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Artikel

Het succes van social engineering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden Awareness, E-mail phishing, Social Engineering, Telefoonfraude
Auteurs Jan-Willem Bullée, Lorena Montoya, Marianne Junger e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Social engineering is the usage of social manipulation and psychological tricks to make the targets assist offenders in their attack. This paper aimed to discuss the success of social engineering attacks and interventions in an organisational setting. Three kinds of social engineering experiments were discussed, each using a different modality (i.e. face-to-face (f2f), email and telephone). In each experiment, the targets (i.e. participants) were persuaded to perform actions that contribute to their victimisation.
    A portion of the participants in both the f2f and telephone experiment received an intervention to reduce victimisation. The conclusion is that awareness raising about dangers, characteristics and countermeasures related to social engineering proved to have a significant positive effect on protecting the target. The results of these experiments allow practitioners to focus awareness campaigns to maximise their effectiveness.


Jan-Willem Bullée
Jan-Willem Bullée is Information Risk Manager aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: j.h.bullee@gmail.com.

Lorena Montoya
Lorena Montoya is Graduate School Coordinator aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: a.l.montoya@utwente.nl.

Marianne Junger
Marianne Junger is professor Cyber Security and Business Continuity aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: m.junger@utwente.nl.

Pieter Hartel
Pieter Hartel is hoofd van de Cyber Security research group aan de TU Delft en werkzaam aan de Universiteit Twente. Email: pieter.hartel@tudelft.nl.
Artikel

De smokkel van Syrische migranten naar Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Mensensmokkel, Smokkelroutes, smokkelnetwerken, Smokkelfuncties, smokkelen van migranten
Auteurs Sacha van der Velden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the following question is answered. What is the modus operandi of human smugglers that smuggle Syrian migrants to the Netherlands in de period 2014-2016? Content analysis of police and Royal Marechaussee files, interviews with experts and Syrian migrants and literature research has revealed that: Syrian migrants in first instance use the South-Eastern route overseas from Turkey to Greece, for which they pay 1200-4000 euro to a smuggler, depending on the quality of the boat. From Greece some travel over land on the Balkan route. Several means of transportation are used on this route, with smugglers asking prices ranging from tens to hundreds of euros. Also they travel large parts on their own. Others are smuggled by airplane, for which they need (false) documentation. Smuggling by plane tends to be successful when departing from a small airfield, when made a detour through visa-free countries and/or a good quality (false) travel document. Prices range from 2.000 to 14.000 euros. Migrants mostly pay cash through irregular ‘banks’, a third party that plays an important facilitating role within several smuggling networks. These networks consist of several cells, with in these cells leaders and ‘employees’ and are located on migration routes and ‘hubs’ like Istanbul, Athens and Milan. The South-Eastern route is mostly in hands of Turkish criminal networks, and the continuation of the journey by airplane or through Milan over land is in hands of Syrian Dutch smugglers, the Balkan route seems to be mainly operated by individual smugglers. Within these smuggling networks the most important roles are: the recruiter, who is responsible for making contact with migrants on migration hubs or social media. The organizer/leader who coordinates activities along the smuggling route and calls employees to account. And finally the driver. Responsible for transporting the migrants and instructing them. Based on these findings several recommendations were made that can be found in this article or full research rapport.


Sacha van der Velden
Sacha van der Velden is Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale politie.
Artikel

