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Artikel

Over een grens: Nederlandse vondelingen uit of naar het buitenland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Vondeling, migratie, Nederland, rationelekeuzetheorie, gelegenheidstheorie
Auteurs Kerstin van Tiggelen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the group of Dutch foundlings, 28% are migratory foundlings: children coming from abroad to the Netherlands (inbound foundlings), and children going abroad from the Netherlands (outbound foundlings). According to the rational choice theory, there is at some point a rational decision behind human action, based on consideration of costs and benefits – terminology reminiscent of the origins within economic science. When viewed from that perspective, cross-border abandonment may be regarded to be a conscious effort to hinder detection. After all, abandonment of foundlings has been a criminal offence in the Netherlands since at least the Middle Ages. There is therefore also a vested interest in not attracting attention. Anyone abandoning a child and wishing to protect their identity will be attracted to locations that lack effective supervision, defined as guardianship within the criminological routine activities theory. However, the less familiar a location, the trickier it is to avoid visibility. Does the rational consideration of costs and benefits result in migratory foundlings being abandoned just over the border (in order that the perpetrators attract the least possible attention) or actually further inland (in order to detract from the cross-border activity, for example)? Is there a comparable choice in terms of distance when people abandon native foundlings – children found in their country of birth? Relevant questions indeed, as greater insight into such variables can support the direction taken by detection activities. This study is an exploratory analysis of the distance between the domicile or birth location and the abandonment location of cross-border foundlings. The results will then be compared with the distances in the case of domestic foundlings.


Kerstin van Tiggelen
Kerstin van Tiggelen is gepromoveerd in de Humanistiek en voorzitter van stichting Nederlands Instituut voor de Documentatie van Anoniem Afstanddoen (NIDAA).
Artikel

Access_open Verborgen strijd in het veiligheidsdomein: over samenwerking tussen politie en gemeente bij de bestuurlijke aanpak van overlast en criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Interorganisationele samenwerking, Politie, Gemeenten, bestuurlijke aanpak, overlast en criminaliteit
Auteurs Renze Salet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, over the past 25 years mayors have had an increasing number of formal powers, based on administrative law, to fight against crime and disorder. Now, the Dutch mayors have the power to impose a restraining order, to close houses in case of drugs and/or drugs trade, or to decline a request for a permit when it might be used for illegal activities.
    To implement these measures, the local government is highly dependent on (information provided by) the police. At this moment we do not have much information about this cooperation between local government and the police in the management of crime and disorder. This paper is based on an empirical study concerning this issue. It shows that the inter-organizational cooperation between local government and the police may differ strongly, however this cooperation still often depends on central factors and circumstances. An important factor is the (growing) distance between the police and local government in regard to the local approach of problems of crime and disorder. A significant number of local police officers concentrates mainly on the maintenance of law and order by criminal law enforcement instead of the implementation of administrative measures. As a result, local government is often unsatisfied about the contribution of the police. For example, the quality of the information provided by the police is often perceived as insufficient. In some cases local governments try to diminish the degree of interdependency with the police and to strengthen their own position in the local safety domain.


Renze Salet
Renze Salet is Universitair Docent Criminologie bij de vakgroep Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Radboud Universiteit (Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid).
Artikel

Op de grens van het vreemdelingentoezicht: discretionaire beslissingen binnen het Mobiel Toezicht Veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden migratiecontrole, crimmigratie, Discretie, grenspolitieambtenaren, Koninklijke Marechaussee
Auteurs Jelmer Brouwer, Maartje van der Woude en Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Mobile Security Monitor (MSM) is a form of migration policing in the border areas of the Netherlands, carried out by the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (KMar). The MSM has a complex legal and policy framework, merging migration control aims with certain elements of crime control. This raises the question how the officers carrying out the MSM interpret the exact aim of the instrument and their own accompanying powers and what this means for the way they carry out their task. Our results show that many officers see ‘catching criminals’ an important part of their job and that in order to achieve this, they sometimes make ‘creative use’ of their wide-ranging powers. Although similar results have been found in research with the police, KMar officers differ because of their ability to combine migration law and criminal law powers. This fits in with the process of crimmigration and the broader tendency of ad-hoc instrumentalism, which refers to a way of thinking about law and legal procedures in which the formal distinction between legal domains is considered less important and criminal justice actors can freely choose the most effective instrument to deal with the situation at hand. This means that the formal ground for a decision is not always transparent, especially not for people that are subjected to the MSM. Moreover, criminal law enforcement contains many more legal and procedural safeguards than administrative controls.


