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Artikel

Over een grens: Nederlandse vondelingen uit of naar het buitenland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Vondeling, migratie, Nederland, rationelekeuzetheorie, gelegenheidstheorie
Auteurs Kerstin van Tiggelen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the group of Dutch foundlings, 28% are migratory foundlings: children coming from abroad to the Netherlands (inbound foundlings), and children going abroad from the Netherlands (outbound foundlings). According to the rational choice theory, there is at some point a rational decision behind human action, based on consideration of costs and benefits – terminology reminiscent of the origins within economic science. When viewed from that perspective, cross-border abandonment may be regarded to be a conscious effort to hinder detection. After all, abandonment of foundlings has been a criminal offence in the Netherlands since at least the Middle Ages. There is therefore also a vested interest in not attracting attention. Anyone abandoning a child and wishing to protect their identity will be attracted to locations that lack effective supervision, defined as guardianship within the criminological routine activities theory. However, the less familiar a location, the trickier it is to avoid visibility. Does the rational consideration of costs and benefits result in migratory foundlings being abandoned just over the border (in order that the perpetrators attract the least possible attention) or actually further inland (in order to detract from the cross-border activity, for example)? Is there a comparable choice in terms of distance when people abandon native foundlings – children found in their country of birth? Relevant questions indeed, as greater insight into such variables can support the direction taken by detection activities. This study is an exploratory analysis of the distance between the domicile or birth location and the abandonment location of cross-border foundlings. The results will then be compared with the distances in the case of domestic foundlings.


Kerstin van Tiggelen
Kerstin van Tiggelen is gepromoveerd in de Humanistiek en voorzitter van stichting Nederlands Instituut voor de Documentatie van Anoniem Afstanddoen (NIDAA).
Artikel

De inzet van privaat gewapend maritiem beveiligingspersoneel of Privately Contracted Armed Security Personnel (PCASP) aan boord van Belgische en Nederlandse koopvaardijschepen

Een rechtsvergelijkende analyse van de wetgeving van Europese vlaggenstaten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Maritime piracy, private maritime security company, PMSC, vessel protection detachment, privately contracted armed security personnel
Auteurs Ilja Van Hespen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Until recently, Dutch merchant ships could not rely on privately contracted maritime security staff to protect themselves against pirates. On the one hand, the argument prevailed that the State had to retain the monopoly on the use of force and, on the other hand, one also feared for the escalation of violence or international incidents. Nowadays, however, more and more European countries allow for the use of privately contracted armed security personnel on board merchant ships. As a result, the Dutch Parliament has adopted a bill containing rules for the use of armed private security guards on board Dutch maritime merchant ships (Law to Protect Merchant Shipping 2019 (published in the Dutch official Gazette on June 7th, 2019)).
    The author addresses the question whether because of the new law a level playing field will emerge with the Merchant Navies from the neighboring Flag States of Belgium, the United Kingdom, Spain and Denmark, presenting a comparative analysis of their domestic legislation.
    The Dutch law clearly regulates the use of force and the master has the final responsibility for everything that happens under his authority. In principle, the security guards may only apply violence as the master has determined that it is necessary. Innovative is that there is a reporting obligation whereby every incident should be reported with images and sound recordings. It seems, however, that the law is especially made to protect and secure and not necessarily to provide a solution for situations in which pirates come on board.
    It is clear that the intention of the legislator is to leave the monopoly on the use of force in the hands of the State. However, the adoption of this law to protect merchant shipping could constitute a first step in enabling the use of force by other actors than the State, which in itself is groundbreaking. Before being able to go on this road, there are still countless political (mainly related to the sovereignty of a State) and legal challenges (mainly concerning the use of force and respect for human rights) to be addressed.


