the private sphere are far-reaching, there are indications for the influence on public functioning (from hardening to great caution). There is almost always a report, a fuss in the media can affect the authority of the official.


Diana Marijnissen
Diana Marijnissen is docent bij de Academie Industrie en Informatica en onderzoeker bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en is lector Ondermijning bij Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch. Hij is tevens voorzitter van de redactie van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Persoonlijkheidskenmerken van e-fraudeslachtoffers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Online fraud, Big Five personality traits, Phishing, online marketplace fraud, cybercrime prevention
Auteurs Jildau Borwell, Jurjen Jansen en Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the digitization of society, perpetrators gained new tools to commit crimes. Online fraud, also referred to as e-fraud, is one of the most common types of cybercrime. The present study focusses on two types of e-fraud: phishing and online consumer fraud. Although e-fraud always contains a digital component, the human is the weakest link in such crimes. Perpetrators deceive their victims to acquire sensitive data or to conclude a fraudulent sale, which makes victims unwillingly participate in the offence. However, not every person adheres to such fraudulent schemes. This raises the question what makes some people comply with these schemes and thus become a victim of cybercrime, while others do not. In this study, the differences between personality traits of e-fraud victims and the Dutch population were investigated. Personality traits influence the way people process information and react to situations, which also applies when people are confronted with e-fraud. Data were collected through an online survey, in which 224 e-fraud victims participated. The outcomes of the survey were compared with norm groups representative for the Dutch population. E-fraud victims, compared to the Dutch population, scored higher on extraversion, altruism and conscientiousness, and lower on neuroticism. Based on the findings, recommendations have been made for the development of targeted preventive measures against e-fraud.


Jildau Borwell
Jildau Borwell is werkzaam bij de Dienst Regionale Informatieorganisatie (Analyse & Onderzoek), Nationale Politie, Eenheid Noord-Nederland, Groningen. Email: jildau.borwell@politie.nl.

Jurjen Jansen
Jurjen Jansen is werkzaam bij de Faculteit cultuur- en rechtswetenschappen aan de Open Universiteit, Heerlen en bij het Lectoraat cybersafety, NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie, Leeuwarden en Apeldoorn. Email: j.jansen@nhl.nl.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit. Email: wstol@planet.nl.
Artikel

Determinanten en motivaties voor intentie tot aangifte na slachtofferschap van cybercrime

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Cybercriminaliteit, Slachtofferschap, Aangiftebereidheid, Politie
Auteurs Lisanne Jong, Rutger Leukfeldt en Steve van de Weijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study focusses on determinants of willingness to report cybercrime to the police or to other organizations and motivations for (not) reporting victimization. In this study, a questionnaire containing vignettes is used. Vignettes are semi-experimental designs in which hypothetical situations are presented and certain factors can be manipulated between and within respondents. Factors that are measured within the vignettes are the type and seriousness of the offence, the relationship between offender and victim and which possibilities for reporting the offence are available.
    It is shown that the type of offence is an important determinant for willingness to report the offence, which is highest for fraud, followed by hacking and malware. Likewise, willingness to report is higher for more serious offences than for less serious offences. These results are comparable to results on willingness to report traditional crimes.
    With regard to psychological determinants, results are not in line with previous results on willingness to report traditional crimes. For the relationship between offender and victim, mixed results are found. If the offender is an acquaintance of the victim, willingness to report to the police increases, but willingness to report to another organization decreases, compared to the offender being unfamiliar to the victim. Another surprising result is that no correlation is found between attitudes towards the police and willingness to report offences. Also unexpectedly, it is found that respondents who have previously reported crime and were unsatisfied about this experience, were more willing to report offences than respondents who never reported crimes before.
    Regarding motivations for willingness to report, it is found that, in general, motivations for reporting cybercrime are strongly comparable to motivations for reporting traditional crime, however, differences in motivations are found between the different types of cybercrime.


Lisanne Jong
Lisanne Jong is statistisch onderzoeker bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Email: lps.jong@cbs.nl.

Rutger Leukfeldt
Rutger Leukfeldt is postdoc onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving. Email: rleukfeldt@nscr.nl.

