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Artikel

Access_open If it was shared on Facebook and Twitter, then it must be true. Een kwantitatief onderzoek naar de relatie tussen fake news en angst voor criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Fear of crime, avoidance behavior, fake news, traditional media, social media
Auteurs Birte Vandaele, Thom Snaphaan en Wim Hardyns
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The media are a main source of information on crime for citizens. Prior research shows that media and fear of crime are not independent of each other. Since fake news is spread through (social) media, the question arises what the relationship is between (perceived) fake news and fear of crime. To date, no large-scale representative research has been conducted on this topic. This study is based on a representative population survey (n = 1566) from 2019. This exploratory study shows a small but significant relation between the perceived prevalence of fake news and fear of crime.


Birte Vandaele
Birte Vandeale is wetenschappelijk onderzoekster aan het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy, Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Universiteit Gent. Birte.Vandaele@UGent.be

Thom Snaphaan
Thom Snaphaan is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy, Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Universiteit Gent. Thom.Snaphaan@UGent.be

Wim Hardyns
Wim Hardyns is professor in de Criminologische Wetenschappen aan het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy, Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Universiteit Gent, en gastprofessor in de Veiligheidswetenschappen aan de Universiteit Antwerpen. Wim.Hardyns@UGent.be
Artikel

Een integrale veiligheidsmonitor als hulpmiddel bij het sturen op beleidsdoelen: theorie, praktijk en geleerde lessen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden monitoring, safety goals, cooperation, lessons learned, governance
Auteurs Ike Kroesbergen en Arthur Rijkers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a case description of the development of an integrated safety monitor for the governance on policy goals. The governance on these safety goals took place in cooperation between eight municipalities and Police, Justice, Fireworks, Health Care providers for addiction or domestic violence and partners in incident and crisis management. Two problems were adressed. The first problem is that the evidence on process and results of monitoring from data to interpretation and policy choices in cooperation with different safety partners, is scarce. The second problem is that monitoring of a wide range of indicators on integrated safety is also scarce. In our case, the gathering of data and the interpretation of these data together with all the partners formed a cyclical process. This corresponds with the theory of governance developed by Ansell and Gash in a meta-analysis in 2008. The starting conditions were made clear. The design of the monitoring process was translated into themes of working sessions with a group of policy advisors, giving them a structure for the governance on the policy goals. This group developed a layered set of indicators. These set of indicators was broken down in the four policy goals as well as in different steps in the safety chain. Indicators from different registrations of the safety partners were combined with indicators about the perception of safety measured by a representative sample of the residents. The layered set of indicators was supportive in the discussion about a well balanced monitoring on prevention, signals, interventions and effect. The data were interpreted together with the safety partners. This was helpful in creating a joint perspective on safety problems and in the discussion about meaningful policy actions. The challenge now is to persevere in the cyclical process from data to interpretation and shared understanding about policy goals.


Ike Kroesbergen
Ike Kroesbergen is als senior onderzoeker veiligheid & gezondheid werkzaam bij de GGD West-Brabant. i.kroesbergen@ggdwestbrabant.nl

Arthur Rijkers
Arthur Rijkers is als coördinator COVID19-vaccinatie werkzaam bij de GGD West-Brabant. a.rijkers@ggdwestbrabant.nl
Artikel

De invloed van bedreigingen op de gemeentelijke besluitvorming

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden bedreigingen in de politiek, ongewenste invloed, intensieve procesanalyse
Auteurs Diana Marijnissen en Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution reports on a delimited part of a larger, exploratory study, the main question of which was: How do aldermen perceive threats, what are their behavioral intentions and what is the influence of threats on the process and the outcome of decision-making? This question was answered with the help of Q methodology, semi structured interviews and case studies. This article discusses the results of the case studies and semi structured interviews on the impact of threats on decision-making. In two of the investigated cases (N=3) there are indications that the threats affect the decision-making process. The first case involves risk-avoiding behavior. In the second case there is a stronger conviction and hardening of opinions. There are no indications that threats affect the outcome of the decision-making process. The political administrative system that we have in the Netherlands is able to counteract improper influence. This is due to various elements in the system such as the boldness and the results-focused attitude of civil service (case 1) and the mayor and aldermen (case 2 and 3) and the design of the rules and procedures (case 1, 2 and 3).