Ilja Van Hespen
Ilja Van Hespen is luitenant-ter-zee eerste klasse bij de Belgische Marinecomponent, hoofd van de Sectie Governance van de Naval Policy Staff van het Operationeel Commando van de Marine, doctorandus in de Sociale en Militaire Wetenschappen aan de Koninklijke Militaire School, doctorandus in de Rechten aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en Universiteit Gent, master Handelsingenieur en doctoral researcher aan het Rolin-Jaequemyns International Law Institute Ghent.
Artikel

Partnerdoding in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Partnerdoding, Epidemiologie, Moord, Nederland
Auteurs Marieke Liem, Inge de Jong en Jade van Maanen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner homicide (IPH) constitutes one of the most prevalent types of homicide. This study aims to assess the nature and prevalence of intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2014. In doing so, we make use of police data, court data, and media articles. Findings show that IPH occurs 29 times per year, resulting in a victimization rate of 0.20 per 100,000, similar to other Western-European countries. Our results further show a decline in IPH in the last years. IPH in the Netherlands mostly occurs in heterosexual relationships, and involves male perpetrators and female victims. Finally, we reflect on possible causes for the decline of this type of homicide.


Marieke Liem
Marieke Liem is Universitair Hoofddocent, verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs, Faculteit Governance & Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.

Inge de Jong
Inge de Jong is thans werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie als adviseur bij de dienst Informatie Management en tijdens het uitvoeren van deze studie student Crisis & Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jade van Maanen
Jade van Maanen isthans werkzaam bij Rijkswaterstaat als technisch projectleider bij de dienst Centrale Informatievoorziening en tijdens het uitvoeren van deze studie student Crisis & Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Wethouders in de frontlijn: een studie naar de perceptie van en de omgang met persoonlijke bedreigingen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden threats in politics, coping strategies, undue influence on politics, Q-methodology
Auteurs Diana Marijnissen en Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution reports on a delimited part of a larger, exploratory study, the main question of which was: How do aldermen perceive threats, what are their behavioral intentions and what is the influence of threats on the process and the outcome of decision-making? This question was answered with the help of Q-methodology, semi-structured interviews and case studies. This article discusses the results of the Q-methodology and the semi-structured interviews. The case studies will be reported separately later on. Through the Q-methodology three patterns in perception were found in dealing with threats: ‘combative and decisive’, ‘vulnerable and thoughtful’ and ‘down-to-earth and accepting’. The interviews show that it usually concerns instrumental threats that are deliberately used to influence decision making, which usually take place in the private sphere and vary from verbal aggression to physical violence. Most threats come from individuals, but some come from groups, in some cases there is a relationship with criminals. In the cases reviewed, the consequences in the private sphere are far-reaching, there are indications for the influence on public functioning (from hardening to great caution). There is almost always a report, a fuss in the media can affect the authority of the official.


Diana Marijnissen
Diana Marijnissen is docent bij de Academie Industrie en Informatica en onderzoeker bij het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit en is lector Ondermijning bij Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch. Hij is tevens voorzitter van de redactie van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Over preventief guardianship: er zijn is vaak genoeg

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Guardianship, preventive guardianship, crime prevention, presence of bystanders, Evaluation
Auteurs Henk Elffers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The most important mechanism for crime prevention is just the presence of guardians. Some counter arguments against this thesis are discussed and rejected. By manipulating the presence of guardians it is possible to influence the level of prevention. It is argued that a large scale evaluation of such measures is wanted.


Henk Elffers
Henk Elffers is senior-onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving NSCR te Amsterdam, emeritus hoogleraar empirische bestudering van de strafrechtspleging aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en adjunct professor bij de School of Criminology and Criminal Justice van Griffith University, Mt Gravatt, Queensland, Australië.
Artikel