Steve van de Weijer
Steve van de Weijer is postdoc onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving. Email: svandeweijer@nscr.nl.
Artikel

De digitale schandpaal: opsporingsberichtgeving in een gedigitaliseerde samenleving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden DIY-policing, online policing, wanted notices, right to privacy, procedural defect
Auteurs Gabry Vanderveen en Mojan Samadi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the context of criminal investigations police and prosecution can appeal to the public for information to further their case. This decision cannot be taken lightly and requires a balancing exercise between the rights of the suspect (and other people involved), specifically the right to privacy, the interest of criminal investigations, such as the identification of the suspect or witnesses, and public pressure to fight crime.
    In the current digital society, the prosecutor can choose between a wide range of (new) media and modes of communication to ask for information. Next to wanted notices on paper posters and broadcasts on television, appeals for information are published on websites, social media platforms, apps and digital screens. Citizens can modify and share these appeals and they can comment on them. This necessitates careful consideration by the prosecutor on whether and how to appeal for information. After all, these appeals could lead to DIY-policing or online vigilantism (digilantism), leading to infringements on the right to privacy and even possibly to misidentification of suspects.
    This article contributes to the continuing debate. We describe the legal framework the prosecution has to take into account in such cases. The importance of a considered decision is illustrated by three cases in which judicial authorities appealed to the public for help in the criminal investigations, resulting in massive (media) attention and consequently affecting the eventual criminal case against the defendants. In two of these cases the prosecutorial decision to involve the public’s help resulted in a violation of the defendants’ rights to privacy and consequently had to be remedied by the court. Both cases led to social, legal and political debate about the balance between privacy and crime control.


Gabry Vanderveen
Gabry N.G. Vanderveen is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Email: vanderveen@law.eur.nl.

Mojan Samadi
Mojan Samadi is als promovendus straf(proces)recht verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Email: m.samadi@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Redactioneel

Access_open Veiligheid in een digitaliserende samenleving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Auteurs Wouter Stol, Ben Kokkeler, Emile Kolthoff e.a.
Auteursinformatie

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit. Email: wstol@planet.nl.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid aan Avans Hogeschool. Hij is daarnaast senior consultant bij de Europese Technopolis Group, kantoor Amsterdam, waar hij evaluaties en verkenningen uitvoert rond ehealth en smart cities. Email: bjm.kokkeler@avans.nl.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en doet onderzoek bij Avans University en de VU Amsterdam. Hij is tevens voorzitter van de redactie van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid. Email: emile.kolthoff@ou.nl.

Robin van Halderen
Robin Christiaan van Halderen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid, Avans Hogeschool (www.expertisecentrum-veiligheid.nl) en redacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid. Email: rc.vanhalderen@avans.nl.
Artikel

Geweld tegen politieambtenaren

Beweegredenen en rationalisering door verdachten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Politie, Geweld tegen politie, Daderperspectief
Auteurs Danaé Stad en Jaap Timmer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper tries to answer the question why defendants use violence against police officers and whether, and if so how, they construct justifications for their own behavior. The study consists of an analysis of the situational aspects of violence against police officers and the characteristics of suspects. In addition, some suspects were interviewed about the incident in which they were involved. They were asked what their perception of the situation was, and what the background of the violence was. They were also asked for their opinion on the image of the police in general, and for their knowledge and perception of the relevant laws and regulations. The conclusion is that the motives for violence against a police officer lie in their belief that all men, police officer or not, are equal and should be treated with respect. Suspects feel treated unfairly and disrespectfully by police officers. Suspects feel that in such cases they are entitled to use force. Suspects are not aware of the differences between their own rights and responsibilities in such a situation and the authority that police officers legally have to use of force in order to perform their legal tasks.


Danaé Stad
Danaé Stad is criminoloog en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Residentiële Jeugdzorg aan de Hogeschool Leiden.

Jaap Timmer
Jaap Timmer is politiesocioloog en universitair hoofddocent Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Internetbankieren: veiligheidspercepties van gebruikers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Risicoperceptie, Online bankfraude, Slachtofferschap, Informatiebeveiliging
Auteurs Jurjen Jansen, Nicolien Kop en Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In today’s society, full use is made of online banking. This makes safety and security of online banking an important issue. Two significant threats to users of online banking in The Netherlands are phishing and malware attacks. In this study, an end-user perspective is adopted to study customers’ perceptions regarding safety and security of online banking. A unique feature to this study is that we explore – besides other predictor variables – the relationship between online banking fraud victimization and risk perception. We have made a distinction between three types of victimization: 1) self-experienced victimization, 2) victimization of acquaintances, such as family and friends, and 3) having heard of stories in the media about online banking fraud victimization. Based on a secondary analysis of data from 1200 Dutch users of online banking, collected through an online survey, we conclude that participants perceive their risk of online banking fraud to be small. In general, participants have little experience with victimization, both themselves (2.3%) and in social settings (29.6%). Three quarters of the respondents (75.6%) are aware of victimization of online banking fraud by means of media coverage. Direct and indirect victimization, however, have almost no influence on risk perception regarding online banking fraud. Risk perception is mainly determined by perceived vulnerability, that is, the estimated probability of becoming a victim of online banking fraud. Furthermore, perceived severity or impact of online banking fraud and the degree of trust in online banking contribute to some extent to risk perception. In total, 64.0% of variance in risk perception was explained by the predictors perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, locus of control, trust in online banking, (in)direct experiences with victimization (self, acquaintances and media) and demographic variables (gender, age, educational level and work status). The results of this study may help to improve communication about risks regarding online banking.


