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Artikel

Eerder verbindend dan visionair

Een analyse van de overwegingen van burgemeesters bij het gebruiken van de handhavende bevoegdheden uit de Wet Damocles

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden home closure, Mayors, political leadership, leadership style, the Netherlands
Auteurs Ineke Bastiaans en Niels Karsten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Several authors fear that the expansion of Dutch mayors’ executive powers in the field of safety and security will harm their position as non-partisan and consensus-oriented leaders. Empirical research into how mayors use their powers, however, is still rare. From a leadership perspective, the current article analyzes how mayors in the region of South East Brabant in Netherlands use their administrative power to close homes involved in drug-related crime. Drawing on Fischer’s framework of discursive practices, we analyze mayors’ considerations in terms of the argumentation they provide for closing homes. Our analysis, which draws on interviews and document analysis, covers 27 cases from the police region of South-East Brabant and includes 120 considerations. Our findings indicate that mayors vindicate home closures mostly through policy-derived technical and situational argumentations. Vindications that aspire a particular societal effect, such as the reduction of criminal activity, or ideological motivations are rarer, which is indicative of a non-decisive leadership style. In addition, mayors mostly respect the local closure policies. As such, they show very little decisive and individualistic leadership. And, to the extent that they deviate from agreed-upon regional policies, their motivation is to be able to take into account unique local circumstances. In the use of their administrative powers mayors, thus, show mostly situational and adaptive leadership, which, rather than as visionaries, positions them as caretakers. The leadership style of Dutch mayor in the use of this administrative power is, thus, much more in accordance with their traditional bridging-and-bonding leadership style than some authors suspect. Some of the limitations of our study are that we have analyzed closure decisions from one region only and that real-life decisions are susceptible to contextual influences. At the same time, our study provides a rare insight into real-world mayoral leadership in the Netherlands in the field of safety and security.


Ineke Bastiaans
Ineke Bastiaans is onderzoeker en adviseur bij Necker van Naem.

Niels Karsten
Niels Karsten is Universitair Docent aan Tilburg University.

    Like many other European countries the Netherlands experienced a major influx of refugees in the fall of 2015. A majority of the population supported providing shelter to the refugees, but not without worries and anxieties about the effects of that influx, which sometimes lead to limited, local forms of social unrest. A study was started to shed more light on the worries and fears that existed in the population, on the assumptions these were based upon and on whether these worries and fears could lead to social unrest on a larger scale. The study was explorative, based on an eclectic, multi methods approach. The findings show that worries and anxieties were not limited to those who were opposed to the influx of migrants, but existed among supporters as well. The worries and anxieties were of a diverse nature, on topics like security, livability, economics, perceived (in)justice and socio-cultural aspects of life. A clear, credible answer or policy from the government was missed. When compared to the findings of earlier studies on the influx of migrants, some worries and anxieties seemed closely connected to what might be expected, in other cases a distinct ‘disconnect’ was found. These could be understood however when distorting mechanisms were taken into consideration that have been described in studies of more general security perceptions. As the worries and anxieties on the influx of refugees resonated other existing worries, anxieties and fears in society, a ‘cocktail of concerns’ was created that, given the right trigger, could have led to social unrest on a larger scale.


Marnix Eysink Smeets
Marnix Eysink Smeets is Lector Publiek Vertrouwen in Veiligheid en Hoofd Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid van Hogeschool Inholland.

Anoek Boot
Anoek Boot was tot april 2017 onderzoeker bij de Onderzoeksgroep Recht & Veiligheid van Hogeschool Inholland Rotterdam.
Artikel

Uitgaansgeweld en de morele setting van het uitgaan in Amsterdam

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden nightlife, violence, morality, clubs, bars
Auteurs Marco van der Land, Ilse de Groot, Hans Boutellier e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Nightlife violence is gaining increasing attention and is a substantial part of all violent incidents. In this article we explore the assumption that going out in metropolitan clubs and bars creates a specific moral setting, where the aim is to let yourself go. The main question in this article is to what extent the moral setting of going out contributes to nightlife related violence. We explored this issue by analyzing the case of Amsterdam, in particular the two famous squares, Leidseplein and Rembrandtplein, and de Wallen (red light district). With regard to the moral setting we distinguish between physical, social, professional and normative aspects of the moral setting. Each of these aspects has been described in academic literature as potentially contributing to violence. On that basis a checklist has been developed that was used for observations in nightlife venues that are known for either a high or low disproportionate amount of violent incidents. By comparing the two categories we were able to identify elements of the moral setting which, supported by the literature, can be expected to contribute to the prevalence of nightlife violence. Elements which we discovered that occur more frequently in venues where many incidents occur are visitor density, the loudness of the music, the presence of smokers, the overall comfort, the opportunity to dance, the presence of drunken visitors and their degree of intoxication, overtly sexually charged behavior, opportunities for the staff to observe, security at the exit, the number of bouncers, and whether visitors were searched or not before they entered the venue. Whether situations actually developed into violent conflict depended on one of three possible causes, namely miscommunication, conflict with authority or unsolicited advances. Policymakers can use these insights in order to try to manipulate violence stimulating factors.