Verstoorde veiligheidsbeleving

In gesprek met buurtbewoners over de ‘onveiligheid’ in hun buurt naar aanleiding van gestegen ‘gevoelens van onveiligheid’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden fear of crime, qualitative analysis, evidence based policy
Auteurs Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The ‘fear of crime’ is a buzzword among citizens, media, politicians and professionals by now. But the phenomenon seems to be as intangible as it is important. The struggle of professionals with this concept is the result of a too wide and self-evident problem definition. This article contains an alternative approach. The focus is on disturbed fear of crime: a negatively changed and problematically experienced fear of crime on the level of the neighborhood.
    Through a review of the literature and previous research, we work towards this concept and apply it to the neighborhood of Kerckebosch in the municipality of Zeist in the Netherlands. As during 2014 the local quantitative indicators for ‘the fear of crime’ rose from 7% of the local population indicating to ‘sometimes feel unsafe’ to 22%, while the rest of the municipality remained quite stable. Additionally, several local professionals received complaints of multiple local inhabitants claiming to ‘feel unsafe’ in the neighborhood. Our research question was: What explanations for their ‘disturbed fear of crime’ do local inhabitants of the neighborhood Kerckebosch give?
    It was highly plausible that this local rise of the fear in Kerckebosch was connected to the social re-engineering of the neighborhood, but the exact nature of the quantitative rise was unclear. Therefore, we have interviewed 25 local inhabitants. Qualitative analyses showed the local rise of ‘the fear of crime’ to be the result of: (I) physical characteristics of the neighborhood; (II) events of burglary and intimidation from the past; (III) the presence of loitering youths and – primarily – (VI) a backlash of social integration as a side effect of the social re-engineering of the neighborhood. These qualitative explanations to the observed quantitative discontinuity led to several policy advises, which were based on international effect studies.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is hoofddocent bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid en het lectoraat Kennisanalyse Sociale Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. Daarnaast is hij research-fellow bij de leerstoel Veiligheid en Veerkracht aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Redactioneel

Migratie, vluchtelingen en veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Auteurs Janine Janssen, Joanne van der Leun en Dianne van Hemert
Auteursinformatie

Janine Janssen
Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de nationale politie. Daarnaast is zij lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool in Den Bosch.

Joanne van der Leun
Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie en Decaan Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dianne van Hemert
Dianne van Hemert is werkzaam bij TNO en redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.
Artikel

Veiligheid en welzijn van Eritreeërs in het geding?

Onderzoek naar zorgen rondom veiligheid en welzijn van Eritrese vluchtelingen en asielzoekers in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Veiligheid en welzijn Eritreeërs, Integratie, religie en rituelen, Mensenhandel
Auteurs Desiree Horbach en Conny Rijken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The rationale behind refugee law is that people who fear persecution in their home country can seek and find a safe haven in another country. The situation in Eritrea with its national service and wide-spread human rights violations is reason why many Eritreans flee their country. A vast number of them want to apply for asylum in European countries. After a risky journey over the African continent where they face risks of kidnappings, trafficking for ransom, and situations of inhuman and degrading treatment, they reach Europe. Some of them continue their journey to the Netherlands. The central question in this article is whether or not their safety and well-being are at stake once they arrive in the Netherlands. Situations of involvement of and intimidation by the Eritrean regime in the Netherlands, diaspora tax that is forcibly collected, involvement of the Orthodox Church and indications of human trafficking have been reported in media and reports, by individuals and organisations. In this article the outcomes of a research on the concerns about the well-being of Eritrean asylum seekers in reception centres among employers of organisations responsible for their safety and well-being are presented and discussed. Data were collected and discussed during four focus group meetings with a total of 33 professionals. The concerns are divided in three groups: 1) Concerns about the capacities and possibilities to integrate in Dutch society, 2) Concerns about religion and rituals, and 3) Concerns about indications of human trafficking. These concerns are further elaborated based on which the conclusion is drawn that more tailored support and assistance is required for successful integration of Eritreans in Dutch society, their empowerment and resilience against threats and challenges in Dutch society.


Desiree Horbach
Desiree Horbach is beleidsadviseur bij de Unit Uitvoeringsprocessen van het Centraal Orgaan opvang asielzoekers. Zij schreef haar bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.

