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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid x Jaar 2014 x
Artikel

Gaan veiligheidsmaatregelen ten koste van de servicebeleving?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden customer experience, service perception, surveillance measures, legitimateness
Auteurs Rick van der Kleij, Maaike Roelofs en Dianne A. van Hemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Surveillance measures in public places such as train stations, large events or business premises are aimed at increasing security at those specific locations. They enable people to move around securely at public (high) risk locations. However, people often experience these measures as an obstacle. Too much security often results in limitations of freedom of movement and violations of privacy. Could surveillance measures be designed in such a way that they are perceived more as a ‘service’? The authors studied the variables that influence whether people experience surveillance as a service or as a hindrance. At three surveillance locations (Schiphol Airport, Hoog Catharijne shopping area and Amersfoort railway station) more than thousand visitors were surveyed. They were asked how they experienced service and security on the site. The results show that there are differences in service perception in relation to security measures at the three locations studied. They show how the tension between service and safety can be reduced and provide clues for improving security measures. The results can be used by owners of public locations, surveillance stakeholders or private companies for the optimalisation and re-design of a location, as their goal is to attract loyal visitors, who are not frustrated and are willing to use the location frequently, and who preferably speak positively about the location to others. Also the security measures themselves can be improved, both technical security measures as well as human security measures.


Rick van der Kleij
Rick van der Kleij is werkzaam bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences.

Maaike Roelofs
Maaike Roelofs is werkzaam bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences.

Dianne A. van Hemert
Dianne A. van Hemert is werkzaam bij TNO Earth, Life, and Social Sciences en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Abdessamad Bouabid
Abdessamad Bouabid is als aio criminologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Jihadgang naar Syrië: een wetenschappelijke benadering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Jihad, Foreign fighters, Syria, radicalisation
Auteurs Nick Platje Msc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes a qualitative inquiry into Dutch people going to Syria for participating in Jihad. The inquiry compares theoretical findings with empirical facts, based on a content analysis and a document analysis, completed with ten depth-interviews. The results show that a combination of scientific findings on radicalisation and foreign fighters explains the jihad movement to Syria partly. The results also show that some factors, which have not recently be examined scientificly, are crucial for the character and extent of the movement towards Jihad.


Nick Platje Msc
Nick Platje (Msc) is werkzaam bij het ministerie van Defensie.
Artikel

Automatische gedragsanalyse voor effectiever cameratoezicht in de openbare ruimte

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Behavior analysis, Threat detection, Action recognition, Tracking, Re-identification
Auteurs Dr. Henri Bouma, Drs. Jeroen van Rest, Dr. ir Gertjan Burghouts e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To improve security in crowded environments, such as airports, shopping malls and railway stations, the number of surveillance cameras (CCTV) is rapidly increasing. However, the number of human operators remains limited and only a selection of the video streams can be observed. This makes it hard for an operator to be proactive. This paper gives an overview of novel developments that may lead to more efficient camera surveillance and a more proactive role for camera operators. It focuses on three main steps in this process of video content analysis: pedestrian tracking, action recognition and behavior analysis. Tracking and re-identification (i.e. recognizing a person in another camera) was initially only evaluated on off-line benchmark datasets, though recently it has gained in maturity with live demonstrations in realistic crowded environments and measured improved operator efficiency. For action recognition and automatic behavior recognition, we observe that the simple patterns, such as loitering detection, are emerging in many applications. Human action recognition obtains very high performance values in controlled environments and it is progressing towards more realistic environments. More advanced approaches, such as pickpocket recognition in a shopping mall and the detection of threats to trucks on a parking lot have been developed and the first systems have been presented in live demonstrations. Our main contribution is that we structure the recent advances and the emerging applications of video analysis for security applications, explain and interpret the results, and identify opportunities for the near future.


Dr. Henri Bouma
Dr. Henri Bouma is research scientist bij TNO.

Drs. Jeroen van Rest
Drs. Jeroen van Rest is consultant bij TNO.

Dr. ir Gertjan Burghouts
Dr. ir. Gertjan Burghouts is research scientist bij TNO.

Dr. Klamer Schutte
Dr. Klamer Schutte is research scientist bij TNO.

