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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid x Jaar 2010 x
Jurisprudentie

Access_open Trambestuurder en kruisbeeld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden tramconducteur, ketting met kruis, AWGB, indirect onderscheid
Auteurs Carla Zoethout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Mister Aziz, orginally coming from Egypt, is a Coptic Christian who wears a long chain with a crucifix of about 5 centimeters high, in order to express his religion. He is chauffeur on an electric tram and has for some years been allowed to wear his chain at work. With the introduction of a new uniform however, Aziz is no longer allowed to do this. He claims this to be a discriminatory treatment, which he considers unjustified given the fact that Islamic women chauffeurs are allowed to wear headscarves, since (as his employer states) these have been incorporated into the uniform. According to the court of appeal, there is no unjustified discrimination of religion in this case. The regulation that chains may not be worn on top of the uniform is legitimate, appropriate and necessary. The headscarf has been incorporated into the uniform and is thus part of the ‘professional look’ of the employer. In the comment, some critical remarks about the case are being made. Are not different religions being treated differently, here?


Carla Zoethout
Dr. C.M. Zoethout is universitair hoofddocent Staatsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en is redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Access_open Over het verbod op het dragen van een gezichtssluier en van andere gelaatsbedekkende kleding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden gelaatsbedekkende kleding, boerka, godsdienstvrijheid, wetgeving
Auteurs Paul van Sasse van Ysselt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The last decade the wearing of face hiding clothes has come up as a rather new phenomenon in the Netherlands and surrounding countries. Although not that many people wear them, a rather wide aversion exists against this phenomenon and is directed especially against the Islamic burqa. A rather intensive public and political debat is going on concerning the allowance of those clothes. In different countries, among which the Netherlands, France and Belgium, the legislator is drafting laws which aim to forbid the wearing of these clothes. This article gives an overview of the debate on this issue in especially the aforementioned countries and reflects upon it, with a special focus on the freedom of belief and religion.


Paul van Sasse van Ysselt
Mr. P.B.C.D.F. van Sasse van Ysselt is werkzaam bij de directie Constitutionele Zaken en Wetgeving van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en tevens verbonden aan de afdeling Staats- en bestuursrecht van de VU Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Heilige velden

Panorama van ritueel-religieuze presenties in het publieke domein

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden religie in het publieke domein, rituelen, religieuze manifestaties, Inburgeringsriten
Auteurs Paul Post
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Religion in the public domain has been a theme of remarkably current interest for a long time in our country as well as elsewhere in Europe. Not only in dialogue and debate, but primarily also via specific occasions, practices, and situations. One can think here of the position of the many redundant church buildings, the granting of permits for public religious manifestations, the ringing of church bells or public calls to prayer, the role (or abandonment of the role) of governments in rituals following disasters and accidents, the structure of citizenship rites and other forms of civic/civil ritual, the involvement of governments in religious celebrations in the public domain such as processions or Iftar meals, et cetera. This contribution explores the place of religion in the public domain in a specific way, i.e. on the basis of practices: its starting point lies in traceable manifestations of religion in our culture and society, in practices and rituals. After some conceptual orientation, this approach takes the form of a general panorama of religious-ritual presences and manifestations in that public domain and a further exploration of those via a model of so-called ritual-sacred fields.


Paul Post
Prof. dr. P. Post studeerde theologie, liturgiewetenschap en christelijke kunst in Utrecht en Rome. Momenteel is hij hoogleraar Liturgische en Rituele Studies aan de Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg en directeur van het aldaar gevestigde interuniversitaire Instituut voor Liturgische en Rituele Studies. Hij is tevens vicedecaan Onderzoek van de Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen. Hij doet onderzoek naar en publiceert over actuele rituele dynamiek. Zijn onderzoek concentreert zich al enige tijd op plaats, ritueel en religie.
Artikel

Access_open Het belang van de religieuze binding in sociale statistieken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden sociale statistiek, religieuze betrokkenheid, enquêtes, sociale samenhang
Auteurs Hans Schmeets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A vast majority of 58% of the Dutch population belongs to a Christian or other denomination. However, if the question is phrased differently this figure drops to some 40%. Religion is an important characteristic in social statistics, and for defining social cohesion in particular. Overall, it reveals that Protestants show higher levels of social, civic and political participation, as well as social, institutional and political trust than Catholics, non-religious, and in particular Muslims. However, within the Protestants, there is a clear divide: the Calvinists and in particular the members of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands formed in 2004 show the highest levels of participation and trust, whereas the Dutch reformed only slightly differ from the Catholics and non-religious.


Hans Schmeets
Prof. dr. J.J.G. Schmeets is werkzaam bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Hij is programmamanager van de speerpunten sociale samenhang, welzijn en belevingen. Tevens is hij bijzonder hoogleraar Sociale statistiek, in het bijzonder de empirische bestudering van sociale samenhang, aan de faculteit van Cultuur- en Maatschappijwetenschappen van de Universiteit Maastricht. Daarnaast is hij betrokken bij het beoordelen van verkiezingen in landen die behoren bij de Organisatie voor Veiligheid en Samenwerking in Europa (OVSE). Naast onderzoek naar verkiezingen liggen zijn interessegebieden bij religie, vertrouwen, vrijwilligerswerk, sociaal kapitaal, survey methodologie, en onderzoek naar specifieke bevolkingsgroepen zoals allochtonen en daklozen.
Artikel

Access_open Godsdienstoorlog in de raadzaal

Het ambtsgebed als raadsbesluit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden gemeenteraad, ambtsgebed, scheiding van kerk en staat, geschiedenis
Auteurs Ben Koolen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the sixteenth century, Netherlands’ local councils uphold a tradition of Christian prayer at the opening and closure of their meetings. During the last decades, a two-fold development occurred: some councils abandon this custom, while others introduce neutral alternatives. In 2007, 45% of the municipality councils appear to open their meetings with a prayer or a comparable act. This study looks at the effects of this tradition as far as prescribed in the basic rules of the municipality councils, and concludes that the public prayer is not to be regarded as a religious act of the councillors, but as part of the protocol of the council.