Conny Rijken
Conny Rijken is professor Mensenhandel en Globalisering bij INTERVICT, Tilburg University.
Artikel

De smokkel van Syrische migranten naar Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Mensensmokkel, Smokkelroutes, smokkelnetwerken, Smokkelfuncties, smokkelen van migranten
Auteurs Sacha van der Velden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the following question is answered. What is the modus operandi of human smugglers that smuggle Syrian migrants to the Netherlands in de period 2014-2016? Content analysis of police and Royal Marechaussee files, interviews with experts and Syrian migrants and literature research has revealed that: Syrian migrants in first instance use the South-Eastern route overseas from Turkey to Greece, for which they pay 1200-4000 euro to a smuggler, depending on the quality of the boat. From Greece some travel over land on the Balkan route. Several means of transportation are used on this route, with smugglers asking prices ranging from tens to hundreds of euros. Also they travel large parts on their own. Others are smuggled by airplane, for which they need (false) documentation. Smuggling by plane tends to be successful when departing from a small airfield, when made a detour through visa-free countries and/or a good quality (false) travel document. Prices range from 2.000 to 14.000 euros. Migrants mostly pay cash through irregular ‘banks’, a third party that plays an important facilitating role within several smuggling networks. These networks consist of several cells, with in these cells leaders and ‘employees’ and are located on migration routes and ‘hubs’ like Istanbul, Athens and Milan. The South-Eastern route is mostly in hands of Turkish criminal networks, and the continuation of the journey by airplane or through Milan over land is in hands of Syrian Dutch smugglers, the Balkan route seems to be mainly operated by individual smugglers. Within these smuggling networks the most important roles are: the recruiter, who is responsible for making contact with migrants on migration hubs or social media. The organizer/leader who coordinates activities along the smuggling route and calls employees to account. And finally the driver. Responsible for transporting the migrants and instructing them. Based on these findings several recommendations were made that can be found in this article or full research rapport.


Sacha van der Velden
Sacha van der Velden is Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale politie.
Artikel

Asielzoekers als (vermeende) daders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden asiel, jihadisme, oorlogsmisdadigers, identificatie, indicators
Auteurs Joris van Wijk en Maarten Bolhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution describes the legal basis for revoking or denying a residence status to asylum seekers and individuals in possession of a status who are considered war criminals, ‘common’ criminals or terrorists, in what way the Dutch government tries to identify these persons, and what the nature and size of this group is. The authors conclude that identifying alleged war criminals and jihadists is particularly complex and that there is a tension with respect to the use, necessity and desirability of making available concrete tools in the form of indicators to first line professionals for the purpose of identifying jihadists. The presence of unwanted but unremovable (criminal) asylum seekers is undesirable from the perspective of society. The suggestion is made to provide them, under certain conditions, with a temporary residence status.


Joris van Wijk
Joris van Wijk werkt als criminoloog bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (CICJ) aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

Maarten Bolhuis
Maarten Bolhuis werkt als criminoloog bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (CICJ) aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
Artikel

De preparatie op de nafase binnen veiligheidsregio’s

Een verkennend onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Crisisbeheersing, Bevolkingszorg, Psychosociale aspecten, Veiligheidsregio’s
Auteurs Martine de Bas, Ira Helsloot en Michel Dückers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article addresses disaster recovery preparedness characteristics prescribed by literature and guidelines. An exploratory study was conducted in 25 Dutch safety regions to describe the status of disaster recovery preparedness with an emphasis on psychosocial support aspects. The study pointed at substantial cross-regional variation. Particular areas of improvement were identified in relation to involving citizens and partner organizations in safety regions’ recovery planning efforts, and the extent to which preparedness activities are guided by regional risk profiles. Optimization of preparedness takes place in an everyday context where relatively little priority is assigned to disaster recovery. Also, as major crises are fairly scarce there is little room for learning or routinization. Deliberate investments to enhance disaster recovery preparedness are needed, they would however benefit from more research into the association between relevant conditions, the disaster recovery preparedness level and the quality of service delivery when an event actually takes place.


Martine de Bas
Martine de Bas is Senior adviseur bij De Nafase.