Ir. Jan Baan
Ir. Jan Baan is research scientist bij TNO.
Artikel

Weet wat je tweet

Het gebruik van Twitter door de wijkagent en het vertrouwen in de politie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden social media, Twitter, police, confidence, trust, community policing
Auteurs Dick Roodenburg en Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Community policing is a common strategy in the Dutch police organization: working in a geographically bounded area, in close proximity and engagement with the local population. The use of Twitter by local police-officers is an increasingly popular way of communicating in this context. Prior research has indicated that there is a positive relation between the use of Twitter by the local police officer and citizens’ confidence in the police. But what factors determine this confidence and how can it be strengthened by using Twitter? This article examines the nature of police tweets and shows how tweets can contribute to improving the degree of confidence between citizens and the police. To determine what factors influence confidence we made use of the model of trust and confidence by Jackson and Bradford. This model differentiates between ‘effectiveness’, ‘fairness’, and ‘engagement’. These three factors are used to explore the way tweets might influence confidence in policing. The empirical research included interviews with three police officers who twitter actively, as well as interviews with 30 ‘followers’ living in the neighbourhood where the police officer works. Also an analyses has been carried out of the tweets made by the police officers in one year, 3.506 tweets in total, by categorizing the tweets according to the model of Jackson and Bradford. We conclude that the model of Jackson and Bradford is useful to explore the possible relationship between the use of Twitter and citizens confidence in the police. Using Twitter by the local police officers seems to make a possible contribution to the degree of confidence in the police. Our categorization of Twittermessages allowed us to give practical recommendations to local police officers how to use Twitter in order to improve confidence among citizens. The data also suggest that followers appreciate the fact that local police officers show their knowledge of current affairs in the neighbourhood.


Dick Roodenburg
Dick Roodenburg is beleidsadviseur en coördinator integrale veiligheid bij de gemeente De Ronde Venen (Utrecht).

Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en lid van de raad van bestuur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.

Joery Matthys
Joery Matthys is universitair docent aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De samenhang tussen fysieke en sociale veiligheid in theorie en praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden safety, security, disciplinary boundaries, multidisciplinary collaboration, networked coordination
Auteurs Hanneke Duijnhoven, Kim van Buul-Besseling en Nathalie Vink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the complex relations between the organizational fields of safety (i.e. disaster and crisis response) and security (i.e. crime prevention and public order), and the ways in which disciplinary and organizational boundaries make it difficult to come to a better integration or coordination in the safety and security domain. Based on results of a research project on cooperation and information-sharing between organizations in the fields of safety and security, the authors argue that it is not realistic to refer to safety and security as relatively independent fields. Instead, it would be more useful to approach it as a connected domain, encompassing both safety and security disciplines. Yet, the separation of the two fields is strongly embedded in the culture and responsibilities of organizations in these fields, which reinforces the disciplinary boundaries in the domain. Nevertheless, in the last few years it seems that there is an increasing recognition of the need for multidisciplinary collaboration in the safety and security domain. This paper explores possible directions for creating more coherence and integration in the safety and security domain. The authors believe that much progress can be made if key stakeholders in the safety and security domain are able to adopt a broader, multidisciplinary perspective when approaching safety and security events.


Hanneke Duijnhoven
Hanneke Duijnhoven is consultant bij TNO.

Kim van Buul-Besseling
Kim van Buul-Besseling is consultant bij TNO.

Nathalie Vink
Nathalie Vink is consultant bij TNO.
Artikel

Een terughoudende praktijk

Over de praktische vraagtekens bij het bestrijden van onveiligheidsgevoelens

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden reducing fear of crime, reflective practitioners
Auteurs Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Despite the international scientific inconclusiveness about the nature of the fear of crime, the strategic layer of the Dutch government aims to reduce the fear of crime in general by 2017. But their policy-goals were not accompanied with a plan how to realize them. Meanwhile, local practitioners claim to be in search of practical tools and substantive support how to fight back the public’s fear of crime. This study was aimed to feed the discussion with a constructive and realistic input from both the practitioners and the scientific view. The research question was: ‘What do local practitioners do against the public’s fear of crime and how can these activities be improved?’ 36 local practitioners from Dutch local municipalities, the police force and the public prosecutor were interviewed. Schön’s idea of the ‘reflective practitioner’ (1983) was the underlying argument to make practical knowledge about reducing the fear of crime explicit. The respondents from both institutional layers of local ‘policy advise’ and ‘policy implementation’ were quite reluctant about fighting back the public’s fear of crime. They aim to reduce the fear of crime in a doubtful and indirect way. Because many sources of the public’s fear of crime were unknown to them or were not in the reach of their professional activities. In this way, the interviewed local practitioners approach strongly aligned with the advice of international scientists to be reluctant and realistic about fighting back the public’s fear of crime. We advised an approach of ‘local fear of and worry about crime’ in dialog between international science and the interviewed local Dutch practitioners. The results of it will probably not contribute to quantitative policy goals at the national level, but rather to custom fit, qualitative improvements on the local level. This will probably be the most effective way to fight back the few tractable elements that make up the fear of crime.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is promovendus bij de leerstoel Burgerschap en Veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in samenwerking met het lectoraat Participatie en Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling aan de Hogeschool Utrecht en docent Integrale Veiligheidskunde bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.