Jurjen Jansen
Jurjen Jansen is promovendus aan de Faculteit Cultuur- & Rechtswetenschappen van de Open Universiteit, Onderzoeker aan het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.

Nicolien Kop
Nicolien Kop is lector Criminaliteitsbeheersing & Recherchekunde aan de Politieacademie.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit, lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

De preparatie op de nafase binnen veiligheidsregio’s

Een verkennend onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Crisisbeheersing, Bevolkingszorg, Psychosociale aspecten, Veiligheidsregio’s
Auteurs Martine de Bas, Ira Helsloot en Michel Dückers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article addresses disaster recovery preparedness characteristics prescribed by literature and guidelines. An exploratory study was conducted in 25 Dutch safety regions to describe the status of disaster recovery preparedness with an emphasis on psychosocial support aspects. The study pointed at substantial cross-regional variation. Particular areas of improvement were identified in relation to involving citizens and partner organizations in safety regions’ recovery planning efforts, and the extent to which preparedness activities are guided by regional risk profiles. Optimization of preparedness takes place in an everyday context where relatively little priority is assigned to disaster recovery. Also, as major crises are fairly scarce there is little room for learning or routinization. Deliberate investments to enhance disaster recovery preparedness are needed, they would however benefit from more research into the association between relevant conditions, the disaster recovery preparedness level and the quality of service delivery when an event actually takes place.


Martine de Bas
Martine de Bas is Senior adviseur bij De Nafase.

Ira Helsloot
Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar besturen van veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Michel Dückers
Michel Dückers is programmacoördinator rampen en crises bij Impact – Landelijk kennis- en adviescentrum psychosociale hulp bij rampen en calamiteiten, en senior onderzoeker bij NIVEL – Nederlands instituut voor onderzoek van de gezondheidszorg.
Artikel

De rol van sociale media bij rampen en (mini)crises

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Sociale media, Crises, Crisiscommunicatie, geruchten
Auteurs Menno van Duin, Vina Wijkhuijs en Jan Eberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professionals dealing with crises are more or less forced to a next level of crisis communication and crisis management. This is because of the influence of social media. Messages on Twitter, Facebook and other social media can have a significant impact on the course of developments during a crisis. Sometimes in a positive way, when help is mobilized quickly and people can be informed almost instantly. On other occasions the impact is more negative, when for instance rumors lead to false accusations or threats. In the past several years, crisis management authorities have built up more experience with the use and application of social media and monitoring tools. There are still cases where officials and professionals are taken by surprise because of the shift stream of messages and their impact on public opinion and crisis control. But also lessons have been learned, e.g. in terms of online and offline reactions, cooperation with the public, and rumor control.
    This article gives an overview of research results in literature and summarizes the outcomes of a case study research project.


Menno van Duin
Menno van Duin is lector crisisbeheersing (IFV).

Vina Wijkhuijs
Vina Wijkhuijs is senior onderzoeker Lectoraat Crisisbeheersing (IFV).

Jan Eberg
Jan Eberg is hoofddocent en onderzoeker integrale veiligheid (HU).
Artikel

Tussen praat en daad: politiecultuur en politieoptreden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0203 2016
Trefwoorden police culture, police behavior, Sensemaking, Ethnography
Auteurs Wouter Landman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In police practice and science, police culture is often seen as having a significant influence on the behavior of police officers. With his article Police (canteen) subculture, Waddington challenged this perspective in 1999. He argued that the expressive talk in the canteen is an area of action that is separated from the behavior on the street. This led to a discussion in the police literature about how to interpret the relation between police culture and police behavior. In this article this discussion is enriched with new empirical research. This research resulted in 22 patterns that police officers use to make sense of their environment in order to act in that environment. A distinction is made in three environments: organization (canteen), street (surveillance) and situation (encounter with citizens). The distinction in different environments for sensemaking helps to re-interpret the relation between police culture and police behavior and shows that police culture and police behavior are related in rather complex ways. Police culture influences the behavior on the streets through the cultural knowledge they share in the canteen, and which they use to make sense of concrete situations in which they have to act. At the same time, the point made by Waddington seems also true. The patterns of interaction between police officers have also a function in affirming their worldview and beliefs, regardless of their behavior on the streets. His perspective is just to one dimensional. A multidimensional view on the relation between police culture and police behavior is preferable if we want to understand the relation between police culture and police behavior.