Ira Helsloot
Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar besturen van veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Michel Dückers
Michel Dückers is programmacoördinator rampen en crises bij Impact – Landelijk kennis- en adviescentrum psychosociale hulp bij rampen en calamiteiten, en senior onderzoeker bij NIVEL – Nederlands instituut voor onderzoek van de gezondheidszorg.
Artikel

De rol van sociale media bij rampen en (mini)crises

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Sociale media, Crises, Crisiscommunicatie, geruchten
Auteurs Menno van Duin, Vina Wijkhuijs en Jan Eberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professionals dealing with crises are more or less forced to a next level of crisis communication and crisis management. This is because of the influence of social media. Messages on Twitter, Facebook and other social media can have a significant impact on the course of developments during a crisis. Sometimes in a positive way, when help is mobilized quickly and people can be informed almost instantly. On other occasions the impact is more negative, when for instance rumors lead to false accusations or threats. In the past several years, crisis management authorities have built up more experience with the use and application of social media and monitoring tools. There are still cases where officials and professionals are taken by surprise because of the shift stream of messages and their impact on public opinion and crisis control. But also lessons have been learned, e.g. in terms of online and offline reactions, cooperation with the public, and rumor control.
    This article gives an overview of research results in literature and summarizes the outcomes of a case study research project.


Menno van Duin
Menno van Duin is lector crisisbeheersing (IFV).

Vina Wijkhuijs
Vina Wijkhuijs is senior onderzoeker Lectoraat Crisisbeheersing (IFV).

Jan Eberg
Jan Eberg is hoofddocent en onderzoeker integrale veiligheid (HU).
Artikel

De burgemeester als crisismanager

Implicaties van de decentralisatie van jeugdzorg voor leiderschapsstijlen tijdens crises

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden burgemeester, crisis management, jeugdzorg, decentralisatie
Auteurs Patricia Schat en Ruth Prins
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch mayors are confronted with various crises differing from a deadly incident with a monster truck to societal unrest due to convicted sex offenders returning to local society. This article presents the results of a research about the role of the mayor in so-called ‘youth crises’. The ‘big decentralization operation’ of January 1, 2015 resulted in new tasks and responsibilities for local governments regarding youth care. This research focuses on the implications of this decentralization for the leadership style of the mayor when a youth related crisis causes societal unrest. The way in which mayors deal with such a crisis was studied by means of in-depth interviews and a vignette study before and after the decentralization. This research concludes that the leadership style of the mayor did not change after the decentralization. Mayors consistently show two dominant leadership styles when managing a youth crisis: ‘First Civilian’ and ‘Peer Governor.’ As a ‘First Civilian’ the mayor’s crisis management actions focuses primarily on the community and the affected family. The style ‘Peer Governor’ is all about gathering relevant information and consultation with various partners, such as youth care organizations and aldermen. More interestingly, the results show that decentralization of youth care redefines the relationship between the local alderman responsible for youth care and the mayor as a crisis manager safeguarding local order and public safety. This relationship is currently under construction and could grow either competitive or fruitful.


Patricia Schat
Patricia Schat is Consultant COT, Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement, an Aon Company, and alumnus Master Crisis and Security Management, Universiteit Leiden. p.r.schat@gmail.com

Ruth Prins
Ruth Prins is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden, Institute of Security and Global Affairs. r.s.prins@fgga.leidenuniv.nl
Artikel

Mediale verbeelding en politiecultuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0203 2016
Trefwoorden Police, culture, media
Auteurs Lianne Kleijer-Kool en Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the traditional understanding of police culture as well as in the criticism against the use of the concept of ‘police culture’, not much attention has been paid towards the influence of the representation of police work and crime in the media. Although since the pioneering studies in the sixties and seventies of the last century it has been made clear that police work is not limited to dealing with crime and criminal justice, the mass media for decades have presented a completely different image: one of thrill seeking and hardcore action. Police officers themselves tend to ‘sensationalize’ their work. Police culture is no longer understood as a deterministic coping mechanism, but is rooted in active and constructive participation of police officers. As a consequence we must pay attention to representation of ‘the police’ by the media and ask ourselves how identity work by police officers is influenced by the representation of crime and the police in the (new) media.


Lianne Kleijer-Kool
Lianne Kleijer-Kool is onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Werken in Justitieel Kader en docent Integrale Veiligheidskunde bij Hogeschool Utrecht.