Op de grens van het vreemdelingentoezicht: discretionaire beslissingen binnen het Mobiel Toezicht Veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden migratiecontrole, crimmigratie, Discretie, grenspolitieambtenaren, Koninklijke Marechaussee
Auteurs Jelmer Brouwer, Maartje van der Woude en Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Mobile Security Monitor (MSM) is a form of migration policing in the border areas of the Netherlands, carried out by the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (KMar). The MSM has a complex legal and policy framework, merging migration control aims with certain elements of crime control. This raises the question how the officers carrying out the MSM interpret the exact aim of the instrument and their own accompanying powers and what this means for the way they carry out their task. Our results show that many officers see ‘catching criminals’ an important part of their job and that in order to achieve this, they sometimes make ‘creative use’ of their wide-ranging powers. Although similar results have been found in research with the police, KMar officers differ because of their ability to combine migration law and criminal law powers. This fits in with the process of crimmigration and the broader tendency of ad-hoc instrumentalism, which refers to a way of thinking about law and legal procedures in which the formal distinction between legal domains is considered less important and criminal justice actors can freely choose the most effective instrument to deal with the situation at hand. This means that the formal ground for a decision is not always transparent, especially not for people that are subjected to the MSM. Moreover, criminal law enforcement contains many more legal and procedural safeguards than administrative controls.


Jelmer Brouwer
Jelmer Brouwer is promovendus aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Maartje van der Woude
Maartje van der Woude is hoogleraar Rechtssociologie, Van Vollenhoven Instituut, Universiteit Leiden.

Joanne van der Leun
Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie en Decaan Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Aandachtslocaties transportveiligheid in beeld gebracht door combinatie van openbare gegevensbestanden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden transportation safety, big data, hot spots, hazardous materials, congestion
Auteurs Nils Rosmuller en Clemon Tonnaer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Safety authorities in The Netherlands have the obligation to develop so-called risk-profiles. Risk profiles are probability-consequences schemes of all kinds of hazards (ranging from earth quakes to transportation and from floodings to fires in high rise buildings). To develop such schemes, various data sources could be useful. In this paper, we describe an approach to make use of existing database to reveal ‘new’ kinds of transportation-related risks. To this end, we combined publicly available public and private databases related to: hazardous materials transportation and Natura 2000 areas; congested areas and large scale public events; hazardous materials transportation and multi-functional areas.
    Our approach makes clear that combination of existing databases has great potential for the safety authorities to develop their risk profiles, do their business intelligence and creating steering dash-boards for their own budget allocations.


Nils Rosmuller
Nils Rosmuller is lector Transportveiligheid bij het Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid en teamleider Safety bij TNO. E-mail: nils.rosmuller@tno.nl

Clemon Tonnaer
Clemon Tonnaer is senior onderzoeker bij de Brandweeracademie van Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (IFV). E-mail: clemon.tonnaer@ifv.nl
Artikel

Herstelbemiddeling in Vlaanderen onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden restorative justice, juvenile delinquents, evaluation research, victims, Flanders
Auteurs Henk Ferwerda en Ilse van Leiden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On a yearly basis between 4.000 and 4.500 underage suspects in Flanders accept the offer of Restorative Justice. A many cited definition of Restorative Justice has been developed by Lode Walgrave: ‘Restorative Justice is every action that is primarily oriented toward doing justice by repairing the harm that has been caused by the crime’.
    Commissioned by the Flemish Minister of Welfare, Public Health and Family an evaluation of Restorative Justice for minors was conducted by Bureau Beke. In the article the authors reflect on Restorative Justice in Flanders and describe the most important findings of their research. The process of Restorative Justice, the satisfaction of the parties involved and its results are considered. The authors offer organizations several suggestions related to developing established procedures and practices. Furthermore results show that suspects and victims are satisfied with Restorative Justice, which yields several benefits for the parties involved: Reparation for victims and learning effects and reduced contacts with counseling agencies for suspects. An important overall conclusion is that face-to-face contact between victim and suspects is beneficial for the mediation process and subsequently repairing the harm.


