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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid x Jaar 2010 x

Sophie van Bijsterveld
Prof. dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is hoogleraar Religie, Rechtsstaat en Samenleving aan de Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg en redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Jurisprudentie

Access_open Trambestuurder en kruisbeeld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden tramconducteur, ketting met kruis, AWGB, indirect onderscheid
Auteurs Carla Zoethout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Mister Aziz, orginally coming from Egypt, is a Coptic Christian who wears a long chain with a crucifix of about 5 centimeters high, in order to express his religion. He is chauffeur on an electric tram and has for some years been allowed to wear his chain at work. With the introduction of a new uniform however, Aziz is no longer allowed to do this. He claims this to be a discriminatory treatment, which he considers unjustified given the fact that Islamic women chauffeurs are allowed to wear headscarves, since (as his employer states) these have been incorporated into the uniform. According to the court of appeal, there is no unjustified discrimination of religion in this case. The regulation that chains may not be worn on top of the uniform is legitimate, appropriate and necessary. The headscarf has been incorporated into the uniform and is thus part of the ‘professional look’ of the employer. In the comment, some critical remarks about the case are being made. Are not different religions being treated differently, here?


Carla Zoethout
Dr. C.M. Zoethout is universitair hoofddocent Staatsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en is redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Access_open Over het verbod op het dragen van een gezichtssluier en van andere gelaatsbedekkende kleding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden gelaatsbedekkende kleding, boerka, godsdienstvrijheid, wetgeving
Auteurs Paul van Sasse van Ysselt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The last decade the wearing of face hiding clothes has come up as a rather new phenomenon in the Netherlands and surrounding countries. Although not that many people wear them, a rather wide aversion exists against this phenomenon and is directed especially against the Islamic burqa. A rather intensive public and political debat is going on concerning the allowance of those clothes. In different countries, among which the Netherlands, France and Belgium, the legislator is drafting laws which aim to forbid the wearing of these clothes. This article gives an overview of the debate on this issue in especially the aforementioned countries and reflects upon it, with a special focus on the freedom of belief and religion.


Paul van Sasse van Ysselt
Mr. P.B.C.D.F. van Sasse van Ysselt is werkzaam bij de directie Constitutionele Zaken en Wetgeving van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en tevens verbonden aan de afdeling Staats- en bestuursrecht van de VU Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Heilige velden

Panorama van ritueel-religieuze presenties in het publieke domein

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden religie in het publieke domein, rituelen, religieuze manifestaties, Inburgeringsriten
Auteurs Paul Post
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Religion in the public domain has been a theme of remarkably current interest for a long time in our country as well as elsewhere in Europe. Not only in dialogue and debate, but primarily also via specific occasions, practices, and situations. One can think here of the position of the many redundant church buildings, the granting of permits for public religious manifestations, the ringing of church bells or public calls to prayer, the role (or abandonment of the role) of governments in rituals following disasters and accidents, the structure of citizenship rites and other forms of civic/civil ritual, the involvement of governments in religious celebrations in the public domain such as processions or Iftar meals, et cetera. This contribution explores the place of religion in the public domain in a specific way, i.e. on the basis of practices: its starting point lies in traceable manifestations of religion in our culture and society, in practices and rituals. After some conceptual orientation, this approach takes the form of a general panorama of religious-ritual presences and manifestations in that public domain and a further exploration of those via a model of so-called ritual-sacred fields.


Paul Post
Prof. dr. P. Post studeerde theologie, liturgiewetenschap en christelijke kunst in Utrecht en Rome. Momenteel is hij hoogleraar Liturgische en Rituele Studies aan de Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg en directeur van het aldaar gevestigde interuniversitaire Instituut voor Liturgische en Rituele Studies. Hij is tevens vicedecaan Onderzoek van de Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen. Hij doet onderzoek naar en publiceert over actuele rituele dynamiek. Zijn onderzoek concentreert zich al enige tijd op plaats, ritueel en religie.
Artikel

Access_open Scheiding van kerk en staat in het onderwijsrecht

Het aanhoudende debat over het beleid van de staat ten opzichte van het openbaar en bijzonder onderwijs