    On 1 January 2009, the Dutch Temporary Restraining Order Act (Wth) entered into force. This act allows mayors to impose a ten-day restraining order (which may be extended to 28 days) on (potential) perpetrators of domestic violence, which prohibits these perpetrators from entering their own house and contacting their partner and/or children. During the restraining order everyone involved (evicted persons, those who stay behind and children) is offered a range of support and intervention measures. The law requires that within five years after its entry into force the Dutch parliament is informed of the effectiveness. To this end, a study was conducted between September 2011 and August 2013. The aim of this impact assessment is to gain insight in the effectiveness of the restraining order and the support services that are connected to it. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental study with an intervention group (restraining orders) and a control group (similar situations in which no restraining order was imposed). The study shows that the restraining order is associated with less incidence of new domestic violence. After imposing a restraining order new domestic violence occurs less frequently, and in case it does occur, fewer incidents occur than in (comparable) situations where no restraining order was imposed. The main explanation for the correlation found between the restraining order and the lower incidence of new domestic violence seems to lie in the support that is offered after the imposition of a restraining order. Moreover, the support seems to be more effective in the more serious cases than in the lighter cases. The degree in which antecedents of the evicted person are present and whether or not the evicted person is criminally prosecuted are not related to a lower degree of repeated domestic violence.


Maartje Timmermans
Maartje Timmermans is onderzoeker bij Regioplan.

Katrien de Vaan
Katrien de Vaan is onderzoeker bij Regioplan.
Artikel

Professionele weerbaarheid en de politie

Naar een persoonsgerichte aanpak

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2014
Auteurs Geeske ten Wolde, Barbara Zwirs en Nelleke Kruse
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of the article is to analyse the correlations between social cognitive factors and behaviour that increases resilience by police officers and to assess in which way intention mediates the possible correlations. The study was based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in which 1.799 police officers in the Netherlands completed a questionnaire. Data was also collected by organising qualitative expert meetings with police officers. The data has been analysed using linear regression. The results show that intention had the highest correlation with behaviour that increases resilience and mediates the correlations of the social cognitive factors partially. Perceived behavioural control and attitude also had a direct correlation with behaviour that increases resilience. Subjective norm had a weak correlation with behaviour. This is the first study which tested TPB for behaviour that increases resilience by police officers. Because the design of this study was cross-sectional, more research is needed to better understand the causal relations between social cognitive factors and intention with behaviour that increases resilience by police officers.


Geeske ten Wolde
Geeske ten Wolde is werkzaam voor de politie-eenheid Noord-Holland en onderzoeker bij het project ‘Versterking Professionele Weerbaarheid’.

Barbara Zwirs
Barbara Zwirs is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Nelleke Kruse
Nelleke Kruse was onderzoeker bij het project ‘Versterking Professionele Weerbaarheid’ van de politie-eenheid Noord-Holland.

Marco van der Land
Marco van der Land is universitair docent bij de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en Politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en onderzoeker bij de leerstoel Veiligheid en Burgerschap aldaar. Hij is tevens hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid.

    The economic analysis of (potential) disasters is an important method to determine the efficacy and efficiency of investments in disaster prevention and mitigation. The Dutch National Risk Assessment (NRA) provides an integrated, whole-of-government and all-hazard approach to Dutch national security. The strategy does not only intend to identify capacity gaps and define measures regarding individual threats and risks, but also to enhance capability planning and policy development concerning overall national security. The approach is multi-disciplinary and based upon scenarios which are evaluated and graded in terms of impact and likelihood according to a unified scoring method. Economic impact is one of the criteria in the NRA risk assessment methodology. This article provides a review of the (applied) scientific literature of the many economic tools and methods that have been used worldwide to estimate the (potential) impact of disasters and provides concrete applications at the micro and macro levels to Dutch cases and scenarios that were developed during the five annual cycles of the NRA's existence (2007-2011). We discuss pros and cons of applied methodologies.


Peter van Bergeijk
Peter van Bergeijk is hoogleraar Internationale economie en Macro-economie aan het International Institute of Social Studies van de Erasmus Universiteit.

Marcel Mennen
Marcel Mennen is algemeen secretaris van het Analistennetwerk Nationale Veiligheid en senior onderzoeker CBRN aan het Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, Centrum voor Veiligheid te Bilthoven.
Artikel