Marco van der Land
Marco van der Land is universitair docent bij de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en Politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en onderzoeker bij de Leerstoel Veiligheid en Burgerschap aldaar. Hij is tevens hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid. E-mail: m.vander.land@vu.nl

Ilse de Groot
Ilse de Groot is als zelfstandig onderzoeker en trainer op het gebied van criminaliteit en veiligheid werkzaam bij Ratio Research. E-mail: ilsedegroot@ratioresearch.nl

Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en lid van de raad van bestuur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut. E-mail: HBoutellier@verwey-jonker.nl

Rutger Visser
Rutger Visser is freelance onderzoeker en docent criminologie. Hij is gespecialiseerd op het gebied van geweldgebruik. Rutger is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Politiewetenschappen. E-mail: r.s.m.visser@vu.nl
Artikel

Identificatie van Nederlandse jongeren die risico lopen op internet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Youth, internet use, online victimization, risk profile, risk factors
Auteurs Joyce Kerstens en Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the findings of a national representative survey on online victimization. The survey was conducted in the Netherlands in 2011 amongst youth aged 10 to 18. Purpose of this research is to identify various risk factors related to cyber bullying, online sexual activities and online financial crime (e.g. e-fraude and commercial deceit). More than 9 percent of the youths had negative experiences with cyber bullying, about 5 percent with e-fraude and over 11 percent with commercial deceit. Also unwanted online sexual solicitations (6%) and unwanted exposure to sexually explicit internet material (12%) occurred with some regularity.
    This research complements earlier research on youth victimization in two important respects. First, we paid explicit attention to determine whether the youngster experienced the online incident as negative, neutral or positive. Our strategy to address negative experiences ensures the identification of actual victims. Secondly, we made it possible to identify and compare risk factors on various types of online crime. Girls are more likely to be cyber bullied, to receive unwanted sexual solicitations and to be unwantedly exposed to online pornography, whilst boys are more at risk to be commercially deceived or scammed.
    Internet use and behaviour are significant risk factors to comprehend online victimization. Above average use of instant messaging and clicking on (advertising) hyperlinks without restraint, are important predictors for online victimization. Finally, online disinhibition - a loosening of social restrictions during interactions with others on the Internet - and low self-control, turn out to be significant risk factors.
    It is difficult to accept certain risks, especially when youth are involved. However, children have to learn themselves to assess risks, to deal with them and to learn from them. It is important youths built up resilience to adequately react on negative online incidents and to reduce online vulnerability.


Joyce Kerstens
Drs. J.W.M. (Joyce) Kerstens is Projectleider Jeugd & Cybersafety bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie. E-mail: j.kerstens@nhl.nl

Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. (Johan) van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Gekocht, maar niet gekregen

Slachtofferschap van online oplichting nader onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Online oplichting, Slachtofferschap, Slachtofferenquête, Lage zelfcontrole
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consumer fraud seems to be widespread, yet little research is devoted to understanding why certain social groups are more vulnerable to this type of victimization than others. The present paper deals with internet consumer fraud victimization, and uses an explanatory model that combines insights from self control theory and routine activity theory. The results from large-scale victimization survey data among the Dutch general population (N=6,201) reveal that people with low self-control run substantially higher victimization risk, as well as people performing ‘risky’ routine activities, such as online shopping and participation in online forums. Though a minority share of the self-control-victimization link is indirect – because people with low self-control are more involved in risk-enhancing routine activities – a large direct effect on internet fraud victimization remains. This suggests that, within similar situations, people with poor impulse control respond differently to deceptive online commercial offers.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Contactadres: postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. Tel. 071-5277418. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Gestolen fietsen in het Nederlandse fietsenpark. Een analyse met een Markov-model

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2007
Trefwoorden fietsdiefstal, fiets, diefstal, model, registratie, legaliteit, aandeel, aangifte, verkoop, identificatie
Auteurs G.H.J. Homburg

G.H.J. Homburg
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