Janine Janssen
Janine Janssen is Lector Veiligheid in afhankelijkheidsrelaties bij het expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool en hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de nationale politie.
Artikel

De behoefte aan bescherming van slachtoffers van misdrijven in verschillende slachtoffer-daderrelaties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Protection, victim-offender relationship, victim needs, reasons for reporting
Auteurs Annemarie ten Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An explicit goal in the Dutch victim policy is to offer protection to victims of crime. Based on a EU Directive all member states shall ensure that victims receive a timely and individual assessment, to identify specific protection needs. In this paper the question is: which victims especially do need protection? More specific, it examines whether the victim-offender relationship, controlling for the confounders ‘type of crime’ and ‘gender of the victim’, contributes to the extent in which protection is a reason for reporting crimes to the police. For victims of domestic violence (by partners, ex-partners and (other) family members), the need for protection is an important reason for reporting – not just for women and girls, but also for men and boys. The need for protection is an important reason for reporting for victims by partners, ex-partners and (other) family members of non-violent as well as violent crimes.


Annemarie ten Boom
Annemarie ten Boom is projectbegeleider bij het WODC, het onderzoekscentrum van het Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Zij werkt aan een proefschrift over het verband tussen de slachtoffer-daderrelatie en de behoeften van slachtoffers met betrekking tot justitie. Zij is als buitenpromovendus aan INTERVICT verbonden.
Artikel

Vessel protection, van zorgplicht naar zelfverdediging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Security, Piracy, public vs. private responsibilities, policy making, paradigm changes
Auteurs Henk Warnar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article demonstrates the influence of intellectual debate in policy paradigm changes. In response to piracy around the Horn of Africa, Dutch naval forces have participated in NATO and EU counter piracy operations since 2008. Although successful, also self protection measures by the merchant ships are required to provide security to individual ships. Since 2008 Dutch ship owners have advocated to amend legislation to allow private armed security teams (PAST) for individual protection, similar to policies by most foreign countries. Because of sensitivities concerning the private use of arms, policymakers, politicians, stakeholders and advisors have circumvented the issue. Instead of addressing the question of self defense, the paradigm of state monopoly for violence and the state’s obligation to provide security, made individual protection by embarked military teams to develop as a governmental service at levels that turned out to be unachievable for the armed forces. This policy caused several types of friction. Currently, the only acceptable solution seems to be to allow PAST and legislation is being prepared accordingly. A successful paradigm change however can only be achieved if an adequate new paradigm is constructed by intellectual debate. (Hall, Visser & Hemerijck) So far this debate has been too limited in scope. Debate has been state centric and focused on legal views and regulation. To resolve friction, additional analysis of differing roles by the state and individual entrepreneurs is required. Such analysis argues that the state severely reduces individual protection and politicians decide on the fundamental question of self defense by ships at the high seas.


Henk Warnar
Henk Warnar is senior adviseur bij het Ministerie van Defensie.
Artikel

De epidemiologie van kinderdoding in Nederland, 2009-2014

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Child homicide, Filicide, The Netherlands, Epidemiology, Copycat
Auteurs Marieke Liem en Stephanie Haarhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Child homicide is a phenomenon that not infrequently leads to shock and societal unrest. However, the precise nature and scope of child homicide in the Netherlands remains unknown. This article attempts to fill the gap in our current knowledge by reporting descriptive research on child homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2014. Further, this article aims to assess if media attention regarding child homicide brings about a so-called copycat-effect. By means of descriptive statistics, case, victim and perpetrator characteristics of 74 cases of filicide are assessed.


Marieke Liem
Marieke Liem is universitair docent en senior onderzoeker voor het Violence Research Initiative, bij Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism, verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Stephanie Haarhuis
Stephanie Haarhuis is in 2015 afgestudeerd in de forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Jihadgang naar Syrië: een wetenschappelijke benadering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Jihad, Foreign fighters, Syria, radicalisation
Auteurs Nick Platje Msc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes a qualitative inquiry into Dutch people going to Syria for participating in Jihad. The inquiry compares theoretical findings with empirical facts, based on a content analysis and a document analysis, completed with ten depth-interviews. The results show that a combination of scientific findings on radicalisation and foreign fighters explains the jihad movement to Syria partly. The results also show that some factors, which have not recently be examined scientificly, are crucial for the character and extent of the movement towards Jihad.