Ben Koolen
Dr. G.M.J.M. Koolen is theoloog en was tot zijn pensionering werkzaam bij de ministeries van Binnenlandse Zaken en Justitie. Hij is redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Jurisprudentie

Access_open Het passief kiesrecht, de staat en de SGP

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden godsdienstvrijheid, verenigingsvrijheid, SGP, passief kiesrecht
Auteurs Sophie van Bijsterveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The SGP (Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij) is a Dutch political party based on a religious denomination, a particular form of Reformed Christianity. The party has been represented in Parliament since 1918. As a result of its religious views, which extends to issues of male – female roles in society, it does not allow women to be elected in a general representative body on its behalf. This was challenged in court by a number of special interest organizations. The organizations were not successful in their suit against the SGP for reasons of inadmissibility. However, they were successful in terms of admissibility and of substance in their suit against the Dutch State. In April 2010, the Dutch Supreme Court ruled that the Dutch State acted unlawfully by tolerating the fact that the SGP excludes women as candidates for elections on its behalf. The State was regarded as violating the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (the CEDAW), notably Article 7 under a and c. It ordered the State to take effective measures which, at the same time, restrict the SGP’s fundamental rights (freedom of religion and association)as least as possible. This contribution discusses the Supreme Court ruling.


Sophie van Bijsterveld
Dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is hoofddocent aan de Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de UvT en redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Access_open Tweeluik Religie en Publiek Domein

Handvatten voor gemeenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden scheiding kerk en staat, gemeenten, subsidiëring
Auteurs Pien van den Eijnden en Joyce Overdijk-Francis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Governmental authorities have to deal with religion on a daily basis: via individual citizens or religious organisations, in the framework of subsidy applications or measures against the radicalisation of believers. More than a year after publication of ‘Religion and the public domain, guidelines for municipalities’, a joint production of the Association of the Netherlands Municipalities and the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom relations, we discuss the room for cooperation between the government and religious organisations within the limits of the principle of separation between church and state. Both the legal framework and practical examples from different municipalities will be brought up. Three rules (of play) are exemplified in particular, namely that contacts between government and religious organisations or parties on an ideological basis do not lead to a substantive involvement with the faith itself, or with internal church matters, that the contacts serve to realise non-faith related public goals and that the government is held tot treat religious organisations or parties on an ideological basis equally. Having regard to those rules (of play) cooperation is very well possible.


Pien van den Eijnden
Mw. mr. P.M. van den Eijnden is werkzaam als juridisch specialist bij de directie Constitutionele Zaken en Wetgeving (CZW) van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties.

Joyce Overdijk-Francis
Mw. mr. J.E. Overdijk-Francis is werkzaam als senior adviseur bij de Vereniging van Nederlandse Gemeenten (VNG).

    In March 2009 the Dutch Supreme Court reconfirmed that insulting a religion is in itself not a criminal offense equal to discrimination of, or incitement of hatred vis-a-vis the adherents of that religion. Interestingly, two months earlier, the Amsterdam Court of Appeal in the case against the parliamentarian Geert Wilders, ruled that insulting a religion may very well constitute an insult of its believers. This article is an analysis of the Amsterdam ruling and a discussion of the argument in favor and against the equation of insulting religion with insulting believers, based on the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.


Maurits Berger
Artikel

Access_open Uniformiteit boven diversiteit

De gedeeltelijke navolging van oordelen van de Commissie gelijke behandeling inzake godsdienst in de rechtspraak

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Commissie gelijke behandeling, handenschudden, gewetensbezwaarde trouwambtenaar, rechter
Auteurs Hans-Martien ten Napel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The opinions of the Dutch Equal Treatment Commission (CGB) in religious cases have been followed only partially by the courts. Thus from two judicial rulings on the shaking of hands by Muslims, an interesting difference in approach with the CGB becomes clear. Although it agrees with elements of the reasoning by the CGB, amongst others the Dutch Administrative High Court in contrast with the CGB puts uniformity above diversity with respect to this way of exchanging greetings. However, one can live with this difference in outcome, since in the past the CGB itself took the same approach of uniformity in the subject-matter. As it does today with respect to Christian registrars who refuse to conduct same-sex marriages.


Hans-Martien ten Napel
Mr. dr. H.-M.Th.D. ten Napel is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Publiekrecht, afdeling Staats- en Bestuursrecht, van de Universiteit Leiden.
Jurisprudentie

Access_open Kruisbeelden op openbare scholen in Italië

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden kruisbeeld, godsdienstvrijheid
Auteurs Carla Zoethout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The compulsory display of the crucifix in the classrooms of State schools restricts the right of parents to educate their children in conformity with their convictions, and the right of children to believe or not to believe. The Court concludes, unanimously, that there has been a violation of Article 2, First Protocol European Convention of Human Rights (the right to education, taken jointly with Article 9 of the Convention (the freedom of religion).


Carla Zoethout
Dr. C.M. Zoethout is universitair hoofddocent Staatsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en is redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
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