Wouter Landman
Wouter Landman is onderzoeker bij Twynstra Gudde.
Artikel

Verbeelding en veiligheid

De film Project X en de rellen in Haren (2012)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Film, public imagination, public safety, Riots, Youth
Auteurs Heidi de Mare
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On September 21th 2012, a sweet sixteen party in Haren (a Dutch village), announced on Facebook as PROJECT X Haren, turned into a riot in which youngsters clashed with the police. The blame was put on the film Project X (2012) that would have inspired adolescents to become aggressive and violent. However, like other adolescent comedies, this movie offers an insight in the adolescent state of mind, the role of humor and their lack of risk assessments. Much violence is (harmless) slapstick-like, boundaries are exceeded (sex, alcohol, drugs) and transgression is often directed against parents, teachers and the police. What is tested in the adolescent imagination is the public order. Film functions as a symbolic rite of passage, with carnivalesque inversions. Reacting in Haren on this adolescent state of mind with an administrative prohibition (‘there is no party’) confirmed the juvenile joke. Acting as if it is not a party but a huge disaster (by enlarging police forces) contributed to make the riot a reality that the youngsters themselves never imagined. The commission of inquiry recommends taking serious film and other forms of public imagination, because they contribute to our understanding of reality, especially concerning the perceptions of societal actors.


Heidi de Mare
Heidi de Mare is directeur van Stichting IVMV, instituut voor maatschappelijke verbeelding, www.ivmv.nl.
Artikel

De behoefte aan bescherming van slachtoffers van misdrijven in verschillende slachtoffer-daderrelaties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Protection, victim-offender relationship, victim needs, reasons for reporting
Auteurs Annemarie ten Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An explicit goal in the Dutch victim policy is to offer protection to victims of crime. Based on a EU Directive all member states shall ensure that victims receive a timely and individual assessment, to identify specific protection needs. In this paper the question is: which victims especially do need protection? More specific, it examines whether the victim-offender relationship, controlling for the confounders ‘type of crime’ and ‘gender of the victim’, contributes to the extent in which protection is a reason for reporting crimes to the police. For victims of domestic violence (by partners, ex-partners and (other) family members), the need for protection is an important reason for reporting – not just for women and girls, but also for men and boys. The need for protection is an important reason for reporting for victims by partners, ex-partners and (other) family members of non-violent as well as violent crimes.


Annemarie ten Boom
Annemarie ten Boom is projectbegeleider bij het WODC, het onderzoekscentrum van het Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Zij werkt aan een proefschrift over het verband tussen de slachtoffer-daderrelatie en de behoeften van slachtoffers met betrekking tot justitie. Zij is als buitenpromovendus aan INTERVICT verbonden.
Artikel

Spot on! Zelfredzaamheid en verwachtingen van burgers bij een black-out

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Stroomonderbreking, Zelfredzaamheid, Actief burgerschap, Veerkracht
Auteurs Evelien De Pauw, Arne Dormaels en Marleen Easton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since winter 2014, Belgian is faced with a possible rolling out of power. Blackouts come without any warning whilst the duration and cause of it is mostly unclear. Rolling outs are usually planned by utility companies to put small service areas without electricity, to cope with a high energy demand that the utility companies can’t supply. This rolling out plan can prevent a larger blackout and should make people aware of the consequences of a possible black-out.
    Given this situation, this paper presents the result of a study asking citizens about their self-efficacy and organizations of their own house hold to deal with possible blackouts. For this survey, 473 citizens have been interviewed in 2 Belgian cities. We asked about their own action to organize themselves and were looking at their expectations of the government.


Evelien De Pauw
Evelien De Pauw is assistent aan de UGent, opleiding bestuurskunde en publiek management, en verbonden als gastdocent aan de Vives Hogeschool, studiegebied sociaal agogisch werk, bachelor Maatschappelijke Veiligheid.

Arne Dormaels
Arne Dormaels is werkzaam bij het Innovatiecentrum voor Veiligheid, INNOS vzw en verboden aan de UGent, opleiding bestuurskunde en publiek management.

Marleen Easton
Marleen Easton is voorzitter van INNOS en als hoofddocent verbonden aan de UGent, opleiding bestuurskunde en publiek management.