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden scheiding kerk en staat, schoolstrijd, openbaar onderwijs, bijzonder onderwijs
Auteurs Dick Mentink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    From the beginning of the 19th century until today, education in the Netherlands has been a prime battleground in the search for the right balance of church and state. This article discusses five parliamentary debates regarding the position of public and private (particularly religious) education. Although two of these debates took place a long time ago, they are anything but mere history: they laid the foundation for the current dual educational system of public and private education (in 1857) and the unique constitutional provision on the financial equality of public and private schools (in 1917). The three other debates concerned the religious neutrality of public schools and the freedom of education, and these topics are recurring topics of parliamentary debate. This debate is fed by changing societal circumstances and governmental principles regarding the quality of education. This is no surprise, concludes the author. These issues concern essential questions regarding educational policy on pluralism in education. Every time such a question arises, the legislator must justify its political explanation based on what the constitutional provision regarding education (Article 23) requires and allows on the separation of church and state.


Dick Mentink
Prof. dr. mr. D. Mentink is emeritus hoogleraar Onderwijsrecht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Onderwijsrecht.
Artikel

Access_open Het belang van de religieuze binding in sociale statistieken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden sociale statistiek, religieuze betrokkenheid, enquêtes, sociale samenhang
Auteurs Hans Schmeets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A vast majority of 58% of the Dutch population belongs to a Christian or other denomination. However, if the question is phrased differently this figure drops to some 40%. Religion is an important characteristic in social statistics, and for defining social cohesion in particular. Overall, it reveals that Protestants show higher levels of social, civic and political participation, as well as social, institutional and political trust than Catholics, non-religious, and in particular Muslims. However, within the Protestants, there is a clear divide: the Calvinists and in particular the members of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands formed in 2004 show the highest levels of participation and trust, whereas the Dutch reformed only slightly differ from the Catholics and non-religious.


Hans Schmeets
Prof. dr. J.J.G. Schmeets is werkzaam bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Hij is programmamanager van de speerpunten sociale samenhang, welzijn en belevingen. Tevens is hij bijzonder hoogleraar Sociale statistiek, in het bijzonder de empirische bestudering van sociale samenhang, aan de faculteit van Cultuur- en Maatschappijwetenschappen van de Universiteit Maastricht. Daarnaast is hij betrokken bij het beoordelen van verkiezingen in landen die behoren bij de Organisatie voor Veiligheid en Samenwerking in Europa (OVSE). Naast onderzoek naar verkiezingen liggen zijn interessegebieden bij religie, vertrouwen, vrijwilligerswerk, sociaal kapitaal, survey methodologie, en onderzoek naar specifieke bevolkingsgroepen zoals allochtonen en daklozen.
Artikel

Access_open Een mijlpaal op weg naar maatschappelijke uitsluiting

Over het SGP-arrest van de Hoge Raad van 9 april 2010

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden discriminatie, godsdienstvrijheid, sociale uitsluiting
Auteurs Matthijs de Blois
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The exclusion of women from being elected for an orthodox Christian political party (SGP) is declared discriminatory by the Supreme Court. It overlooked however the importance of the freedom of religion in a pluralistic society. Furthermore, not any woman concerned was prepared to start proceedings. The party was moreover not inspired by an idea of inferiority, but by religious views on the roles of men and women. The Court ignored the importance of a representation of non-dominant social currents.


Matthijs de Blois
Dr. M. de Blois is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de afdeling Rechtstheorie van het Department Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

    France has recently introduced legislation prohibiting wearing the face-covering veil in public places. Similar legislative initiatives have been undertaken in Belgium, Netherlands and Spain, but have not resulted in law. This article presents an overview of the variety of arguments that are being used in the legislative proposals and bills why the face-covering veil ought to be prohibited in the public domain. It shows that the arguments are quite diverse, and not always consistent. In addition, an overview will be presented of the arguments made by the French and Dutch State Councils in their advise against such legislation.


Maurits Berger
Prof. dr. mr. M.S. Berger is hoogleraar Islam in het hedendaagse Westen aan de Universiteit Leiden en is hoofdredacteur van Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.

Carla Zoethout
Dr. C.M. Zoethout is universitair hoofddocent Staatsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.