Diana Marijnissen
Diana Marijnissen is docent bij de opleiding Bestuurskunde van Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Ondermijning van het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool. Zij promoveerde in 2019 op een onderzoek naar bedreigde wethouders.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en lector Ondermijning bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool. Hij is hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Datagedreven zicht op ondermijning in woonwijken

Een verkenning van de mogelijkheden om indicatoren te ontwikkelen om zicht te krijgen op ondermijning in woonwijken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Ondermijning, indicatoren, leefbaarheid, georganiseerde criminaliteit, stadsontwikkeling
Auteurs Jonas Stuurman, Emile Kolthoff, Joost van den Tillaart e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution reports about a research in a medium-sized municipality on the possibilities of giving municipalities an instrument to determine at the earliest possible stage which neighborhoods are at (increased) risk of exposure to organized crime and its consequences. We are searching for indicators to measure that exposure to give direction to preventive measures. Our focus is on the erosion of structures and foundations of society as a result of activities of organized crime, eventually resulting in the infringement of the rule of law. It is therefore not about the phenomenon of organized crime itself, but about its effects on society. This requires clarification and measurability of the concept. In this first exploration, we focus on the following five manifestations of the effect of organized crime: The emergence of a subculture: not recognizing government authority; the emergence of takeover of power in the neighborhood; the emergence of vulnerable groups of citizens; the creation of the image: crime pays off; and the emergence of unfair competition.


Jonas Stuurman
Jonas Stuurman is docent bij de opleiding Integrale Veiligheidskunde van Avans Hogeschool te Breda en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Ondermijning van het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en lector Ondermijning bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool. Hij is hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.

Joost van den Tillaart
Joost van den Tillaart is docent bij de opleiding Integrale Veiligheidskunde van Avans Hogeschool te Den Bosch.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool.
Artikel

Partnerdoding in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Partnerdoding, Epidemiologie, Moord, Nederland
Auteurs Marieke Liem, Inge de Jong en Jade van Maanen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner homicide (IPH) constitutes one of the most prevalent types of homicide. This study aims to assess the nature and prevalence of intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2014. In doing so, we make use of police data, court data, and media articles. Findings show that IPH occurs 29 times per year, resulting in a victimization rate of 0.20 per 100,000, similar to other Western-European countries. Our results further show a decline in IPH in the last years. IPH in the Netherlands mostly occurs in heterosexual relationships, and involves male perpetrators and female victims. Finally, we reflect on possible causes for the decline of this type of homicide.


Marieke Liem
Marieke Liem is Universitair Hoofddocent, verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs, Faculteit Governance & Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.

Inge de Jong
Inge de Jong is thans werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie als adviseur bij de dienst Informatie Management en tijdens het uitvoeren van deze studie student Crisis & Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jade van Maanen
Jade van Maanen isthans werkzaam bij Rijkswaterstaat als technisch projectleider bij de dienst Centrale Informatievoorziening en tijdens het uitvoeren van deze studie student Crisis & Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Wethouders in de frontlijn: een studie naar de perceptie van en de omgang met persoonlijke bedreigingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden threats in politics, coping strategies, undue influence on politics, Q-methodology
Auteurs Diana Marijnissen en Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution reports on a delimited part of a larger, exploratory study, the main question of which was: How do aldermen perceive threats, what are their behavioral intentions and what is the influence of threats on the process and the outcome of decision-making? This question was answered with the help of Q-methodology, semi-structured interviews and case studies. This article discusses the results of the Q-methodology and the semi-structured interviews. The case studies will be reported separately later on. Through the Q-methodology three patterns in perception were found in dealing with threats: ‘combative and decisive’, ‘vulnerable and thoughtful’ and ‘down-to-earth and accepting’. The interviews show that it usually concerns instrumental threats that are deliberately used to influence decision making, which usually take place in the private sphere and vary from verbal aggression to physical violence. Most threats come from individuals, but some come from groups, in some cases there is a relationship with criminals. In the cases reviewed, the consequences in the private sphere are far-reaching, there are indications for the influence on public functioning (from hardening to great caution). There is almost always a report, a fuss in the media can affect the authority of the official.