Jeroen van Rest
Jeroen van Rest is senior consultant bij TNO ‘security, sensoren en privacy’. Hij doet onderzoek aan objectbeveiliging, evenementenveiligheid, contraterrorisme, bescherming van vitale infrastructuur en high-impact crime. Hij publiceert over privacy-by-design, afwijkend gedrag en surveillancesystemen. Hij is (wetenschappelijk) projectleider van EU FP7 TACTICS, de experimenteeromgeving ‘bewaken & beveiligen’ en leidt het high-tech topsectorprogramma ‘passieve sensoren’.
Artikel

De samenhang tussen fysieke en sociale veiligheid in theorie en praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden safety, security, disciplinary boundaries, multidisciplinary collaboration, networked coordination
Auteurs Hanneke Duijnhoven, Kim van Buul-Besseling en Nathalie Vink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the complex relations between the organizational fields of safety (i.e. disaster and crisis response) and security (i.e. crime prevention and public order), and the ways in which disciplinary and organizational boundaries make it difficult to come to a better integration or coordination in the safety and security domain. Based on results of a research project on cooperation and information-sharing between organizations in the fields of safety and security, the authors argue that it is not realistic to refer to safety and security as relatively independent fields. Instead, it would be more useful to approach it as a connected domain, encompassing both safety and security disciplines. Yet, the separation of the two fields is strongly embedded in the culture and responsibilities of organizations in these fields, which reinforces the disciplinary boundaries in the domain. Nevertheless, in the last few years it seems that there is an increasing recognition of the need for multidisciplinary collaboration in the safety and security domain. This paper explores possible directions for creating more coherence and integration in the safety and security domain. The authors believe that much progress can be made if key stakeholders in the safety and security domain are able to adopt a broader, multidisciplinary perspective when approaching safety and security events.


Hanneke Duijnhoven
Hanneke Duijnhoven is consultant bij TNO.

Kim van Buul-Besseling
Kim van Buul-Besseling is consultant bij TNO.

Nathalie Vink
Nathalie Vink is consultant bij TNO.

    The economic analysis of (potential) disasters is an important method to determine the efficacy and efficiency of investments in disaster prevention and mitigation. The Dutch National Risk Assessment (NRA) provides an integrated, whole-of-government and all-hazard approach to Dutch national security. The strategy does not only intend to identify capacity gaps and define measures regarding individual threats and risks, but also to enhance capability planning and policy development concerning overall national security. The approach is multi-disciplinary and based upon scenarios which are evaluated and graded in terms of impact and likelihood according to a unified scoring method. Economic impact is one of the criteria in the NRA risk assessment methodology. This article provides a review of the (applied) scientific literature of the many economic tools and methods that have been used worldwide to estimate the (potential) impact of disasters and provides concrete applications at the micro and macro levels to Dutch cases and scenarios that were developed during the five annual cycles of the NRA's existence (2007-2011). We discuss pros and cons of applied methodologies.


Peter van Bergeijk
Peter van Bergeijk is hoogleraar Internationale economie en Macro-economie aan het International Institute of Social Studies van de Erasmus Universiteit.

Marcel Mennen
Marcel Mennen is algemeen secretaris van het Analistennetwerk Nationale Veiligheid en senior onderzoeker CBRN aan het Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, Centrum voor Veiligheid te Bilthoven.
Artikel

Aandachtslocaties transportveiligheid in beeld gebracht door combinatie van openbare gegevensbestanden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden transportation safety, big data, hot spots, hazardous materials, congestion
Auteurs Nils Rosmuller en Clemon Tonnaer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Safety authorities in The Netherlands have the obligation to develop so-called risk-profiles. Risk profiles are probability-consequences schemes of all kinds of hazards (ranging from earth quakes to transportation and from floodings to fires in high rise buildings). To develop such schemes, various data sources could be useful. In this paper, we describe an approach to make use of existing database to reveal ‘new’ kinds of transportation-related risks. To this end, we combined publicly available public and private databases related to: hazardous materials transportation and Natura 2000 areas; congested areas and large scale public events; hazardous materials transportation and multi-functional areas.
    Our approach makes clear that combination of existing databases has great potential for the safety authorities to develop their risk profiles, do their business intelligence and creating steering dash-boards for their own budget allocations.


Nils Rosmuller
Nils Rosmuller is lector Transportveiligheid bij het Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid en teamleider Safety bij TNO. E-mail: nils.rosmuller@tno.nl

Clemon Tonnaer
Clemon Tonnaer is senior onderzoeker bij de Brandweeracademie van Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (IFV). E-mail: clemon.tonnaer@ifv.nl
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