Uitgaansgeweld en de morele setting van het uitgaan in Amsterdam

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden nightlife, violence, morality, clubs, bars
Auteurs Marco van der Land, Ilse de Groot, Hans Boutellier e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Nightlife violence is gaining increasing attention and is a substantial part of all violent incidents. In this article we explore the assumption that going out in metropolitan clubs and bars creates a specific moral setting, where the aim is to let yourself go. The main question in this article is to what extent the moral setting of going out contributes to nightlife related violence. We explored this issue by analyzing the case of Amsterdam, in particular the two famous squares, Leidseplein and Rembrandtplein, and de Wallen (red light district). With regard to the moral setting we distinguish between physical, social, professional and normative aspects of the moral setting. Each of these aspects has been described in academic literature as potentially contributing to violence. On that basis a checklist has been developed that was used for observations in nightlife venues that are known for either a high or low disproportionate amount of violent incidents. By comparing the two categories we were able to identify elements of the moral setting which, supported by the literature, can be expected to contribute to the prevalence of nightlife violence. Elements which we discovered that occur more frequently in venues where many incidents occur are visitor density, the loudness of the music, the presence of smokers, the overall comfort, the opportunity to dance, the presence of drunken visitors and their degree of intoxication, overtly sexually charged behavior, opportunities for the staff to observe, security at the exit, the number of bouncers, and whether visitors were searched or not before they entered the venue. Whether situations actually developed into violent conflict depended on one of three possible causes, namely miscommunication, conflict with authority or unsolicited advances. Policymakers can use these insights in order to try to manipulate violence stimulating factors.


Marco van der Land
Marco van der Land is universitair docent bij de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en Politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en onderzoeker bij de Leerstoel Veiligheid en Burgerschap aldaar. Hij is tevens hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid. E-mail: m.vander.land@vu.nl

Ilse de Groot
Ilse de Groot is als zelfstandig onderzoeker en trainer op het gebied van criminaliteit en veiligheid werkzaam bij Ratio Research. E-mail: ilsedegroot@ratioresearch.nl

Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en lid van de raad van bestuur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut. E-mail: HBoutellier@verwey-jonker.nl

Rutger Visser
Rutger Visser is freelance onderzoeker en docent criminologie. Hij is gespecialiseerd op het gebied van geweldgebruik. Rutger is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Politiewetenschappen. E-mail: r.s.m.visser@vu.nl
Artikel

Aandachtslocaties transportveiligheid in beeld gebracht door combinatie van openbare gegevensbestanden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden transportation safety, big data, hot spots, hazardous materials, congestion
Auteurs Nils Rosmuller en Clemon Tonnaer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Safety authorities in The Netherlands have the obligation to develop so-called risk-profiles. Risk profiles are probability-consequences schemes of all kinds of hazards (ranging from earth quakes to transportation and from floodings to fires in high rise buildings). To develop such schemes, various data sources could be useful. In this paper, we describe an approach to make use of existing database to reveal ‘new’ kinds of transportation-related risks. To this end, we combined publicly available public and private databases related to: hazardous materials transportation and Natura 2000 areas; congested areas and large scale public events; hazardous materials transportation and multi-functional areas.
    Our approach makes clear that combination of existing databases has great potential for the safety authorities to develop their risk profiles, do their business intelligence and creating steering dash-boards for their own budget allocations.


Nils Rosmuller
Nils Rosmuller is lector Transportveiligheid bij het Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid en teamleider Safety bij TNO. E-mail: nils.rosmuller@tno.nl

Clemon Tonnaer
Clemon Tonnaer is senior onderzoeker bij de Brandweeracademie van Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (IFV). E-mail: clemon.tonnaer@ifv.nl
Boekbespreking

Buurtregie met mate

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Auteurs Remco Spithoven
Auteursinformatie

Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is promovendus bij het lectoraat Participatie en Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling van de Hogeschool Utrecht. Hij is tevens docent Integrale Veiligheidskunde bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. E-mail: remco.spithoven@hu.nl
Artikel

Lessons to be learned?

De lokale inbedding van de politie in Engeland & Wales en Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden police reform, local embedment of the police, Police and Crime Commissioner (PCC), democracy, citizen involvement
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom, Henk Greven en Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In England & Wales the coalition-government has opted for a localisation of the police service. The government dissociates itself from the New Labour policy of centrally-imposed targets, aims to reconnect the police and the people, and carries out a radical democratic renewal: since 2012 citizens have the possibility to choose their own Police and Crime Commissioner (PCC) in their region. This new administrator is reigning over police chiefs and is responsible for the management of security policies in the region. That is the main reason why the English police reform diverges fundamentally from developments in other European countries in which centralizing tendencies prevail. The question is whether the radical changes in England & Wales have a beneficial impact on the local embedment of the police. Are citizens more willing to commit themselves with the local police? In the first part of this paper we examine which developments have taken place in the English police, what the localisation-agenda has achieved so far, and which problems it faces. In the second part we discuss the question which lessons can be learned from the English renewals. Would it be a good idea to introduce PCC’s in the Netherlands? Is democratization the best way to strengthen community involvement? How to stimulate local accountability?


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de leerstoel Veiligheid en Burgerschap van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: b.vanstokkom@jur.ru.nl

Henk Greven
Henk Greven is werkzaam bij de afdeling Informatie-Management van de Nationale Politie en was verbonden aan de leerstoel Veiligheid en Burgerschap van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en lid van de raad van bestuur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut. E-mail: HBoutellier@verwey-jonker.nl
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