Diana Marijnissen
Diana Marijnissen is docent bij de Academie Industrie en Informatica en onderzoeker bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en is lector Ondermijning bij Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch. Hij is tevens voorzitter van de redactie van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Het succes van social engineering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Awareness, E-mail phishing, Social Engineering, Telefoonfraude
Auteurs Jan-Willem Bullée, Lorena Montoya, Marianne Junger e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Social engineering is the usage of social manipulation and psychological tricks to make the targets assist offenders in their attack. This paper aimed to discuss the success of social engineering attacks and interventions in an organisational setting. Three kinds of social engineering experiments were discussed, each using a different modality (i.e. face-to-face (f2f), email and telephone). In each experiment, the targets (i.e. participants) were persuaded to perform actions that contribute to their victimisation.
    A portion of the participants in both the f2f and telephone experiment received an intervention to reduce victimisation. The conclusion is that awareness raising about dangers, characteristics and countermeasures related to social engineering proved to have a significant positive effect on protecting the target. The results of these experiments allow practitioners to focus awareness campaigns to maximise their effectiveness.


Jan-Willem Bullée
Jan-Willem Bullée is Information Risk Manager aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: j.h.bullee@gmail.com.

Lorena Montoya
Lorena Montoya is Graduate School Coordinator aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: a.l.montoya@utwente.nl.

Marianne Junger
Marianne Junger is professor Cyber Security and Business Continuity aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: m.junger@utwente.nl.

Pieter Hartel
Pieter Hartel is hoofd van de Cyber Security research group aan de TU Delft en werkzaam aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: pieter.hartel@tudelft.nl.
Artikel

Persoonlijkheidskenmerken van e-fraudeslachtoffers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Online fraud, Big Five personality traits, Phishing, online marketplace fraud, cybercrime prevention
Auteurs Jildau Borwell, Jurjen Jansen en Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the digitization of society, perpetrators gained new tools to commit crimes. Online fraud, also referred to as e-fraud, is one of the most common types of cybercrime. The present study focusses on two types of e-fraud: phishing and online consumer fraud. Although e-fraud always contains a digital component, the human is the weakest link in such crimes. Perpetrators deceive their victims to acquire sensitive data or to conclude a fraudulent sale, which makes victims unwillingly participate in the offence. However, not every person adheres to such fraudulent schemes. This raises the question what makes some people comply with these schemes and thus become a victim of cybercrime, while others do not. In this study, the differences between personality traits of e-fraud victims and the Dutch population were investigated. Personality traits influence the way people process information and react to situations, which also applies when people are confronted with e-fraud. Data were collected through an online survey, in which 224 e-fraud victims participated. The outcomes of the survey were compared with norm groups representative for the Dutch population. E-fraud victims, compared to the Dutch population, scored higher on extraversion, altruism and conscientiousness, and lower on neuroticism. Based on the findings, recommendations have been made for the development of targeted preventive measures against e-fraud.


Jildau Borwell
Jildau Borwell is werkzaam bij de Dienst Regionale Informatieorganisatie (Analyse & Onderzoek), Nationale Politie, Eenheid Noord-Nederland, Groningen. Email: jildau.borwell@politie.nl.