Nick Platje Msc
Nick Platje (Msc) is werkzaam bij het ministerie van Defensie.
Artikel

Automatische gedragsanalyse voor effectiever cameratoezicht in de openbare ruimte

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Behavior analysis, Threat detection, Action recognition, Tracking, Re-identification
Auteurs Dr. Henri Bouma, Drs. Jeroen van Rest, Dr. ir Gertjan Burghouts e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To improve security in crowded environments, such as airports, shopping malls and railway stations, the number of surveillance cameras (CCTV) is rapidly increasing. However, the number of human operators remains limited and only a selection of the video streams can be observed. This makes it hard for an operator to be proactive. This paper gives an overview of novel developments that may lead to more efficient camera surveillance and a more proactive role for camera operators. It focuses on three main steps in this process of video content analysis: pedestrian tracking, action recognition and behavior analysis. Tracking and re-identification (i.e. recognizing a person in another camera) was initially only evaluated on off-line benchmark datasets, though recently it has gained in maturity with live demonstrations in realistic crowded environments and measured improved operator efficiency. For action recognition and automatic behavior recognition, we observe that the simple patterns, such as loitering detection, are emerging in many applications. Human action recognition obtains very high performance values in controlled environments and it is progressing towards more realistic environments. More advanced approaches, such as pickpocket recognition in a shopping mall and the detection of threats to trucks on a parking lot have been developed and the first systems have been presented in live demonstrations. Our main contribution is that we structure the recent advances and the emerging applications of video analysis for security applications, explain and interpret the results, and identify opportunities for the near future.


Dr. Henri Bouma
Dr. Henri Bouma is research scientist bij TNO.

Drs. Jeroen van Rest
Drs. Jeroen van Rest is consultant bij TNO.

Dr. ir Gertjan Burghouts
Dr. ir. Gertjan Burghouts is research scientist bij TNO.

Dr. Klamer Schutte
Dr. Klamer Schutte is research scientist bij TNO.

Ir. Jan Baan
Ir. Jan Baan is research scientist bij TNO.
Artikel

Een terughoudende praktijk

Over de praktische vraagtekens bij het bestrijden van onveiligheidsgevoelens

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden reducing fear of crime, reflective practitioners
Auteurs Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Despite the international scientific inconclusiveness about the nature of the fear of crime, the strategic layer of the Dutch government aims to reduce the fear of crime in general by 2017. But their policy-goals were not accompanied with a plan how to realize them. Meanwhile, local practitioners claim to be in search of practical tools and substantive support how to fight back the public’s fear of crime. This study was aimed to feed the discussion with a constructive and realistic input from both the practitioners and the scientific view. The research question was: ‘What do local practitioners do against the public’s fear of crime and how can these activities be improved?’ 36 local practitioners from Dutch local municipalities, the police force and the public prosecutor were interviewed. Schön’s idea of the ‘reflective practitioner’ (1983) was the underlying argument to make practical knowledge about reducing the fear of crime explicit. The respondents from both institutional layers of local ‘policy advise’ and ‘policy implementation’ were quite reluctant about fighting back the public’s fear of crime. They aim to reduce the fear of crime in a doubtful and indirect way. Because many sources of the public’s fear of crime were unknown to them or were not in the reach of their professional activities. In this way, the interviewed local practitioners approach strongly aligned with the advice of international scientists to be reluctant and realistic about fighting back the public’s fear of crime. We advised an approach of ‘local fear of and worry about crime’ in dialog between international science and the interviewed local Dutch practitioners. The results of it will probably not contribute to quantitative policy goals at the national level, but rather to custom fit, qualitative improvements on the local level. This will probably be the most effective way to fight back the few tractable elements that make up the fear of crime.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is promovendus bij de leerstoel Burgerschap en Veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in samenwerking met het lectoraat Participatie en Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling aan de Hogeschool Utrecht en docent Integrale Veiligheidskunde bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.
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