Jelmer Brouwer
Jelmer Brouwer is promovendus aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Maartje van der Woude
Maartje van der Woude is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie, Van Vollenhoven Instituut, Universiteit Leiden.

Joanne van der Leun
Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie en Decaan Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Internetbankieren: veiligheidspercepties van gebruikers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Risicoperceptie, Online bankfraude, Slachtofferschap, Informatiebeveiliging
Auteurs Jurjen Jansen, Nicolien Kop en Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In today’s society, full use is made of online banking. This makes safety and security of online banking an important issue. Two significant threats to users of online banking in The Netherlands are phishing and malware attacks. In this study, an end-user perspective is adopted to study customers’ perceptions regarding safety and security of online banking. A unique feature to this study is that we explore – besides other predictor variables – the relationship between online banking fraud victimization and risk perception. We have made a distinction between three types of victimization: 1) self-experienced victimization, 2) victimization of acquaintances, such as family and friends, and 3) having heard of stories in the media about online banking fraud victimization. Based on a secondary analysis of data from 1200 Dutch users of online banking, collected through an online survey, we conclude that participants perceive their risk of online banking fraud to be small. In general, participants have little experience with victimization, both themselves (2.3%) and in social settings (29.6%). Three quarters of the respondents (75.6%) are aware of victimization of online banking fraud by means of media coverage. Direct and indirect victimization, however, have almost no influence on risk perception regarding online banking fraud. Risk perception is mainly determined by perceived vulnerability, that is, the estimated probability of becoming a victim of online banking fraud. Furthermore, perceived severity or impact of online banking fraud and the degree of trust in online banking contribute to some extent to risk perception. In total, 64.0% of variance in risk perception was explained by the predictors perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, locus of control, trust in online banking, (in)direct experiences with victimization (self, acquaintances and media) and demographic variables (gender, age, educational level and work status). The results of this study may help to improve communication about risks regarding online banking.


Jurjen Jansen
Jurjen Jansen is promovendus aan de Faculteit Cultuur- & Rechtswetenschappen van de Open Universiteit, Onderzoeker aan het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.

Nicolien Kop
Nicolien Kop is lector Criminaliteitsbeheersing & Recherchekunde aan de Politieacademie.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit, lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

De behoefte aan bescherming van slachtoffers van misdrijven in verschillende slachtoffer-daderrelaties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Protection, victim-offender relationship, victim needs, reasons for reporting
Auteurs Annemarie ten Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An explicit goal in the Dutch victim policy is to offer protection to victims of crime. Based on a EU Directive all member states shall ensure that victims receive a timely and individual assessment, to identify specific protection needs. In this paper the question is: which victims especially do need protection? More specific, it examines whether the victim-offender relationship, controlling for the confounders ‘type of crime’ and ‘gender of the victim’, contributes to the extent in which protection is a reason for reporting crimes to the police. For victims of domestic violence (by partners, ex-partners and (other) family members), the need for protection is an important reason for reporting – not just for women and girls, but also for men and boys. The need for protection is an important reason for reporting for victims by partners, ex-partners and (other) family members of non-violent as well as violent crimes.


Annemarie ten Boom
Annemarie ten Boom is projectbegeleider bij het WODC, het onderzoekscentrum van het Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Zij werkt aan een proefschrift over het verband tussen de slachtoffer-daderrelatie en de behoeften van slachtoffers met betrekking tot justitie. Zij is als buitenpromovendus aan INTERVICT verbonden.
Artikel