Jurjen Jansen
Jurjen Jansen is werkzaam bij de Faculteit cultuur- en rechtswetenschappen aan de Open Universiteit, Heerlen en bij het Lectoraat cybersafety, NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie, Leeuwarden en Apeldoorn. Email: j.jansen@nhl.nl.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit. Email: wstol@planet.nl.
Artikel

Determinanten en motivaties voor intentie tot aangifte na slachtofferschap van cybercrime

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Cybercriminaliteit, Slachtofferschap, Aangiftebereidheid, Politie
Auteurs Lisanne Jong, Rutger Leukfeldt en Steve van de Weijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study focusses on determinants of willingness to report cybercrime to the police or to other organizations and motivations for (not) reporting victimization. In this study, a questionnaire containing vignettes is used. Vignettes are semi-experimental designs in which hypothetical situations are presented and certain factors can be manipulated between and within respondents. Factors that are measured within the vignettes are the type and seriousness of the offence, the relationship between offender and victim and which possibilities for reporting the offence are available.
    It is shown that the type of offence is an important determinant for willingness to report the offence, which is highest for fraud, followed by hacking and malware. Likewise, willingness to report is higher for more serious offences than for less serious offences. These results are comparable to results on willingness to report traditional crimes.
    With regard to psychological determinants, results are not in line with previous results on willingness to report traditional crimes. For the relationship between offender and victim, mixed results are found. If the offender is an acquaintance of the victim, willingness to report to the police increases, but willingness to report to another organization decreases, compared to the offender being unfamiliar to the victim. Another surprising result is that no correlation is found between attitudes towards the police and willingness to report offences. Also unexpectedly, it is found that respondents who have previously reported crime and were unsatisfied about this experience, were more willing to report offences than respondents who never reported crimes before.
    Regarding motivations for willingness to report, it is found that, in general, motivations for reporting cybercrime are strongly comparable to motivations for reporting traditional crime, however, differences in motivations are found between the different types of cybercrime.


Lisanne Jong
Lisanne Jong is statistisch onderzoeker bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Email: lps.jong@cbs.nl.

Rutger Leukfeldt
Rutger Leukfeldt is postdoc onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving. Email: rleukfeldt@nscr.nl.

Steve van de Weijer
Steve van de Weijer is postdoc onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving. Email: svandeweijer@nscr.nl.
Redactioneel

Access_open Veiligheid in een digitaliserende samenleving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Auteurs Wouter Stol, Ben Kokkeler, Emile Kolthoff e.a.
Auteursinformatie

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool en de Politieacademie, en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit. Email: wstol@planet.nl.

Ben Kokkeler
Ben Kokkeler is lector Digitalisering en Veiligheid aan Avans Hogeschool. Hij is daarnaast senior consultant bij de Europese Technopolis Group, kantoor Amsterdam, waar hij evaluaties en verkenningen uitvoert rond ehealth en smart cities. Email: bjm.kokkeler@avans.nl.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en doet onderzoek bij Avans University en de VU Amsterdam. Hij is tevens voorzitter van de redactie van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid. Email: emile.kolthoff@ou.nl.

Robin van Halderen
Robin Christiaan van Halderen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid, Avans Hogeschool (www.expertisecentrum-veiligheid.nl) en redacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid. Email: rc.vanhalderen@avans.nl.
Artikel

Verstoorde veiligheidsbeleving

In gesprek met buurtbewoners over de ‘onveiligheid’ in hun buurt naar aanleiding van gestegen ‘gevoelens van onveiligheid’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden fear of crime, qualitative analysis, evidence based policy
Auteurs Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The ‘fear of crime’ is a buzzword among citizens, media, politicians and professionals by now. But the phenomenon seems to be as intangible as it is important. The struggle of professionals with this concept is the result of a too wide and self-evident problem definition. This article contains an alternative approach. The focus is on disturbed fear of crime: a negatively changed and problematically experienced fear of crime on the level of the neighborhood.
    Through a review of the literature and previous research, we work towards this concept and apply it to the neighborhood of Kerckebosch in the municipality of Zeist in the Netherlands. As during 2014 the local quantitative indicators for ‘the fear of crime’ rose from 7% of the local population indicating to ‘sometimes feel unsafe’ to 22%, while the rest of the municipality remained quite stable. Additionally, several local professionals received complaints of multiple local inhabitants claiming to ‘feel unsafe’ in the neighborhood. Our research question was: What explanations for their ‘disturbed fear of crime’ do local inhabitants of the neighborhood Kerckebosch give?
    It was highly plausible that this local rise of the fear in Kerckebosch was connected to the social re-engineering of the neighborhood, but the exact nature of the quantitative rise was unclear. Therefore, we have interviewed 25 local inhabitants. Qualitative analyses showed the local rise of ‘the fear of crime’ to be the result of: (I) physical characteristics of the neighborhood; (II) events of burglary and intimidation from the past; (III) the presence of loitering youths and – primarily – (VI) a backlash of social integration as a side effect of the social re-engineering of the neighborhood. These qualitative explanations to the observed quantitative discontinuity led to several policy advises, which were based on international effect studies.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is hoofddocent bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid en het lectoraat Kennisanalyse Sociale Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. Daarnaast is hij research-fellow bij de leerstoel Veiligheid en Veerkracht aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Redactioneel