Henk Ferwerda
Dr. Henk Ferwerda is criminoloog, politieonderzoeker en directeur van Bureau Beke in Arnhem. E-mail: h.ferwerda@beke.nl

Ilse van Leiden
Drs. Ilse van Leiden is psycholoog en als senior onderzoekster werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem. E-mail: i.van.leiden@beke.nl
Artikel

Legitimiteit via procedurele rechtvaardigheid: kunnen herstelrechtelijke praktijken de maatschappelijke legitimiteit van het strafrecht verhogen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden procedural justice, legitimacy,, restorative justice, mediation,, perceptions of fairness
Auteurs Vicky De Mesmaecker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contemporary scholarly literature is full of references to the crisis of the criminal justice system. The general public seems to increasingly lose confidence in the criminal justice system and its actors. In this article we look into the potential manners in which restorative justice practices can enhance the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. Our analysis is based on the observation that by actively engaging victims and defendants in the resolution of their conflict, restorative practices seem to accommodate a necessary condition of procedural fairness. Since research on procedural justice and legitimacy in turn suggests that the legitimacy of the criminal justice system is based largely upon its perceived procedural fairness, we investigate whether participation in restorative practices improves perceptions of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. To that end we describe the results of a qualitative study on the experiences of victims and defendants who participated in victim-offender mediation in Belgium. Relating their experiences to the antecedents of procedural justice as described in the literature, we find that restorative practices in different ways enhance perceptions of procedural fairness. Yet these perceptions do not necessarily reflect on the criminal justice system. Our analysis suggests that the degree to which the perceptions of procedural fairness resulting from participation in a restorative practice influence an individual’s perceptions of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system depends on whether the restorative practice is seen as an integral part of the criminal proceedings. We found, for example, that this is more likely to be the case if the judge at trial formally acknowledges the parties’ participation in mediation. We conclude that more research on the degree to which people perceive the restorative practice to be a part of the criminal proceedings is needed in order to further flesh out this issue.


Vicky De Mesmaecker
Dr. Vicky De Mesmaecker is vrijwillig wetenschappelijk medewerker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC, KULeuven) en Visiting Researcher aan Yale Law School. Email: vicky.demesmaecker@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

Zijn veiligheidshuizen effectief?

Een onderzoek naar de stand van zaken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden Safety Houses, network effectiveness, governance, crime prevention, QCA
Auteurs Remco Mannak, Hans Moors en Jörg Raab
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands ‘Safety Houses’ have been established, in which partner organizations in the field of criminal justice, crime prevention, law enforcement, public administration and social services collaborate in order to reduce crime and recidivism, and to increase public safety. This article examines why some Safety Houses are better in achieving these goals than others. The effectiveness of 39 Safety Houses is analyzed by means of QCA (qualitative comparative analysis). Results show two different paths leading to effective outcomes. Effective Safety Houses have been in existence for at least three years, show a high degree of stability and a centrally integrated collaboration structure. In addition, they either have considerable resources at their disposal or have been set up with a network administrative organization, where a neutral coordinator governs the network.


Remco Mannak
Remco Mannak MA MSC is promovendus aan het departement organisatiewetenschappen van Tilburg University. E-mail: r.s.mannak@uvt.nl

Hans Moors
Drs. Hans Moors is hoofd van de afdeling Veiligheid & criminaliteit, welzijn & zorg van IVA Beleidsonderzoek en Advies (Tilburg University). E-mail: j.a.moors@uvt.nl

Jörg Raab
Dr. Jörg Raab is universitair docent aan het departement Organisatiewetenschappen van Tilburg University.
Artikel

Samenwerking in de criminaliteitsbestrijding

Kwalitatief onderzoek naar de integrale aanpak van illegale hennepteelt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden criminaliteitsbestrijding, hennepteelt, integrale aanpak, publiek-private samenwerking
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg en Wytske van der Wagen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The fight against organized cannabis cultivation is an important topic within Dutch law enforcement. No longer the sole responsibility of the police, the current trend is for the police to work alongside local government, companies providing energy, housing associations and the Inland Revenue. Together they unite their strengths to deal more effectively and resolutely with the problem. Although different studies have been conducted concerning the (effectiveness of) the fight against cannabis cultivation, there is not much known regarding the way actors experience the fight from ‘within’, that is: the interactions, perceptions and transformations of agreements and premises which are enacted on the ‘molecular level’ of the cooperation. In two large Dutch cities, we have researched, on the basis of semi-structured interviews and observation, how parties implement their role within the integral fight against cannabis cultivation. The results reveal that the execution is more complex and uncontrollable than previously considered. The cooperation turns out not to be deductive, structured and ‘organized’; but rather flexible, dynamic and ‘self organizing’ in character.


Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn website is www.marcschuilenburg.nl. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.

Wytske van der Wagen
Wytske van der Wagen is criminologe. E-mail: wytskevdwagen@gmail.com.
Artikel

Openbaar brandmeldsysteem: historie, kosten en opbrengst

Onderzoek naar historie, kosten en opbrengst van het openbaar brandmeldsysteem in de veiligheidsregio Twente

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Brandmelding, Kosten-baten analyse, Veiligheidsopbrengst, Openbaar meldsysteem, Incidentrapporten
Auteurs Ron de Wit en Ira Helsloot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands fire safety regulations require certain types of buildings to have a direct connection between the building fire alarm system and the dispatch centre of the fire brigade. These automatic fire alarm systems are mandatory for example in premises where inhabitants such as small children or elderly people have limited self-evacuation capabilites in case of fire. These automatic fire alarms aim at saving lives by a faster response of the fire brigade. However, the fast majority of these automatic alarms are false. As a result these calls constitute a considerable and undesirable drain on the fire brigade resources. These calls cause unwanted direct costs (salaries) and indirect costs (road accidents due to fire brigade mobilisation) apart from the regular maintenance costs. Up to now no data is available for the costs and benefits of the system of automatic fire alarms. This article describes the results of a study of the automatic fire alarm system in the region Twente. The yearly social costs are calculated at about € 3 million. In order to calculate the benefits all incident reports from automatic fire alarms during a period of 29 months have been investigated. In this period no call form an automatic fire alarm system has occured in which the fire brigade had to deploy its resources for a live saving or evacuation action.


Ron de Wit
Ir. Ron de Wit is brandweerofficier en plaatsvervangend regionaal commandant brandweer in de veiligheidsregio Twente. Daarnaast is hij onderzoeker bij crisislab aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. Contactadres: R.A.C. de Wit, Lansinkweg 33, 7553 AG Hengelo. E-mail: rac.dewit@kpnmail.nl.

Ira Helsloot
Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar crisisbeheersing en fysieke veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Regulering van antisociaal gedrag. Aanpak van persistent overlastgevende jongeren in Engeland en Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2007
Trefwoorden ouders, contract, politie, overlast, kind, aanhouding, dwang, investering, tussenkomst, strafbaar feit
Auteurs B.A.M. van Stokkom

B.A.M. van Stokkom
Artikel

Laat vertrokken en toch op tijd? Lokaal veiligheidsbeleid in Antwerpen, een voorlopige stand van zaken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2006
Trefwoorden politie, gemeente, burgemeester, bestuurder, overeenkomst, overlast, schip, aansprakelijkheid, herstel, delinquent
Auteurs P.K. Marks en A. van Sluis

P.K. Marks

A. van Sluis
Nieuws

Veiligheidsbeleid = kwaliteitsbeleid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2006
Trefwoorden gemeente, politie, voorwaarde, aansprakelijkheid, bestuurder, kwaliteit, openbaar ministerie, overeenkomst, personeel, registratiesysteem
Auteurs H. Moors, M. Jacobs en K. Veenma