Gedragsprofiling: het bepalen van kwade bedoelingen en het meten van effectiviteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden gedragsprofiling, afwijkend gedrag, psychologie, effectiviteitsmetingen, beveiligingspersoneel
Auteurs Helma van den Berg, Remco Wijn en Dianne van Hemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Is behavioural profiling a viable alternative to more traditional approaches to profiling, viewed from the perspectives of underlying theoretical assumptions and measures of effectiveness? In this article we describe behaviour profiling in relation to other types of profiling, we review relevant psychological mechanisms that underpin behaviour profiling, and discuss effectiveness of this type of profiling as well as methodological aspects of measuring effectiveness. Behaviour profiling is a method largely used to select potential offenders before the offence is committed by observing and giving meaning to behaviours preceding incidents. Deviant behaviours exhibited by suspects can be either part of a modus operandi related to the offence, the consequence of increased stress, or an atypical response to prodding actions by security officers. Relevant psychological mechanisms to explain ways behaviour profiling works include direct characteristics of deception as well as indirect indicators of deception, such as a criminal being more self-focused and more cognitively engaged. Effectiveness of behaviour profiling is increased by training, including learning more about modi operandi and related behaviours, awareness of biases in general, specific relevant biases, and techniques to correct for these biases.


Helma van den Berg
Helma van den Berg is werkzaam bij TNDO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences. Helma.

Remco Wijn
Remco Wijn is research scientist bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences

Dianne van Hemert
Dianne A. van Hemert is werkzaam bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

    Preventive interventions against terrorist attacks can be justified on legal and moral grounds. The Dutch broad-based approach against terrorism also addresses radicalizations processes. It is, however, hard to justify why a government in a liberal democracy should be allowed to intervene in processes of radicalization where danger to society is not obvious. A reason to justify intervention is when a (former) radical asks for help. Theories based on the ideas of Kant and Rawls also allow for intervention if an individual’s autonomy is diminished because he is member of a sect or under the spell of a charismatic leader. Other interventions with regard to (prevention of) radicalization cannot be justified by deontological theories such as Kant’s and Rawls’. Virtue ethics or teleology would, however, allow interventions but only if they are geared towards helping the individual in their quest to the good life. This justification allows for interventions that are, for example, focused on supporting individuals to critically reflect, reason and discuss about the good life and a just society. Based on the teleological justification constraints can be derived for preventive interventions with regard to radicalization or even deradicalisation. Notice that individuals cannot be forced to join these programs because there is no legal basis.


Anke van Gorp
Dr. ir. Anke van Gorp is onderzoeker en hogeschooldocent Ethiek en Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht, Integrale Veiligheidskunde, Faculteit FMR. E-mail: anke.vangorp@hu.nl

Arnold Roosendaal
Mr. Arnold Roosendaal is onderzoeker bij TNO, afdeling Strategy and Policy for the Information Society.
Artikel

Kiezen voor stadsrepublieken? Over administratieve afhandeling van overlast in de steden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden social disorder, incivility, governance, communal sanctions, Mayor
Auteurs Elke Devroe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The theme of governing anti-social behaviour and incivilities in the public space became more important on the policy and research agenda over the last twenty years. This article describes the law on incivilities in Belgium, namely the ‘administrative communal sanctions’ (GAS). This law is studied in a broader context of contemporary crime control and its organizing patterns. The development of the politics of behaviour can be explained by different characteristics of the period referred to as the late modernity. In the dissertation ‘A culture of control?’ (Devroe 2012) we studied the application and the concrete strategies behind the governance of incivilities on a national and on a city level. The incivility law broadened the competences of the Mayor and the city council especially in the completion of anti social behaviour and public disorder problems in his/her municipality. Instead of being dealt with on a traditional judicial way by the police magistrate, the Mayor can, by this law; himself lay on fines until maximum 250 euro. We mention ‘city republics’ as this punitive sanction became a locally assigned matter, which means that one municipality differs from another in their ‘incivility policy’. Due to the split up of competences of the Belgian state arrangements of 1988, each municipality finds itself framed in different political and organisational executive realities. In this view, Mayors can be called ‘presidents’ of their own municipality, keeping and controlling the process of tackling incivilities as their main responsibility and determining what behaviour had to be controlled and punished and what behaviour can be considered as normal decent behaviour in the public space. Problems of creating a ‘culture of control’, creating inequality for the poor, the beggars and the socially ‘unwanted’ can arise, especially in big cities.