Migratie, vluchtelingen en veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Auteurs Janine Janssen, Joanne van der Leun en Dianne van Hemert
Auteursinformatie

Janine Janssen
Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de nationale politie. Daarnaast is zij lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Joanne van der Leun
Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie en Decaan Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dianne van Hemert
Dianne van Hemert is werkzaam bij TNO en redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Asielzoekers als (vermeende) daders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden asiel, jihadisme, oorlogsmisdadigers, identificatie, indicators
Auteurs Joris van Wijk en Maarten Bolhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution describes the legal basis for revoking or denying a residence status to asylum seekers and individuals in possession of a status who are considered war criminals, ‘common’ criminals or terrorists, in what way the Dutch government tries to identify these persons, and what the nature and size of this group is. The authors conclude that identifying alleged war criminals and jihadists is particularly complex and that there is a tension with respect to the use, necessity and desirability of making available concrete tools in the form of indicators to first line professionals for the purpose of identifying jihadists. The presence of unwanted but unremovable (criminal) asylum seekers is undesirable from the perspective of society. The suggestion is made to provide them, under certain conditions, with a temporary residence status.


Joris van Wijk
Joris van Wijk werkt als criminoloog bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (CICJ) aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

Maarten Bolhuis
Maarten Bolhuis werkt als criminoloog bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (CICJ) aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Eer op de vlucht

Over eergerelateerd geweld in Nederlandse asielzoekerscentra

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Eergerelateerd geweld,, Vluchtelingen, Asielzoekerscentra, beroving, Import
Auteurs Janine Janssen en Ruth Sanberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this exploratory study, two questions are addressed. Firstly, examining police files on honour based violence (HBV), do we find conflicts that take place in asylum centers, and if so, what can we learn from those files? Secondly, to what extent can these police files provide insight into the role of HBV in the lives of refugees in the Netherlands? What are the possibilities and limitations and how can they be dealt with in future research?
    We apply the importation and deprivation models within total institutions on asylum centers and zoom in on honour based conflicts within these centers. The conflicts revolved around family life and morality issues, and resulted in both threats and physical violence. Among younger victims, their choice of partner was the main stumbling block, while later in the course of life conflicts arose from divorces and new relationships. Distinguishing between importation and deprivation factors within these HBV cases turned out to be difficult for two reasons. Firstly, within Dutch policy HBV is primarily viewed as violence within (extended) families and often originating from conflicts regarding partner choice and morality. This focus corresponds to importation rather than deprivation. Secondly, many cases showed interaction between the two factors, for example the many different backgrounds of the inhabitants of the asylum center can be viewed as both importation and deprivation. Future research should look into (a combination of) different data sources to shed light on the role of deprivation, because deprivational factors are more susceptible for (short term) policy measures to help prevent unnecessary stress and causes of conflict, whether honour based or not.