    Five applicants were enrolled in various state schools for the year 2004-2005. On the first day of school, the girls, who are Muslims, arrived wearing a headscarf or kerchief. The boys were wearing an under-turban worn by Sikhs. For failure to comply with the French ban on all conspicuous religious symbols in all classes of state schools, they were expelled from school. According to the Court, the ban is based on the constitutional principle of secularism, which is consistent with the values protected by the Convention. The complaints under Article had to rejected as manifestly ill-founded.


Carla Zoethout
Dr. C.M. Zoethout is universitair hoofddocent Staatsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Access_open Godsdienstoorlog in de raadzaal

Het ambtsgebed als raadsbesluit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden gemeenteraad, ambtsgebed, scheiding van kerk en staat, geschiedenis
Auteurs Ben Koolen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the sixteenth century, Netherlands’ local councils uphold a tradition of Christian prayer at the opening and closure of their meetings. During the last decades, a two-fold development occurred: some councils abandon this custom, while others introduce neutral alternatives. In 2007, 45% of the municipality councils appear to open their meetings with a prayer or a comparable act. This study looks at the effects of this tradition as far as prescribed in the basic rules of the municipality councils, and concludes that the public prayer is not to be regarded as a religious act of the councillors, but as part of the protocol of the council.


Ben Koolen
Dr. G.M.J.M. Koolen is theoloog en was tot zijn pensionering werkzaam bij de ministeries van Binnenlandse Zaken en Justitie. Hij is redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Access_open Shariarechtbanken en religieuze familierechtspraak in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden shariarechtbank, religieus familierecht
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Maurits Berger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Pursuant to discussions on the application of Islamic family law in the Netherlands, for example by means of so-called sharia courts, this article will discuss the situation of religious family law and family courts in the Netherlands. Such ‘parallel’ legal systems have existed in the Dutch legal system for a long time, and have been accepted both legally and socially. The Islamic version of such a system – which apparently does not exist – would not be much different. Comparisons with England and Canada in this respect do not hold. However, the objections against the possible application of an Islamic legal system within the Netherlands are not only based on legal arguments, but are mostly of a social nature, such as integration of Muslims and the position of Muslim women.


Prof. dr. mr. Maurits Berger
Prof. dr. mr. M.S. Berger is hoogleraar Islam in het hedendaagse Westen aan de Universiteit Leiden en is hoofdredacteur van Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Jurisprudentie

Access_open Het passief kiesrecht, de staat en de SGP

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden godsdienstvrijheid, verenigingsvrijheid, SGP, passief kiesrecht
Auteurs Sophie van Bijsterveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The SGP (Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij) is a Dutch political party based on a religious denomination, a particular form of Reformed Christianity. The party has been represented in Parliament since 1918. As a result of its religious views, which extends to issues of male – female roles in society, it does not allow women to be elected in a general representative body on its behalf. This was challenged in court by a number of special interest organizations. The organizations were not successful in their suit against the SGP for reasons of inadmissibility. However, they were successful in terms of admissibility and of substance in their suit against the Dutch State. In April 2010, the Dutch Supreme Court ruled that the Dutch State acted unlawfully by tolerating the fact that the SGP excludes women as candidates for elections on its behalf. The State was regarded as violating the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (the CEDAW), notably Article 7 under a and c. It ordered the State to take effective measures which, at the same time, restrict the SGP’s fundamental rights (freedom of religion and association)as least as possible. This contribution discusses the Supreme Court ruling.


Sophie van Bijsterveld
Dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is hoofddocent aan de Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de UvT en redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Access_open Wat deed Ramadan in Rotterdam?

De gemeentelijke opdracht aan Tariq Ramadan

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Tariq Ramadan, Islam, Islamofobie, Integratiebeleid
Auteurs Nelleke van Zessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The contract between the administration of Rotterdam and Tariq Ramadan January ended abruptly at august the 18th 2009 because of his connection with the Iranian satellite channel PressTV. Ramadans assignment in Rotterdam was challenged from the beginning and the accusation of cooperating with an oppressive regime overruled the voices that wanted him to stay. Bottom line of the ongoing dissension was the charge on Ramadan that his object was the islamization of Europe that would cause Western achievements like freedom and democracy to perish. The municipal government was blamed for offering him the stage and the facilities. The controversies were not limited to Rotterdam but also reported on by national and international media.In this article we will highlight the role of the Town Hall in the early end of the commitment of Tariq Ramadan in Rotterdam.