Elke Devroe
Dr. Elke Devroe is Universitair Hoofddocent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: e.devroe@law.leidenuniv.nl
Artikel

Legitimiteit via procedurele rechtvaardigheid: kunnen herstelrechtelijke praktijken de maatschappelijke legitimiteit van het strafrecht verhogen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden procedural justice, legitimacy,, restorative justice, mediation,, perceptions of fairness
Auteurs Vicky De Mesmaecker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contemporary scholarly literature is full of references to the crisis of the criminal justice system. The general public seems to increasingly lose confidence in the criminal justice system and its actors. In this article we look into the potential manners in which restorative justice practices can enhance the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. Our analysis is based on the observation that by actively engaging victims and defendants in the resolution of their conflict, restorative practices seem to accommodate a necessary condition of procedural fairness. Since research on procedural justice and legitimacy in turn suggests that the legitimacy of the criminal justice system is based largely upon its perceived procedural fairness, we investigate whether participation in restorative practices improves perceptions of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. To that end we describe the results of a qualitative study on the experiences of victims and defendants who participated in victim-offender mediation in Belgium. Relating their experiences to the antecedents of procedural justice as described in the literature, we find that restorative practices in different ways enhance perceptions of procedural fairness. Yet these perceptions do not necessarily reflect on the criminal justice system. Our analysis suggests that the degree to which the perceptions of procedural fairness resulting from participation in a restorative practice influence an individual’s perceptions of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system depends on whether the restorative practice is seen as an integral part of the criminal proceedings. We found, for example, that this is more likely to be the case if the judge at trial formally acknowledges the parties’ participation in mediation. We conclude that more research on the degree to which people perceive the restorative practice to be a part of the criminal proceedings is needed in order to further flesh out this issue.


Vicky De Mesmaecker
Dr. Vicky De Mesmaecker is vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC, KULeuven) en Visiting Researcher aan Yale Law School. Email: vicky.demesmaecker@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

Creatief gebruik van bevoegdheden

Een explorerend onderzoek binnen de Nederlandse politie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Policing, Creative Use of Authorities, Noble Cause Corruption;, Organizational Misbehavior (OMB), Case study
Auteurs Robin Christiaan van Halderen en Karin Lasthuizen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police officers sometimes use creative ways in deploying their authorities when they deal with obstacles that hinder the pursuit for higher organizational goals or the common interest. By doing this, the boundaries of legislative rules might be stretched or even exceeded. This article reports the findings of a Dutch case study within the police into this phenomenon, which the authors described as the ‘creative use of authorities’. By means of observations and interviews within the researched police forces 57 cases were described and analyzed. The cases enabled a first categorization of distinctive forms of creative use of authorities with 4 essential core elements, that is: abstain from use, abuse, improper use and selective use of authorities.


Robin Christiaan van Halderen
Drs. Robin Christiaan van Halderen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid, Avans Hogeschool (www.expertisecentrum-veiligheid.nl) E-mail: rc.vanhalderen@avans.nl

Karin Lasthuizen
Dr. Karin Lasthuizen is universitair hoofddocent en senior-lid van de onderzoeksgroep Quality of Governance van de Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: k.m.lasthuizen@vu.nl
Artikel

Onschadelijkmaking: een problematische trend in criminaliteitsbestrijding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Incapacitation, Crime-prevention, Control, Punishment,, Disqualification
Auteurs Marius Duker en Marijke Malsch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article attempts to interpret and critically discuss the concept of incapacitation as a motive in the response to crime. Research shows that incapacitation – disabling or hindering people to commit offences – increasingly presents an important motive in the response to crime. This tendency is explored by several researchers in a new book titled Incapacitation: Trends and New Perspectives (Ashgate 2012). This tendency presents itself by the expansion of various modes of and grounds for detention, but also in the increase of other kinds of incapacitative measures, as well as in the fact that also administrative measures outside criminal law increasingly contain incapacitative elements. This tendency towards incapacitation of possible (re-)offenders can also be witnessed in contemporary politics. Examples discussed here are the intensive application of preventive custody, disqualifications, restraining orders accompanied by electronic monitoring, as well as administrative measures aimed at refusing certificates of good conduct or permits for specific commercial activities. It is argued that incapacitation often is not a proportionate and effective approach against crime. It appears to obscure the perspective on possibly more effective attempts to secure future behavior.