H. Moors

M. Jacobs

K. Veenma
Artikel

De Collectieve Winkelontzegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden winkelontzegging, overlast, (on)veiligheid, voorzorgsprincipe
Auteurs Loes Wesselink, Marc Schuilenburg en Patrick Van Calster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public Private Partnerships (PPS) are becoming one of the most popular answers to problems of crime and disorder. In this contribution, the authors research the Collective Shop Ban, maybe the most successful form of Public Private Partnerships currently operating in the Netherlands. A Collective Shop Ban is a civil measure bestowed upon a person by the shop owner, when s/he displays ‘unwanted behaviour’. As a consequence entry can be denied for every shop assembled in the association of entrepreneurs. In 2007 almost 900 people have been denied access to over 450 shops in the city centre of The Hague. This new form of collaboration between police, public prosecution service and entrepreneurs has already been rewarded with the Regional Crime Control Platform ‘safety award’. However, the authors question the effects of this collaboration. They argue that the Collective Shop Ban creates its own public of ‘unwanted shoppers’, that can be banned from a shopping area by devising new terms of exclusion. This ‘public’ is subjected to new means of power, to be applied by private security guards and shop owners. While entrepreneurs celebrate the possibilities of this civil measure, the authors warn for the juridical and ethical consequences of this measure.


Loes Wesselink
Loes Wesselink is criminologe en werkt als junior onderzoeker bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement in Den Haag. E-mail: wesselink.loes@gmail.com.

Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@rechten.vu.nl.

Patrick Van Calster
Patrick Van Calster is universitair hoofddocent aan het departement strafrecht en criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: p.j.v..van.calster@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Sociale netwerkanalyse en jeugdcriminaliteit: een overzicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, jeugdcriminaliteit, jeugddelinquentie
Auteurs Frank Weerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper, recent social network research in the area of juvenile delinquency is reviewed. Two main subjects are distinguished: first, studies in which Social Network Analysis is used to enhance our insights into the relation between delinquent peers and own delinquent behavior; second, the use of Social Network Analysis to get a better picture of delinquent groups and youth gangs. Two examples of social network analyses in the field of juvenile delinquency are elaborated. These examples combine visual depiction of networks with quantitative analyses of network characteristics, illustrating the complementary nature of both approaches. The literature and the examples show that Social Network Analysis lead to a more nuanced and complex insight into the role of delinquent peers in delinquent behavior and the structure of groups of young offenders.


Frank Weerman
Frank M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). Contactadres: NSCR, Postbus 71304, 1008 BH Amsterdam. E-mail: fweerman@nscr.nl.
Artikel

De Collectieve Winkelontzegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2009
Trefwoorden winkelontzegging, overlast, (on)veiligheid, voorzorgsprincipe
Auteurs Loes Wesselink, Marc Schuilenburg en Patrick Van Calster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public Private Partnerships (PPS) are becoming one of the most popular answers to problems of crime and disorder. In this contribution, the authors research the Collective Shop Ban, maybe the most successful form of Public Private Partnerships currently operating in the Netherlands. A Collective Shop Ban is a civil measure bestowed upon a person by the shop owner, when s/he displays ‘unwanted behaviour’. As a consequence entry can be denied for every shop assembled in the association of entrepreneurs. In 2007 almost 900 people have been denied access to over 450 shops in the city centre of The Hague. This new form of collaboration between police, public prosecution service and entrepreneurs has already been rewarded with the Regional Crime Control Platform ‘safety award’. However, the authors question the effects of this collaboration. They argue that the Collective Shop Ban creates its own public of ‘unwanted shoppers’, that can be banned from a shopping area by devising new terms of exclusion. This ‘public’ is subjected to new means of power, to be applied by private security guards and shop owners. While entrepreneurs celebrate the possibilities of this civil measure, the authors warn for the juridical and ethical consequences of this measure.


Loes Wesselink
Loes Wesselink is criminologe en werkt als junior onderzoeker-adviseur bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement in Den Haag.E-,mail: wesselink.loes@gmail.com

Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@rechten.vu.nl.

Patrick Van Calster
Patrick Van Calster is universitair hoofddocent aan het departement strafrecht en criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.E-mail: p.j.v.van.calster@law.leidenuniv.nl
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