Nelleke van Zessen
Drs. N. van Zessen studeerde Musicologie aan de Universiteit van Utrecht (1988) en volgt momenteel de master Religie en beleid aan de Faculteit der Religiewetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Zij was van oktober 2008 tot juni 2009 verbonden aan de Directie Beleid van de Bestuursdienst van de gemeente Rotterdam in het kader van een onderzoek naar religie en lokale overheid. Zij maakte deel uit van de commissie die de gemeente Rotterdam in maart 2009 instelde om de beschuldigingen aan het adres van Tariq Ramadan te onderzoeken.
Artikel

Access_open Kansen voor Utrechtse kerken binnen de Wmo

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Kansen van kerken, Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning, Diaconale opdracht, Scheiding kerk en staat
Auteurs Wiebe Blauw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    MOVISIE Netherlands centre for social development researched the role of churches in the enforcement of the Social Support Act in the municipality of Utrecht. It showed that although the municipality does not charge the churches with the execution of the law, the churches themselves present a lot of activities that might be appointed as social support activities. Moreover a part of the churches are benevolent to increase their activities if the municipality would facilitate them. At the same time city council members as well as the responsible civil servants do not know the role churches play at the enforcement of the Act, so further cooperation between the municipality and the churches is required.


Wiebe Blauw
Drs. W. Blauw is senior adviseur Vrijwillige Inzet bij MOVISIE.
Artikel

Access_open Tweeluik Religie en Publiek Domein

Handvatten voor gemeenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden scheiding kerk en staat, gemeenten, subsidiëring
Auteurs Pien van den Eijnden en Joyce Overdijk-Francis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Governmental authorities have to deal with religion on a daily basis: via individual citizens or religious organisations, in the framework of subsidy applications or measures against the radicalisation of believers. More than a year after publication of ‘Religion and the public domain, guidelines for municipalities’, a joint production of the Association of the Netherlands Municipalities and the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom relations, we discuss the room for cooperation between the government and religious organisations within the limits of the principle of separation between church and state. Both the legal framework and practical examples from different municipalities will be brought up. Three rules (of play) are exemplified in particular, namely that contacts between government and religious organisations or parties on an ideological basis do not lead to a substantive involvement with the faith itself, or with internal church matters, that the contacts serve to realise non-faith related public goals and that the government is held tot treat religious organisations or parties on an ideological basis equally. Having regard to those rules (of play) cooperation is very well possible.


Pien van den Eijnden
Mw. mr. P.M. van den Eijnden is werkzaam als juridisch specialist bij de directie Constitutionele Zaken en Wetgeving (CZW) van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties.

Joyce Overdijk-Francis
Mw. mr. J.E. Overdijk-Francis is werkzaam als senior adviseur bij de Vereniging van Nederlandse Gemeenten (VNG).
Artikel

Access_open Tussen hemel en aarde

Ontwikkelingen in de christelijke religie en maatschappelijk engagement

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden secularisatie, engagement, kerk, spiritualiteit
Auteurs Joep de Hart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands today secularisation essentially amounts to the declining influence of church life and to religious individualization. The churches remain important as a source and inspiration for social engagement. The precarious position of the mainline churches raises concern about the erosion of bridging social capital: the social relationships between people who differ in many respects.


Joep de Hart
Dr. J.J.M. de Hart is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.

    In March 2009 the Dutch Supreme Court reconfirmed that insulting a religion is in itself not a criminal offense equal to discrimination of, or incitement of hatred vis-a-vis the adherents of that religion. Interestingly, two months earlier, the Amsterdam Court of Appeal in the case against the parliamentarian Geert Wilders, ruled that insulting a religion may very well constitute an insult of its believers. This article is an analysis of the Amsterdam ruling and a discussion of the argument in favor and against the equation of insulting religion with insulting believers, based on the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.


Maurits Berger
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