Marius Duker
Mr. dr. Marius Duker is UHD Straf(proces)recht aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger. E-mail: m.j.a.duker@vu.nl

Marijke Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum voor Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), en tevens raadsheer-plaatsvervanger.
Artikel

Kunst en/of criminaliteit

De ene graffiti is de andere niet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden graffiti, perceptie, overlast, visuele methoden, verwijderingsbeleid
Auteurs Gabry Vanderveen en Funda Jelsma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Graffiti has been linked in empirical studies to disorder, fear of crime, avoidance behavior, vandalism and delinquency. In most of those studies, graffiti is treated as an abstract and uniform concept: no distinctions are made between one graffiti or another. Policies based on this assumption hold a zero tolerance approach, meaning all graffiti is deemed undesirable and is or should be removed. This has been criticized by several (theoretical) studies. On the other hand however, ethnographic studies present graffiti as a multifaceted phenomenon, serving as a means of communication, resistance and protest or as an art form. The current study investigates the assumption that graffiti is perceived as a homogeneous and undesirable environmental feature. This article examines whether graffiti is actually perceived uniformly by Dutch citizens, and if not how people distinguish between different graffiti; which types of graffiti are perceived as disorder and whether different types of people exist based on their attitudes towards graffiti. An extensive questionnaire was designed, based on a thorough analysis of the literature and empirical pilot studies. A nationally representative sample responded to general questions with respect to graffiti and judged eighteen specific examples of graffiti on a reliable scale that measured perceived disorder. Results indicate that people vary enormously in their ideas and attitudes. Also, not every graffiti is the same, meaning graffiti is not a homogeneous, uniform phenomenon. Both type of graffiti and the location on which the graffiti is situated relate to the degree of perceived disorder. For example, tags, small scribbles, were considered a public nuisance more than pieces, large colorful images. Also, graffiti on a house or car is perceived much more as disorder than graffiti in a skatepark. The diversity in views necessitates a normative


Gabry Vanderveen
Dr. G.N.G. (Gabry) Vanderveen is universitair docent criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. E-mail: g.n.g.vanderveen@law.leidenuniv.nl

Funda Jelsma
Funda Jelsma MSc is als docent-onderzoeker verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Uitbuiting uit zicht?

Getuigenverklaringen van gesmokkelde migranten nader bekeken aan de hand van indicatoren voor mensenhandel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden human trafficking, migrant smuggling, irregular migration, exploitation, illegal employment
Auteurs Joanne van der van der Leun en Anet van van Schijndel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Human trafficking means exploitation; human smuggling is associated with illegal labour and a connection with exploitation is absent. Where a victim of human trafficking can appeal for legal protection, a smuggled migrant (illegally residing or with vulnerable legal status) overall has little rights because of the formal absence of the aspects of exploitation and coercion in human smuggling. In this article, the empirical analysis based on file analysis demonstrates that in several files of cases framed as human smuggling indications are found for exploitation of migrants, although this has not been recognised as such. Theoretically the authors tie this to the trend of crimmigration. Measures designed to combat human trafficking and smuggling are often concentrated on (criminal) law enforcement and criminal punishment, to the detriment of a human rights-based approach. The tension between immigration policy and the combat against human trafficking deserves more attention.


Joanne van der van der Leun
Prof. dr. J.P. (Joanne) van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. E-mail: j.p.vanderleun@law.leidenuniv.nl

Anet van van Schijndel
A.A.A. (Anet) van Schijndel MSc is onderzoeker bij de Algemene Rekenkamer. E-mail: a.vanschijndel@rekenkamer.nl
Artikel

Bijzonder optreden bij openbare ordehandhaving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden governance, street-level-bureaucracy, exemplary urban practitioners, role models, preventive safety strategy in urban disorder
Auteurs Ton van der Pennen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on a research in which we are looking for exemplary urban professionals who seem to be successful in pursuing the social goals they set together with their partners. In urban disadvantaged neighbourhoods, it is not always the standard procedure that gets things done. In the Netherlands decades of urban renewal in its various forms have not solved problems permanently. This does not mean that success is never attained. What seems to have helped in some cases is the presence of a type of practitioner who goes beyond standard procedure. These are professionals, as the ‘casting cop’ we introduce in this article, who do not give up and who are able to succeed where others have failed. Most likely these are experienced practitioners who learned how to cope. Most likely they are actors who inspire others.What we ask is how these practitioners in urban districts do their job in controversial, politically sensitive policy processes that might develop in unintended and surprising ways. In other words we have as a central question: through what ways of working and relating do exemplary urban practitioner (try to) get things done?The professionals we call exemplary are not always taking the common routes to realize their goals. They will not automatically follow the routines of problem solving and because of that they can make a difference. They are critical about mainstream practices and try to find solutions starting from the perspectives of citizens. When we talk about ‘ways of working and relating’ we refer to the qualities these professionals put to use in the planning and decision making processes of urban renewal. It has to do with personal qualities like attitude and experience, but also with strategic skills such as networking with policy partners. ‘Getting things done’ means solving problems or better stated exploiting opportunities. More broadly is their aim to transform what is called ‘urban problem districts’ into ‘livable neighborhoods’.