Janine Janssen
Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de nationale politie. Daarnaast is zij lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Ruth Sanberg
Ruth Sanberg was als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de nationale politie. Sinds 2017 werkt zij als veiligheidsanalist bij de Eenheid Midden Nederland van de nationale politie.
Artikel

Geweld tegen politieambtenaren

Beweegredenen en rationalisering door verdachten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Politie, Geweld tegen politie, Daderperspectief
Auteurs Danaé Stad en Jaap Timmer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper tries to answer the question why defendants use violence against police officers and whether, and if so how, they construct justifications for their own behavior. The study consists of an analysis of the situational aspects of violence against police officers and the characteristics of suspects. In addition, some suspects were interviewed about the incident in which they were involved. They were asked what their perception of the situation was, and what the background of the violence was. They were also asked for their opinion on the image of the police in general, and for their knowledge and perception of the relevant laws and regulations. The conclusion is that the motives for violence against a police officer lie in their belief that all men, police officer or not, are equal and should be treated with respect. Suspects feel treated unfairly and disrespectfully by police officers. Suspects feel that in such cases they are entitled to use force. Suspects are not aware of the differences between their own rights and responsibilities in such a situation and the authority that police officers legally have to use of force in order to perform their legal tasks.


Danaé Stad
Danaé Stad is criminoloog en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Residentiële Jeugdzorg aan de Hogeschool Leiden.

Jaap Timmer
Jaap Timmer is politiesocioloog en universitair hoofddocent Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Internetbankieren: veiligheidspercepties van gebruikers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Risicoperceptie, Online bankfraude, Slachtofferschap, Informatiebeveiliging
Auteurs Jurjen Jansen, Nicolien Kop en Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In today’s society, full use is made of online banking. This makes safety and security of online banking an important issue. Two significant threats to users of online banking in The Netherlands are phishing and malware attacks. In this study, an end-user perspective is adopted to study customers’ perceptions regarding safety and security of online banking. A unique feature to this study is that we explore – besides other predictor variables – the relationship between online banking fraud victimization and risk perception. We have made a distinction between three types of victimization: 1) self-experienced victimization, 2) victimization of acquaintances, such as family and friends, and 3) having heard of stories in the media about online banking fraud victimization. Based on a secondary analysis of data from 1200 Dutch users of online banking, collected through an online survey, we conclude that participants perceive their risk of online banking fraud to be small. In general, participants have little experience with victimization, both themselves (2.3%) and in social settings (29.6%). Three quarters of the respondents (75.6%) are aware of victimization of online banking fraud by means of media coverage. Direct and indirect victimization, however, have almost no influence on risk perception regarding online banking fraud. Risk perception is mainly determined by perceived vulnerability, that is, the estimated probability of becoming a victim of online banking fraud. Furthermore, perceived severity or impact of online banking fraud and the degree of trust in online banking contribute to some extent to risk perception. In total, 64.0% of variance in risk perception was explained by the predictors perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, locus of control, trust in online banking, (in)direct experiences with victimization (self, acquaintances and media) and demographic variables (gender, age, educational level and work status). The results of this study may help to improve communication about risks regarding online banking.


Jurjen Jansen
Jurjen Jansen is promovendus aan de Faculteit Cultuur- & Rechtswetenschappen van de Open Universiteit, Onderzoeker aan het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.

Nicolien Kop
Nicolien Kop is lector Criminaliteitsbeheersing & Recherchekunde aan de Politieacademie.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit, lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

De twitterende wijkagent en het veiligheidsgevoel van de burger

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Twitter, police, safety perceptions, communication, social media
Auteurs Imke Smulders, Wilbert Spooren en Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article reports on a conceptual model that provides insight into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizens’ safety perceptions. The model has been tested using data from a relatively large-scale survey study and these results are supporting the model. Furthermore, a small impact of Twitter use has been found on feelings of safety and judgments about the police. To confirm these findings, further research on a larger scale is necessary. To find out more about the exact positive and negative effects of Twitter use by community policing officers, a more experimental design is required.


Imke Smulders
Imke Smulders is als promovenda/onderzoeker verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool. Ook is zij docent taal- en communicatievaardigheden aan de Juridische Hogeschool Avans-Fon‍tys. i.smulders@fontys.nl

Wilbert Spooren
Wilbert Spooren is hoogleraar Taalbeheersing van het Nederlands en verbonden aan het Centre for Language Studies (CLS) van de Faculteit der Letteren van de Radboud Universiteit. w.spooren@let.ru.nl

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit, en doet onderzoek bij Avans University en de VU Amsterdam. emile.kolthoff@ou.nl
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