Ton van der Pennen
Drs. A.W. (Ton) van der Pennen is senior onderzoeker aan het onderzoeksinstituut OTB van de TU Delft. E-mail: A.W.vanderPennen@tudelft.nl
Artikel

De preventieve inzet van het tijdelijk huisverbod bij dreigend huiselijk geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden domestic violence, temporary restraining order, domestic violence risk, prevention, assessment
Auteurs Leontien M. van der Knaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On January 1, 2009 the Temporary Restraining Order Act entered into force allowing mayors to impose a ten-day restraining order on potential perpetrators of domestic violence. This restraining order, which may be extended to 28 days, prohibits the perpetrator from entering his or her house as well as from contacting the persons staying behind in the home (partner, children, or other members of the household). In order to impose a temporary restraining order, risk factors relating to the perpetrator, the incident, and the family have to be assessed using a domestic violence risk assessment tool (RiHG).The immediate cause to introduce the Act was to enable mayors to take action in situations that, before, would not have given police just cause to intervene because no offences had (yet) been committed. However, evaluations show that temporary restraining orders are mainly imposed in conjunction with criminal proceedings. Yet, researchers suggest that the temporary restraining order may be imposed as a truly preventive measure in a large amount of situations that until now have not been considered (for instance, situations that have not escalated into physical violence). This article examines whether such preventive restraining orders exist within a sample of imposed orders and if so, what characteristics they share.Results show that truly preventive restraining orders are extremely rare. Closer inspection of cases that according to the available risk assessment were not notably violent showed that most of these cases could not be regarded as cases of truly preventive restraining orders. The discussion of the article focuses on the implications of these results for the suggestion that a large number of situations could be suitable for imposing a preventive restraining order.


Leontien M. van der Knaap
Dr. L.M. (Leontien) M. van der Knaap is universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van Tilburg University. E-mail: l.mvdrknaap@uvt.nl
Artikel

De problematiek van sfeervervaging bij de bestuurlijk-strafrechtelijke aanpak van mensenhandel in de legale prostitutiesector

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden human trafficking, prostitution control, adminstrative measures, prevention, criminal justice
Auteurs Nina Holvast en Patrick van der Meij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the legalization of the prostitution sector, not only has the combating of human trafficking through criminal law been substantially fortified, but also the administrative approach to human trafficking in that sector. This integral approach of human trafficking, in which administrative and criminal law measures complement each other, is necessary to combat this harrowing type of crime. The criminal law-administrative approach offers good footholds for a more forceful reaction to human trafficking. Besides the preventive effect administrative measures can have as a complement to criminal law, administrative supervision can also be useful to obtain criminal law information. However, that brings several new dilemmas with it that are connected to the phenomenon of the blurring of spheres. Under certain circumstances, the blurring of spheres between a criminal law and an administrative approach can lead to an improper use of competencies. We conclude that in the manner in which the prostitution sector is currently supervised, the legal protection of the citizen against actions of the supervisor is inadequately guaranteed. That does not mean that information that is obtained through administrative supervision may no longer be used in criminal cases. It is to be recommended however that several changes be made to current practice, which may prevent the improper use of supervisory competencies in prostitution controls.


Nina Holvast
Mr. drs. N.L. (Nina) Holvast is junior onderzoeker bij de sectie Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: holvast@frg.eur.nl.

Patrick van der Meij
Mr. dr. P.P.J. (Patrick) van der Meij is strafrechtadvocaat bij Cleerdin & Hamer Advocaten in Amsterdam en tevens research fellow bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: p.p.j.vandermeij@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

De strafrechtelijke bescherming van jongeren tegen seksuele contactlegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden teenagers, sexual activities, legal protection, criminal law, discourse analysis
Auteurs Juul Gooren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Teenagers between twelve and eighteen years of age are protected by Dutch criminal law against sexual encounters that can be described as ‘voluntarily’. If teenagers are approached without force or approach a person themselves autonomously they are thus protected against such contact, but they could have played a sexual active role nevertheless. How do the alleged offenders in these criminal cases make contact and how are the punishable interactions possible considering the facilitative role of the victim? This paper will deal with the way the officials of the police and justice departments value sexual contacts with youngsters in a diverse range of settings. The crucial question is how the professionals dealing with the protection of youngsters and at the same time safeguarding the legal rights of offenders come to their juridical deliberation.


Juul Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is docent/onderzoeker aan de Haagse Hogeschool, Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Veiligheid, opleiding Integrale Veiligheid. E-mail: j.c.w.gooren@hhs.nl.
Artikel

Downloaders van kinderporno

Een overzicht van de literatuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Kinderporno, Downloaden, Zedencriminaliteit, Literatuurstudie
Auteurs Anton van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Unlike the physical abusers of children, little is known about downloaders of child pornography. The key questions in this article are: who are the downloaders, what are their backgrounds, why and how they download child pornography, how they behave offline and online and what types of downloaders can be distinguished? A simple answer to these questions is currently impossible to give. There is more, preferably longitudinal, research needed on risk factors for downloading child pornography and the various types of downloaders. Combating the downloaders requires a lot of the police in terms of international cooperation and up to date knowledge and expertise. This also served the treatment practices, which is partly dependent on a properly conducted police investigation.


Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. A.Ph. van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke. E-mail: a.vanwijk@beke.nl.
Artikel

Forensisch-medische expertise voor slachtoffers van huiselijk geweld

Hoe werken politie en forensische artsen samen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden huiselijk geweld, forensische geneeskunde, medische verklaringen, letselverklaring
Auteurs Tina Dorn, Manon Ceelen, Olga Boeij e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, police can request a physical examination of victims of domestic violence. These examinations can be either carried out by the physician who has treated the victim, or, alternatively, by a forensic physician. From a medico-legal point of view, an examination by a forensic physician has several advantages, as forensic physicians are independent and trained in examining victims of violence and reporting to the police. The aim of the current study was to (1) describe the structure of forensic services for victims of domestic violence in the Netherlands, (2) establish with whom the police request physical examinations of victims (forensic physician vs. physicians who have treated the victim), (3) explore the underlying reasons for the choice made and (4) elaborate how the current cooperation of police and forensic physicians can be improved in favour of victims of domestic violence. For this purpose, interviews were carried out with police professionals and forensic physicians throughout the country. The results demonstrated that victims can access forensic services almost exclusively on referral by the police. Furthermore, the police in most cases request physical examinations from physicians who have treated the victim and not from forensic physicians. Reasons for referring victims to treating physicians instead of forensic physicians are costs and lack of information on forensic services. Reports provided by treating physicians are criticized by the police for being illegible, incomprehensible, and lacking information on aspects which are of importance for the legal procedure. In short, the legal position of victims could be strengthened by requesting physical examinations from forensic physicians instead from treating physicians. A major obstacle to change is a lack of funding. Furthermore, forensic services for victims of domestic violence in the Netherlands could be improved if victims could access forensic services without referral of the police.


Tina Dorn
Dr. Tina Dorn is onderzoeker, afdeling Epidemiologie, Documentatie en Gezondheidsbevordering, GGD Amsterdam. Contactadres: GGD Amsterdam, afd. EDG, Postbus 2200, 1000 CE Amsterdam. Tel. 020-5555911. E-mail: tdorn@ggd.amsterdam.nl.

Manon Ceelen
Dr. Manon Ceelen is onderzoeker, afdeling Epidemiologie, Documentatie en Gezondheidsbevordering, GGD Amsterdam.

Olga Boeij
Dr. Olga Boeij is onderzoeker, afdeling Epidemiologie, Documentatie en Gezondheidsbevordering, GGD Amsterdam.

Kees Das
Dr. Kees Das is hoofd afdeling Forensische Geneeskunde, GGD Amsterdam.

Mariëtte Christophe
Mariëtte Christophe is programmaleider, Landelijk Programmabureau Huiselijk Geweld en de Politietaak.

Wim Huisman
Wim Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: w.huisman@rechten.vu.nl.
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